Geo 171 Week 3 Lecture Notes
Geo 171 Week 3 Lecture Notes GEO 171
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bryce Caplan on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 171 at Syracuse University taught by Don Mitchell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Geo 171 Lecture 4 91415 Historical Geographies 1 Imperialism Colonialism and Geographic Complicity Situate geography as a discipline historically The British Empire will be used as a model The creation of a modern world system 14501900 European expansion and emergence of a global core and periphery Imperialism and colonialism the British in India Introduce imperialism and colonialism related but not the same Geography s role in exploration and imperialism Creation of a Modern World System 14501900 First global spanning of economic and social connec ons The expansion of Western Europe beginning with Spain and Portugal then France and England and Germany Transition to capitalism and emerging nation states drive the change of backwater countries to powers 0 Capitalism and emergence of a nation state is constantly expansionary seeking domination or empires Capitalism was necessary to fund monarchies and captilism needed the power to be able to prosper Ecplorationexternal expansion beginning late 16th c o Monarchies are funding explorers to find new trade place 0 1492 Moorish people are pushed out of Spain entirely out of Grenada and discovery of America The Age of Exploration begins 0 Constantinople the trade to the east falls to the Ottomans so the Europeans expand to the west Emphasis on Commodities 0 Sugar and gold and chocolate and slaves were commodities the europeans wanted I This caused a large disruption of Native American Populations 0 War disease etc The population dropped up to 90 especially in latin America I Africa became a prime spot for slaves o Slaves would be brought over to work on plantations etc o About 10 million brought over Colonial raw materials traded for European finished goods Profits contributed to industrial revolution which drove these pushes for exploitation o Potosi Bolivia in its time was the richest silver mine in the world the Spanish used the Mita system 38 million workers died in the mines over a 300 year period and when native people fell short africans were used it s still a tin mine with a little siver c European expansion initially limited by technology and regional factors 0 they were largely locked out of JApan and China originally and Thailand was never formally colonized due to their central states and immunities to diseases 0 The Columbian exchange 0 When Europeans came to the Americas they brought animals and plants that they wanted cultivated and brought back chocolate peppers corn tomatoes potatoes tobacco o Included disease food plants and animals ecological imperialism possibly like syphilis Spatial Examination of European Expansion emergence of core semiperiphery and periphery 0 Expansion and development of world market created 0 Core dominate trade and control resources and high technology with high wages and income I Japan became involved and was immediately a core nation in the early 1900 s due to its prior isolation o Semiperiphery an area being exploited by a core nation that also exploits more peripheral regions I The US was still a semiperiphery nation up to the 1900 s 0 Periphery regions exploited by both core and semiperiphery regions culturally and economically dependent on more core regions and may be subject to force Imperialism colonialism and European global expansion not simply about market or intellectual expansion also about a broader politicalcultural project 0 Imperialism the extension of a state authority over the political and economic life of other territories o A political control is extended over semiperiphery and periphery regions 0 Formal vs Informal I Informal Early stages of imperialism expanded trade posts and access of resources but with low political control I Formal a more centralized politicalcultural control of one nation over another 0 Colonialism a formal rule over a foreign population through the establishment of settlements linked to imperialism but not the same 0 involves movement of European peoples to new areas to establish an empire British in India 339 British arrive in 1607 via East India Company gt A private company arrives wanting to trade after being given a monopoly over british trade to india 339 Central power was Mughal empire and trade rights were given to the East India Company 339 Established trading posts and expand influence gt Mughal empire starts to fall apart coincidentally as the british start expanding gt Trade soon becomes political and military gt East India Company gains an army Rivalry and conflict with other European powers Ex French Portugese Swedes Danes gt If France and England go to war in Europe a smaller war occurs in India British dominate after 1757 gt Still a private company the East India Company British exploitation of India All trade in and coming into India was controlled by Britain Salt imports and exports were taxed twice as heavily as those in England were Estimated Net of 2 billion from india when it was 120th in England English are not the largest textile producer in the world but India but India is controlled by the English styles were changed fingers were cut off of master weavers etc After 1857 Indian Mutiny British extend formal rule The Raj gt British crown then extended a formal rule overtaking the East India Company gt Queen Victoria is made Empress of India as a symbol of transition to Empire Indirect rule divide and rule gt Indirect rule used Indian princes to administer over the people while benefiting gt The two religions were the Hindus and the Muslims so the British made people identify as Hindu or Muslim then would favor one population over another causing a civil rivalry VVVV Geography s role in Exploration and Imperialism Renaissance exploration and new understandings of world geography partly due to a religiously focused nature to a more humanocentric ideology New lands resources and peoples need to be documented resources need to be known to be exploited New rational cartographic techniques and visions reflected imperial biases 0 Presented as rational and objective prior maps were more mental or cognitive o Mercader projector were not correct but were somewhat closer Ex Greenland was supposed to be as big as AFrica but in reality Africa is 13 times bigger Geo 171 Human Geographies Historical Geographies 2 Lecture 5 91615 Outline for Today 0 Industrialization and Technology in Facilitating and Promoting a Global Economy 0 Industrialization of the Core Europe The US 0 The Periphery and the International Division of Labor 0 Imperialism and Neocolonialism 0 Different places are favored by industrialisation change over time as scale changes over time Industrialization and Technological Systems Certainly not a random process 0 Since the industrial revolution development is driven by clusters of technological innovation driving capitalism and trade 0 Certain resources and skills are associated with certain clusters Ex physical labor is becoming less desirable in the information age 0 Key role of technology systems 0 Integrated communication and transportation technologies Ex steam engine and canal and railway and metal manufacturing technologies integrated and fed off of each other during the industrial revolution 0 Creation of 50 year cycles or Kondratieff Waves 0 There is an upgrowth of productivity income etc then a downturn for 25 years I Distribution of income directly influences the up and downwave I We are currently in a trough of the waves 0 The idea is that each wave is associated with different types of technological systems As profits and prices decline a strong surge starts to create a new technology Four full cycles since the Industrial Revolution and we are in the midst of the fifth cycle 0 Fits the US and Great Britain but not Japan Industrialization of the Core Western Europe and The US 0 Western Europe lead by Britain first to industrialize 0 Spread of industrialization occurred in waves 0 Formal empire and economic dependency made Britain a fantastic superpower 0 Three distinct waves 0 British power height 17901850 steam enginetextilescoaliron 0 18501870 steelrailwayssteam ships I A lot of this was based on tinkering 0 18701914 electricitytelecommunicationsinternal combustion engines I The focal points of innovation start in universities and industrial labs I Germans tried very hard to catch up to the British 0 The United States 0 Transition from periphery to core I The American revolution led to a large political separation allowing the room for a financial separation Abundant resources Growing populationinternal market I AngloIrish German immigrations o Strongly linked to Britaincapitalmarkets for approximately 50 years despit political independence 0 New technologies I The cotton gin canal and railway technologies I Heavily protected markets using tariffs on British Products 0 Critical role in linking periphery to core played by technological innovations I Telegraph Global realtime communication I Steel hulled steamships cost of shipping falls over 60 between 1870 and 1950 The Periphery and the International Division of Labor 0 Colonialism and the international division of labor 0 Certain regions and peoples become specialized in different types of production satisfying the needs of the core 0 Colonial economies narrowly specialized raw materialsfood stuffsand core produced manufactured and more intricate goods 0 Legacy of this narrow specialization still evident Ex subSaharan Africa 90 of the countries rely on 3 products for 50 of the income Imperialism and Neocolonialism o Scramble for AfricaPacific 18801914 0 Regions economically and culturally dependent o Forced labor systems were instituted 0 Education systems were oriented around colonialist demands 0 Formal imperialism declines after WWII o In the far east most of the colonies are easily defeated by the Japanese 0 Replaced by neocolonialism o politically independent but culturally and economically dependent I Chad and Niger are pushed to use the Franc and France intervenes militarily occasionally 0 Some regions sought alternatives to colonial division of labor 19301970 0 Latin american had broken free of Spanish political dependence in the 1800s in the 30s there s the great depression and in the 40s there s WWII collapsing the demand for the items that Latin America 0 Latin America adopted Import Substitution Industrialization ISI which is substituting the goods that would be imported and set tariffs on foreign goods 0 This worked well for about 40 years especially in Mexico and Brazil but broke down in the 1980s Conclusion 0 Waves of industrialization driven by technology 0 Integration of periphery via imperialism and colonialism 0 Different places favored as scale of industrialization changed 0 Sets context for contemporary globalization
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