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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Leathers on Monday September 22, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 2210 at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 144 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Natural Sciences at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/14
Human Nutrition 2210 92214 1206 PM Week Four Chapter FourFive Carbohydrates 6 classes of nutrients Carbs proteins lipids energy yielding Vitamins minerals water no energy Carbohydrates C H O Produced by plants via photosynthesis Simple carbohydrates monosaccharide s and disaccharides Polysaccharides complex starch potatoes glycogen fiber 6 Carbon dioxide 6 water energy glucose C6 H12 06 Monosaccharide s simple Glucose blood sugar diabetes Fructose high fructose corn syrup 0 Created by taking corn cornel and extracting the starch adding glucose and enzymes to create fructose more sweet Galactose part of lactose Sugar alcohols monosaccharide derivatives 0 Xylitoe mannitol and sorbitol Pentose 5 carbon 0 Ribose and deoxyribose DNARNA structure Splitting glucose to produce ATP glycolysis 0 6C 3C 3C 1C 2C 2C dioxide energy ATP Functions of Carbohydrates Supplies energy presencesabsence of oxygen 0 Protein sparing preserving protein rebuilding not energy Prevent keotosis burning fat too extensivelyproduced liver from lipids Sweetener taste good Disaccharides 2 monosaccharide s linked by a condensation reaction Alphabeta C O C bonds connect them Maltose least common Glucose and glucose alpha bond Sucrose one of major tabe sugar Glucose and fructose alpha bond Brown sugar molasses iron vitamins minerals Lactose more difficult to digest lactose and tolerant different chemical bond Galactose and glucose beta bond Childhood to adulthood enzymes are lost and it becomes more difficult to have lactose as an adult Complex Carbohydrates Oligosaccharides 0 310 sugar units 0 raffinose and stachyose found in beans 0 indigestible bacteria fermentation gas Polysaccharides 0 Contain many glucose molecules 0 Alpha or beta bond determine digestibility o Digestible Polysaccharides Starch plants 2 Amylose straight chain 2 Amylopectin branched Glycogen animals 2 Storage form of glucose in human body 2 Liver glycogen 90g blood sugar 2 Muscle glycogen 300g glucose for muscle use 0 Indigestible Polysaccharides Total fiber dietary fiber functional fiber added fiber Soluble fibers pectin gum muciage s and some hemicelluloses 2 Ex inner part of an apple Insoluble fibers cellulose hemicellulose and lingnin 2 Ex apple skin Health Benefits of Dietary Fiber Absorbs and holds water insoluble soften stool Larger stool promotes peristalsis go to bathroom easierregularlylarger feces Promotes regularity insoluble Lower risk for cardiovascular disease soluble Decrease hemorrhoids and diverticula insoluble Ex Banana peel insolubleactual banana soluble Carbohydrates in foods Starch Fiber Nutritive sweeteners o Mono and disaccharides 0 High fructose corn syrup 0 Sugar alcohols gum Alternative non nutritive sweeteners 0 Yield no energy 0 Acceptable daily intake ADI o Saccharin Warning label cause cancer in lab animals pulled off market and backlash put it back on Oldest alternative sweetener couldn39t cook with Develops bitter taste when cooking Aspartame Can39t be used in cooking Contains phenylalanine amino acids 2 Risks some people can39t metabolize and it can become toxic and cause severe mental retardation screen for it at birth If you lack the enzyme you have to avoid products containing phenylalanine O o Neotame Similar to aspartame but not digested Acesulfamine K can be used for cooking made from sucrose Tagatose isomer of fructose prebiotic Stevia plant stevia rebaudiana 2 Recently approved by FDA for use in foodsbeverages 2 Purified form Rebiana A is generally recognized as safe GRAS Recommended intake of Carbohydrates 45 o 65 o of total energy needs Limit added sugars and calorie sweeteners RDA 130 grams Fiber Recommendations Men 38g Women 25g Most of us aren39t getting our daily intake Typical American intake Carbs o 50 of total energy needs 0 16 added sugars recommendations 10 added sugars Dietary fiber way under 0 2550 less than recommended 0 average 1 fruit1 or fewer whole grains Functions of digestible carbohydrates in the body Provide 4kca Spare protein Prevent keotosis Indigestible o Bowel health reduce obesity risk reduce cholesterol absorption enhancing blood glucose control Carbohydrate Digestion Break down big things into smaller things Effects of Cooking Softens fibrous tissues Easier to chew and swallow ex eating raw potato Carbohydrate Digestion Mouth salivary amylase begins digestion Small Intestine specific enzymes breakdown disaccharides o Maltase maltose sucrase sucrose lactase lactose ase ending enzyme 0 Fiber is not broken down 0 Major site of releasing pancreatic amylase intestinal cells release enzymes Maltose maltose yields glucose glucose Sucrose sucrase yields glucose fructose Lactose lactase yields glucose galactose o Monosaccharide s are absorbed CHO Absorption Glucose galactose active absorption energy is expended low to high concentration gradient Fructose facilitated diffusion using a carrier no energy expended Carbs Absorption Liver converts fructose and galactose to glucose Blood glucose used by cells Glucose storage muscleliver glycogen used when not eating and need energy Excess glucose converted to fat by liver stored in adipose tissue Health concerns related to carb intake excess of any nutrient can have negative health effects too many calories Very high fiber diet gt 50 60g 0 High fiber low fluid constipation hemorrhoids blockage decrease absorption of certain minerals High sugar diets 0 Increase risk of weight gainobesity 0 Increase risk of dental carries cavities 0 Cardiovascular disease heart disease excess calorie intakeweight gain 0 Moderation is KEY for all nutrients Lactose Intolerance 0 Primary decrease lactose production 0 Secondary disease that damages lactose producing cells Glucose Intolerance o Hypoglycemia low blood sugar 0 Hyperglycemia high blood sugar 0 Regulation normal 70 100 mgdl regulated by liver Insulin pancreas hormone that facilitates transfer of glucose from blood into cells lowers blood glucose level 2 Glucagon cortisol epinephrine use when have high sugar Norepinephrine growth hormone raises blood glucose level 2 Use when have low sugar Why is maintaining blood glucose levels critical Blood glucose control liver and pancreas 0 Role of liver regulates glucose that enters the bloodstream 0 Role of the pancreas regulates Release of insulin when glucose is high in blood Release of glucagon when glucose is low in blood Functions of Insulin lowers Lowers blood glucose Promotes glycogen synthesis Increase glucose uptake by cells Reduces gluconeogenesis new glucose formation converts non carbs into glucose ability to synthesize make glucose Net effect lowers the blood glucose level Functions of Glucagon raises Breakdown glycogen released as glucose to increase blood glucose levels Enhances gluconeogenesis stimulate liver to start making glucose Net effect raises blood glucose level EpinephrineNorepinephrine other hormones Fight or flight response quickly needing energy Breakdown glycogen Raises blood glucose level Problems regulating blood glucose levels overtime Type One Diabetes Mellitus juvenile destruction 0 Insulin producing cells in pancreas are destroyed autoimmune disease 0 Insulin therapy for life 0 Diet must be incorporated with insulin exchange system carb counting 0 Increased cardiovascular disease blindness and kidney disease glucose can be toxic in the bloodstream Type Two Diabetes Mellitus progressive 0 Most common in the US 90 of cases 0 Insulin resistance low normal high insulin production 0 Obesity associated o Treatment diet physical activity medications insulin regulation can be restored Consequences of uncontrolled blood glucose levels 0 Keotosis leading to ion imbalances dehydration coma death 0 Degenerative diseases nerve damage heart disease kidney disease blindness o Atherosclerosis 92214 1206 PM 92214 1206 PM
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