Cultural Anthropology Week 5
Cultural Anthropology Week 5 ANTH2800
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ciara Peace on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH2800 at University of Toledo taught by Seamus Metress in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in Language at University of Toledo.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Biocultural Anthropology Notes 921 925 0 Erect walking 0 O O 0 Ability to carry and monitor infants Expanded ability for tool transport I Helped exploit new food resources I Keep predators at bay I Protection moving between forest patches One needs a weapon at hand not to have to look for a rock Erect walking is a more energy efficient operation 0 Biological characteristics related to biped posture 0 000 000000 Short broad flaring pelvis Broad wedge shaped sacrum Sshaped vertebral column to absorb shock Head balanced on vertebrae column with foramen magnum well forward I The foramen magnum just means big hole it s in the skull and it s where the first cervical vertebrae called the atlas like the mythical guy who holds up the earth sits Graceful neck for flexibility I the first cervical vertebrae atlas allows us to tilt our head forward and backwards while the second vertebrae axis allows us to rotate left and right barrel shaped ribcage wasplike waste giving the trunk greater flexibility locking mechanisms of hip and knee enlargement of gluteus maximus lower leg elongation inflexible elongated foot I supports body I arched transversely as well as front and back I mobility is sacrificed for stability I large heel I long great tow in a straight line with other toe o in comparison with gorillas and orangutans I strong wedge shaped tightly articulated tarsals I Achilles tendons not shared with apes o Striding gait with great endurance o Enlargement of semicircular canals for balance 0 Ears o Erect posture was a master adaptation that encouraged tool use brain expansion and language by setting in motion a great social evolution 0 The extensive use of our forelimbs 0 Flexible shoulder girdle allowing greater mobility of the whole arm Ability to pronate and supernate the forearm rotate it Retention of the 5 digit appendages Flexible hand with a roughened friction surface for gripping I Greater opposability of the thumb I Greater relative length of the thumb I 39 of the hand muscles are devoted to the thumb apes 24 I Very sensitive fingertips with flat ends instead of claws I The most flexible fingers with complete extensibility of the fingers and palms Handeye coordination I Hands and arms are under control of binocular vision and eye accommodation I Coadaptation of the hands senses and the association areas of the brain for precise manipulation may be the first basis for the development of human intelligence I Motor cortex of the brain devoted to the control is greater than that of the ape I Humans use their forelimbs to explore and manipulate the environment gripping tools and weapons I Human play may have functioned to develop the part of the brain involved with fine motor control 0 The development of vision as the leading sense 000 00000 Large eyes close together and frontally oriented Eyes enclosed in bony orbit Visual are of brain enlarged Well developed I Stereoscopic vision depth is three dimensional I Color vision I Accommodative vision adjusts quickly from near to far I Eye hand coordination Reduced sense of smell Absence of tactile hairs Less brain area for smell Reduced snout not needed for exploration of the environment Vision and hearing help determine human behavior with respect to people places and things 13 of all nerve fibers exiting the central nervous system brain and spinal cord come from the eye Human eye detects greater detail than other animals 10x that of a cat 40x that of a rat Some of the ability to detect detail could be due to our greater ability to concentrate Vertical face prominent nose with an elongated tip beyond the nasal bone I Outwardly rolled mucous membranes lips 0 An efficient cooling system allowing operation during the heat of the day 0 O Humans are relatively hairless Humans possess numerous sweat glands to dissipate heat O O O I No other animal has our ability to weat I No significant part of the human body is without sweat glands Humans also have a subcutaneous layer of fat to keep us warm when temperatures drop or when we are less active Cutaneous vasodialators that affect blood flow Water and salt loss can be considerable I Leading to dehydration Aided early human development as hunters and gatherers Upright posture helps cooling sue to less surface area exposure We are a bare sweaty and thirsty animal 0 Along period of infant and child development 0000 00000 0000 Long gestation period to insure survival Improved placental efficiency Human infant is helpless at birth Human infants remain helpless for a longer period than other species Greater brain development after birth growing rapidly for 2 years I The brain is only 25 of adult size at birth Sustained by adults for at least 10x longer Males assume responsibility of offspring but not always the biological father 25 of our life is spent maturing Reduced number of offspring at birth One pair of mammary glands high on the chest leading to more intense motherchild bond Protection and feeding of child assures maximum survival A long period of development aids with the transmission of culture from generation to generation I More time to develop social relationships Offers more opportunities to explore the environment through random manipulation Leads to more skilled performance of important activities Possibly leading to greater intelligence Children of all ages interact which is important for personality formation and intergenerational production 0 Neonates and social stimulation 0 O Formative role in the motivation of the mind Neonates touch faces within 9 minutes of birth and turn their head towards a human face Within days they can tell their mother s face from that of a stranger Within 3640 hours of birth infants are able to discriminate among facial expressions and reflect it through their own brows eyes and mouth Whites sclera of the eyes highlight the iris and thereby enhancing interpretation of eye movement o Affect hunger O 0 There is a biological imperative need for tactile stimuli which are necessary for newborn pups kittens etc This is necessary for the normal growth of dendrites brain cells and a full complement of synapses of the nerve cells I Licking rubbing grooming etc Spitz research children raised in orphanages where all physical needs were met I But there was no affection given I Had physical and behavioral problems Similar results were found in the Harlow s work among monkey s I The urge to get an expression of positive feelings from others is a necessary aspect of development pos affect o The human omnivorous diet O 0 00000 Humans can eat anything that isn t poisonous or indigestible Human teeth are nonspecialized and able to process a wide variety of animal and plant foods I Flexibility of diet Our digestive tract is well adapted to handle a variety of foods We are the only intense meat eating primate We have special kidneys for carrying off protein wasters Omnivory expands the range of the human species It allowed us to adapt to changes in our environment I A variety of habitats and geographic area Variation in diets is important since humans need 50 nutrients daily Here is a video about the Harlow monkey experiments It s very interesting 63 I was originally doing a minor in psychology and so I ve learned about this before httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvOrNBEhzjg8