Week 4 Notes (Chapters 4-5)
Week 4 Notes (Chapters 4-5) Bio 1510
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nausheen Zaman on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Nataliya Turchyn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see (LS) Bas Life Mch in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Chapter 4 Con o Mitochondria 0 Found in almost all eukaryotic cells o Powerhouse of the cell makes ATP 0 Missing in some protists o Semifluid matrix 0 Cristae surface area of the inner membrane Outer membrane d 5 real Cristae Inner membrane ER39b 5 me s DNA 0 Chloroplasts 0 Found in plants and some protists I Algae have chloroplasts Mitochondria Chloroplasts found in plants Only mitochondria found in animals Makes sugars using solar energy gt photosynthesis Semifluid stroma Thylakoidthylakoid disks I Thylakoid membrane covers thylakoids contains chlorophyll I Chlorophyll needed to cause photosynthesis I Stroma thylakoid membrane are 2 places where photosynthesis occurs 0 Granum stack of thylakoid increases surface area 00000 a 39 quotn R39b 39 mes Thylakoid Inner membrane membrane Outer membrane Thylakoid disk 7 o Endosymbiotic Theory 0 Endosymbiosis living together in close association 0 Mitochondria gt derived from aerobic bacteria oxygen using gt engulfed by larger cell gt became a part of cell overtime o Chloroplast gt derived from cyanobacteria gt engulfed by prokaryotic cell gt eventually became chloroplast Proof 1 Both mitochondria and chloroplasts surrounded by two membranes I Outer membrane gt derived from inner membrane of bacteria I Inner membrane gt outer membrane of cell 2 DNA inside mitochondria and chloroplasts bacterial DNA in size and shape 3 Ribosomes inside mitochondria and chloroplasts bacterial ribosomes 4 Chloroplasts and mitochondria replicate by binary fission not mitosis I Binary Fission division in half asexual reproduction in bacteria 0 Cytoplasm o Cyto cell Skeleton supporting structure 0 Network of protein fibers found in all eukaryotic cells I supports the shape of the cell I keeps organelles in fixed locations I involved in cell movement and movement of materials and organelles within cells 0 Smallest gt Largest I Actin filaments gt intermediate filaments gt microtubules O O O Microfubule Intermediate filament Actin filament microfi lamen39r Cell mambmne o Filaments o Actin Filaments I maintains cell s shape participate in cell movements such as crawling and contraction Each sphere globular protein actin Muscles actinmyosin reaction allows muscles to move White blood cells use actin filaments to move by crawling out and into blood vessels I Amoebas use active filaments to crawl o Microtubules hollow tubes of globular proteins tubulins alphabeta I support and shape the cell I involved in movements of organelles and vesicles within cells I guide the movement of chromosomes during cell division I found in centrioles flagella and cilia 0 Both are dynamic structures reassembledisassemble easily 0 Intermediate Filaments doesn t break down easily I made of fibrous proteins I maintains cell s shape I supports nuclear envelope htj MgGmwHiil companies lnI Eemi io lEguirE d filrjeprgduiongr isplay g 39 39 It also I ii i I are l I r V a V 39i In D ll i v r I l l r as 39 1 i 295 3 by 1 139 f f I J II i 394 quoty 9 I 9 ll I C D I I 1U L I ii If it i I i I U i g 39I in i i til i Ii39 i I i 2 it in I Flt 5 l5 i1 ll rs II quot a H F I ll g v I r r I 39i E intertnerlin te fillmttent 0 Motor Proteins o Microtuble highway motor proteins trucks 0 Two types of motor proteins I Dynesin I Kinesin 0 Use ATP to move cargo vesicleorganelle Vesicle Dynucfin complex Microfubule o FlagellaCilia Have 92 arrangement of microtubules Centriole and basal body have 90 arrangement of microtubules Cilia numerous short hairlike structures that allow some protists ciliates to move around I in our respiratory tract ciliated epithelial cells move mucus containing trapped dust particles dead cells towards the throat to be swallowed eliminated from the body 0 Flagella long taillike structures that allow cells to move sperm cells some protists Flagellum Radial Spoke Dwain arm Plasma 39 7 g membrane a 39o 1 Wquot Central v Banquot bad microtubu le pair Micrnml ulbule triplet 0 Outside of Animal Cells 0 Extracellular matrix I organizes cells in tissues I supports plasma membrane I communicates with cytoskeleton I Composed of o Proteoglycans proteins with onemore polysaccharide chains a ached o Glycoproteinsfibronectin Fibrous proteins collagen elastin Cytapllasm Junctions between Cells 0 O O 0 Form when cells come close together Tight junction Connects the plasma membranes of two cells in adjacent sheet preventing the movement of material between them I Found in epithelial cells in digestive tract preventing material from leaking into surrounding tissues Anchoring junction connects cytoskeletons of two cells together with help of proteins I Proteins called adherins I Connected to intermediate filaments of one cell to another cell s filaments with help of adherins I Found in tissues that stretch a lot musclesskin Gap junction involves formation of a gap between plasma membranes of two connected cells I Gaps made of proteins called connexions I Allows movements of ions small sugars and amino acids from one cell to another I Found in many different tissues heart muscle cells Ga 3 Junction Tight Junction Desmosome Outside of Plant Cells 0 Plants have primarysecondary cell walls which are made of cellulose I Primary cell walls stretch secondary walls don t 2nd wall has cellulose and lignin organic polymer that provides strength All plants have primary wall not every plant has a secondary wall I Middle lamella hold plant cells together rich in carbs Plasmodesmata Secondary wall Plant cell 397 Plasma quotimembma Middle liqmelt 7 I a o Plasmodesmata cytoplasmic connection between two neighboring plant cells 0 Function similar to gap junctions in animal cells I Allows ions sugars and amino acids to be shared between cells 0 Different bc they are lined with plasma membrane don t use connexons WWW Middle lamaim Plasma cell wall membrane Chapter 5 Membranes o Lipid BilayersPhospholipids o Cytosol gt liquid portion of cytoplasm o Membrane Structure 0 Transmembrane proteins extend completely through lipid bilayer I Made of nonpolarpolar amino acids 0 Peripheral proteins found on the extraintercellular sides of the membranE I Animal cell membrane contain cholesterol amphipacic 0 Sugar groups on glycoproteinsglycolipids are found exclusively on the extracellular side of membrane involved in cell identity Ca yrrg c the McCrawHgll wman a Inca Permasum l ulrf a repo uuw a swan lEraeellull ar fluid 1 39 I if Gl y l iplid Integral trunsmemlbrcme proteins f q Eaton rmrsker Mapllmsm Amin fil lmn Peripheral proteins cytoskeleton Membrane Protein Functions 0 Receptor something that recieves signal ligand Transporter transports moleculesions Enzymes catalyzes chemical reactions by alternating reactant substrate Substrate molecule upon which enzyme acts Product result of chemical reaction of enzymes and substrates may become a ligand enzyme or substrate itself 0 Binding of ligand to receptor triggers a series of responses within the cell itself I lnsulin only cells that have insulin receptors like liver skeletal muscle and fat cells react to it Cell surface identity marker glycoproteins Celltocell adhesion coadherins Attachment to cytoskeleton ECM integrin OOOO lnsi de eel Transporter Enzyme Gall ELI rface receptor Membrane Protein Interactions with Lipid Bilayer O Phospholipidanchored proteins gt attached to either side of bilayer by covalent attachment to onemore lipids Peripheral proteins gt interact with membrane with noncovalent bond with other membrane proteins Transmembrane proteins gt extend through bilayer as alpha helix multiple alpha helices or beta barrel rolled up beta sheets I Majority of membrane proteins are in Transmembrane category Alpha helix I Passes lipid bilayer only once I Forms because of hydrogen bonds I Amino acid side chain R group I Acts as a receptor 0 Extracellular part binds signal while intracellular parts signal to cell interior Multiple alpha helices and beta barrels hydrophilic pores I Hydrophilic pores channels that allow H20 soluble molecules to move across lipid bilayer I Hydrophilic R groups face inside of alpha helices I Beta barrels gt secondary protein structures I Many multiple alpha helices act as receptors How Do Molecules Move Across the Cell Membrane Passive Transport 0 Passive Transport movement of molecules down the concentration gradient no energy needed Simple diffusion O O O O Allows molecules to cross membrane without aid of membrane proteins No energy needed I 02 002 NO nitric oxide gases steroid hormones H20 also used in simple diffusion Molecules move to lower concentrated side of membrane Equilibrium reached when equal of molecules are on each side Facilitated Diffusion O O O Allows molecules to cross membrane with the help of membrane proteins channels or carriers I Channels integral proteins that create a hydrophilic pore through which specific ions diffuse I Carriers integral proteins that change their shape to allow polar molecules to pass through membrane Sodiumion channel gt only sodium passes through this channel Carriers gt sugars amino acids some ions used to go between lipid bilayer Osmosis O Diffusion of water down its concentration gradient o Aquaporins water channel proteins that accelerate the movement of water across lipid bilayer 0 Water always moves from the regions where H20 concentration high gt solute concentration low to H20 concentration low gt solute concentration high I Water is a solvent 0 lsotonic same concentration for solutes solutes cell I cell does not change 0 Hypotonic low concentration of solutes solutes lt cell I Cell swells and eventually burstslyses I Distilledpure water 0 Hypertonic higher concentration of solutes solutes gt cell I Cell shrinks I Salt water 0 Osmosis in Plant Cells 0 Hypertonic plant cell loses water plasma membrane shrinks away from the cells 0 Hypotonic H20 rushes in normal plant cell usually swollen with water I Don t burst in hypotonic solutions bc of plant cells 0 Active Transport Movement of molecules upagainst their concentration gradient 0 Concentration gradients gt molecules move from regions of their lower to higher concentration 0 Carriers are used in active transport 0 Sodiumpotassium pump I ATP hydrolysis to move 3 Na ions out of cell 2 K ions in cell against concentration gradient I More NA ions outside than inside cell I Less K ions outside than inside cell
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