MU 2313 Ch 8
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 2313 at Texas State University taught by Thomas Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Fine Arts in Music at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
MU 2313 Ch 8 The High Middle Ages The Gothic Age I The Social Order a Cities i Agricultural improvements 1 Crop rotation different crop in the field every year 2 Increased productivity 3 Padded horse collar less injuries ii More food increased population 1 More survival iii Revival of trade 1 Led to the rise in wealthpower in the middle class a Tension with the upper class who were born into wealth 2 During the Crusades men would travel to new lands bring stories of what they saw 3 Trade between Eastern and Western Europe b Monarchies i Successful monarchs granted rights to representative bodies of the nobility the church and wealthy citizens money and influence gives you power in government 1 William I quotthe Conqueror England a Of Normandy b Went to Britain and conquered Northern England in 1066 c Unites the kingdom creates a central power d Built castles that are still there today 2 Philip Augustus France a Helps unite the French noblemen petty landowners b If they didn tjoin him then he would conquer them c Expands the country though his conquests 3 Louis X France a quotthe just b Encouraged the Inquisition c His justice didn t extend outside of Christian followers c Universities i Rediscovery of texts from the classical world ancient Greece 1 Especially those of Aristotle his texts entered Western Europe through Muslim sources in Spain ii Mathematical and scientific texts iii Legal studies esp in Bologna iv Rise in interest in intellectual thought Hundred Years War a 13371453 b France vs England for control of Western France i Same region where William of Normandy from c Joan of Arc i Voices 1 Messages from God that told her to join the battle against England ii Convinced King Charles VII to let herjoin the army lead battles 1 She rallied troops inspired them iii Broke siege at Orleans iv Battle of Reims v Captured and burned at the stake by the English III The Plague a 134801350 most severe period i Outbreaks occurred for 50 years afterwards b Nearly 1 out of 3 died c No advanced medicine did bloodletting which probably only spread the disease more d Decrease in population forced landowners to pay serfpeasants i Huge portion of the working force was wiped out IV The Great Schism a 1378 Great Schism i Several claimants to the papal throne right to be Pope 1 Factions create the Inquisition torture people threats to the church b 1417 Council of Constance i Reunited the RCC under one pope c Led to beginning of reform movement in the church i People see the amount of wealth being accumulated by the church and don t think it fits with their religious ideals ii The church is getting benefits of the Crusades while noblemen are not iii John Wycliffe 1 Calls for abolition of Church property 2 1st English translation of the Bible most Europeans didn t read Latin iv John Huss 1 Invited to speak at the Council of Constance to speak about his ideas of reform 2 Once there he was put in jail 3 Was tried in council ordered to recant his beliefs 4 He refused and was executed as a heretic V The Crusades a Headed to Jerusalem and Constantinople b Reasons to go i Constantinople 1 Reunite East and West ii Provide for safety of pilgrims to Jerusalem 1 Pilgrimage as penance for sin 2 Invaded Jerusalem to convert people to Christianity iii Removal of troublesome nobles in Europe 1 Unite locals around a movement c The Spoils of the Crusades i Established Christian crusaders as despicable bloodythirsty hordes who attempted to convert people through mass killing ii Alienated eastern Christian church 1 Orthodox were already Christian yet Crusaders still tried to convert them iii Reopened Eastern Mediterranean to trade iv Consolidation of identity in the Roman Catholic Church v Generated material for romance philosophy literature music etc VI Concepts a Chivalry i Courtly love ii Women reshaped Europe advocated romance rather than raping and pillaging b Secularism c Aristotelianism Interest in the texts of Aristotle Claimed theology is beyond the realm of reason Separated philosophy and religion d Industrialization Vll Art Development of mining shipbuilding textiles a Cimabue Madonna Enthroned c 128090 vii viii ix Byzantine style elongated body Tempura on wood egg yolk and pigment No depth Angels crowded around central figure of the Madonna Artist is trying to create dimension and perspective Christ is a child yet has the features of an old man Designed to accommodate a peculiar space hence the shape Hierarchal arrangement Baby Jesus is holding a scroll which represents the Word of God b Duccio Madonna Enthroned 130811 i ii iii iv Not much spatial depth Not a realistic infant the child appears older Byzantine influence elongated body Hierarchal arrangement Mary is the largest figure central c Giotto Madonna Enthroned c 1310 Separation between Virgin Mary and the rest of the heavenly host by the throne Reinforces deep space through shading Figures have humanistic features d Giotto The Lamentation 13056 i ii iii V V vi vii Giotto influences the beginning of the Italian renaissance Fresco oil paint on wet plaster Portrays Jesus death after taken down from the cross Surrounded by Virgin Mary disciples and Mary Magdalene with cherubs overhead Not hierarchal in arrangement yet the eye is still drawn to Jesus in the bottom left corner 1 Everyone s attention is directed that way due to the hill in the background it descends to draw your eye down Some depth background is hazy which makes objects in the front more distinct Aerial perspective objects further in the distance become less distinct e Pietro Lorenzetti The Birth of the Virgin 1342 Incorporated columns to separate the scene a waiting room and a birthing room Sense of deep space Common practice to depict scenes in contemporary style of clothing and d cor f Pieta early 14th century i ii iii iv Sculpture of Virgin Mary holding the body of Christ after his death Emotional appeal Small sculpture used by an individual for worship reminder of what they are praying to Mary s head and face are oversized compared to the body which accentuates her facial expression Christ s body is smaller than hers there are wounds on his hands and side vi While men were on the Crusades women tried to find someone to identify with biblically Virgin Mary becomes a prominent figure g Giovani Pisano pulpit Pisa Cathedral Italy 130210 i Classical influence ii Top band has Romanesque features the figures are crowded VIII Architecture a Properties of Gothic Cathedrals i Emphasis on space rather than mass ii More light iii Stained glass replaced wall paintings iv High vaulted ceilings and walls which directed pressure onto the walls v Flying buttress placed over aisles to provide extra support directed pressure away from the building 1 Amiens Cathedral France c 122059 b Notre Dame Cathedral 11531260 i Gothic style c Notre Dame de Belle Verriere quotOur Lady of the Beautiful Window c 1170 i Stained glass had an architectural purpose let in light provide a barrier to the outside ii Twodimensional iii Depicts the Virgin Mary with Christ in her lap IX Music a Written composition replaced improvisation more so in sacred than secular b Measured rhythm i Depicts how long notes are ii Helps composer communicate how they want the piece performed c Organum Duplum Leonin and Organum Triplum or Quadruplum Perotin i Duplum slows down has an added melodic line ii Triplum and Quadruplum the lower voice tenor holds onto the cantus firmus d Cantus Firmus i Original line from Gregorian chant e Secular music i Ballade and rondeaux 1 Ballade features romanticnarrative subjects Perotin Vierunt Omnes g Ars Nova i Meaning quotNew Art 1 Music developed more rhythmicharmonic diversity 2 Title from book by Phillipe de Vitry ii Early 14th century specific rhythmic notation evolved iii Primarily secular movement X Guillame de Machaut 130077 a 1st important composer in the ars nova style i Polyphony ii Isorhythm 1 Using an extended repeated rhythmic scheme iii Melodic Fragmentation iv Word painting 1 Composer is reflecting in music what is happening in the text a Example If going down a hill in lyrics melodic line descends Xl v Quasicadential phrase endings 1 Creates endings to musical sentences has a distinct end b 1364 quotNotre Dame Mass i The 1st complete polyphonic setting of the mass Francesco Landini d 1397 a Blind from childhood b Organist poet and scholar c Composed secular Italian songs for 23 voices d His music i Rhythmically complex for that time ii quotLandini Cadence
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