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Civil War Notes

by: Madison

Civil War Notes 364

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Civil War and Reconstruction

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Each document is a different day of notes corresponding to the lecture given by Dr. Bernath
Civil War and Reconstruction
One Day of Notes
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This 30 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Madison on Monday September 22, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 364 at University of Miami taught by Bernath in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Civil War and Reconstruction in History at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 09/22/14
Song The Flag of Columbia celebration of nationalism the union fumbling for a song The First Shot and the Northern Response to War 1 Fort Sumter and the Outbreak of War 81 p a 5quot5quotP39P PPS The South took all of the USA s artillery except for four locations including Ft Sumter No strategic value of Ft Sumter to close to city i Charleston cradle of succession southern radicalism Refusing to recognize secession Northern authority Fightconfirmed the south s cry for secession Robert Anderson USA s general of the garrison moved his men in the dead of night put water in between him and SC i Bucanan sent the Star of the West to get fired on ii SC shot at Anderson Anderson didn39t shoot back and he retreated Stalemate that Lincoln inherits SC is trying to starve out Anderson i Lincoln isn39t sure what position to take doesn39t want to be too aggressive ii Anderson tells Lincoln he needs to be resupplied or abandon the fort 1 If firing starts the war will truly start 2 If he abandons the SC will think they are popular Doves want time to reconcile Seward wants Lincoln to abandon Sky Hawks Lincoln decides to ressupply shows his aggressiveness people thought he would be dominated by his gov t People thought Lincoln was a puppet of Seward until Lincoln went against Seward on this issue Lincoln does send ships but only with food no ammunition or people i Notifies Anderson and governor of SC Some people think that Lincoln tricked SC into firing first to unify the North Some think it is peaceful and the firing is a defeat for Lincoln he didn39t want it to happen i Neither interpretation is entirely correct Lincoln wouldn39t be the aggressor Wanted the South to fight first Lincoln wanted to make sure the Confederates knew that the ship was coming with IUST BREAD to look good and moral So that the confederates would fire on FOOD AID and be in the wrong iii Ft Sumter is really a victory for Lincoln39s policies South is looking for foreigners to step in Pierre G T Beauregard hired by the South said he would hold fire until a certain date but Anderson couldn39t before the ship comes Confederates open fire in the middle of the morning Neither side knows how to treat the other as an enemy Anderson only had enough people to fire every little while Southerners cheered on the North39s bravery II III 33 bb CC Beauregard sent a note to Anderson asking if he needs help to put out a fire Took 33 hours than Anderson surrendered 5000 cartridges but no one dead except for 1 accident after the fighting ended Anderson39s men got back to NY on the ressupply ship when it came after the fighting Anderson surrended on April 14 Lincoln called on men for 90 days of service on April 15 1860 Why does the Confederacy fire first i Purely political Davis thinks firing will unite the southern states GA sent its own people to England and France acting as its own country ii Davis thinks that VA NC AK will not take arms against their southern brother so decides this will help them get on board iii Southern people demand for action iv Davis is worried about SC radicals that they just might start firing on their own Everyone thought that the war would be short only 1 or 2 battles so firing first wouldn39t be a big deal South thought that secession was a constitutional right fighting for independence and self government South said that the attempt to resupply the fort was an aggressive act not their firing Lincoln thought that compromise of the union and the secession was unacceptable Treason prestige of the government representing majority rule Defending the American experiment of popular gov t the last best hope of earth Defending liberal democratic government as a whole dd Both sides chose to fight for democracy just in 2 different ways Secession ofthe Upper South El 95 Q07 April 15 the southern states want join the CSA i AK TN AL and NC won39t submit their men for the draft ii Then they vote to succeed Confederacy is now 11 statesviable military power Upper states represent half of food crops half of horses and mules almost half of the manufacturing 25 of the men that would fight in the army NC TN and AL have the most white men Richmond VA becomes the capital of the south not Montgomery AL The upper south was chosen to force sides because of Ft Sumter EVERYONE wants to buy weapons that the reason for going to Europe i That why the cease the arsenal no guns Northern Reaction a b c The abolitionist say BYE say la ve No neutrals in this war only patriots or traitors Almost every state in the union wants to send more men than requested IV People want to have the valor and glory of manhood Mexican war and revolutionary war romantic North is fighting for the union weird because they didn39t really have a firm grasp on the federal gov t only saw the US s gov t at the post office i Most people didn39t know what other states were like Importance of firing on the ag immediate passion Tensional release finally the fighting came to a head War was adventure romantic notions of what being a soldier or man was Ends the notion that the war is going to be short orthern Mobilization Pquotquot39quot39F7 I 5quot S39 DP F79 Zquot39F7q 5quot vr Most of the manufacturing goods but how do you move them 1861 only 16000 men in the army and they were scattered everywhere watching Indians i 13 of the captains left to go to the confederacy Winfield Scott head of the army was too old and fat to fight on a horse No knowledge of the road or train system No staff for the army truly Only 3 naval ships on the east coast of the US the rest were looking after pirates The Federal gov t lack the bureaucracy to fight a war The gov t had no money and no power to fill the bank account Lincoln expands federal power presidential emergency powers Congress makes a ton of laws Lincoln started the war without congress He called them on uly 4 3 months after April 15 i Expands army and navy beyond law suspends habeas corpus starts a blockade on the south 1 All extreme questionable legality ii LINCOLN will be calling the shots Congress has little choice but to approve his actions 37th congress Congress expands federal power enacts laws of huge scope and significance Congress needs to expand government revenue and establish a national currency i Increases tariff but not enough ii Needs to tax its citizens now 1861 first federal income tax 3 i 1862 graduated income tax more money more taxes Congress decides to tax everything a federal tax i The International Revenue Bureau is created to look over all the taxes The federal government creates a national currency no state currency A banking system is created Congress authorizes 500000 volunteers 100000 more than Lincoln asks DRAFT conscription act lt Most of the 90 day men end up signing a contract for 3 years A lot of men open recruiting offices in their hometowns Regiment usually will have 1000 men they elect their own officers i Not men of military experience Prominent guys people respect Civil war gives people a lot of character from their hometowns internal unity the hometowns will be devastated when people die i 93rd Pennsylvania lost 83 of its men made town was depressed Locally raised regiments by the hundred were going to DC worried the war was going to be over before they got there Immediate concern fate of the border state can t let them join the confederacyll The North and South on the Eve of Secession Song Dixie Confederacy National Anthem not actually original version Written in 1859 minstrel show written by a northerner makes fun of the south I Similarities a Same history founding fathers constitution heritage heroes symbols books revolutionary war Language Commitment to democracy and the republic Racism white superiority Religion protestant Capitalistic outlook historians used to think slavery V capitalism southerners were just agrarian II Differences a Economic i Divergent economies South was agricultural 82 were directly engaged in agriculture 1850 1860 84 68 gt48 in north from 18601850 argiculture ii 91 of the manufacturing was in the North iii 91 of the manufacturing was in the North iv 121 bank North v 91 North vi 111 Capital goods North vii 30000miles of railroad track in the US 22000 were in the North 9000 were in the South viii 161 Shipping advantage North ix 1241 cotton advantage for the SOUTH Eli Whitney cotton gin Connecticut 17931849 South produces 2million bales 1860 5 million bales KING COTTON the world39s economy can39t survive without cotton England imported 45 of the US s cotton cotton more than half of US exports1860 13 of men but 116 ofthe richest counties were in the south 2 3 of the highest tax bracket were in the northSouth imports all manufactured goods no substantial commercial sector expansionnew land can39t keep reusing soil only invested money in land or slaves not technology no mowers reapersplow economy in the south isn39t maturing except for wealth b Demographic i North has 25x more people ii Urban v Rural 10 of northerners live in a town 18201860 60 South only had 10 live in a city in 1860 largest southern city was New Orleans iii Cities in the south were only there to service the planters 5quot S39 P U39 iv South disperse population homogeneous immigrants are in the north Able to look at family tree sense of pride not like the polyglot north V 18 of immigrants came to southern states New Orleans or Charleston port cities vi Different emphasis on eduction Northuniversal majoritynot educated20 white illiterat southern plantation owners were extremely educated New England less than 12 were illiterate3 illiterate in Pennsylvania Europe couldn39t boast a 50 literate rate c Slavery i 95 of African Americans were below the mason Dixon line ii over 13 of the southern population were in bondage iii 1861 Slavery was the cornerstone of southern civilization Alexander Hamilton iv literal reading of bible gave southerners the right to have slaves v Cotton negro cotton negro 9 9 vi Slaveryonly way to make it in society vii Average southern male had a 50 chance of owning a slave at some point viii 1860 of south owns slaves worried southerners because slavery was dropping talks of restarting the slave trade ix most slave owners owned between 14 slaves x less than 1 of the south held 90 of the wealth xi slavery was VERY EXPENSIVE weird that poor people would pay so much for a slave xii slavery ensured the quality of all men poor whites are better off in the slave system because they will never drop below slaves in the cast system xiii MS and SC more slaves than whites xiv FL and AL 5050 slaves xv NORTH blacks 1 very racist not a racially based cast system xvi Myth of a poor white to own a slave and be a plantation owner dream III Historiographical Debate a Are these differences sufficient to start a war b Both sides felt that they were holding the ideals of the founding fathers c Conspiracies d Both sides believed they had gods favor IV Southern Nationalism a Regional identity southern nationalism southernism a unifying concept b 18401850 southern nationalistswanting to free themselves from the North cultural economy independent dependent on north for print books teachers newspapers c Different races lol i Puritan Saxons north yankee ii Cavalier south southron d Protonations north and south growing even farther apart The Struggle for the Border States Song Maryland My Maryland Tune to Christmas tree Lee instructs his men to sing this song on the Antietam tour Song urges Maryland to succed commit treason says it betrays its southern sisters 1 Uncomfortable Position of the Border States 5quot S39 PCF79 Starts the war with 4 border states and ends with 5 Delaware West Virginia Kentucky and Maryland Henry Clay39s grandsons would square off 3 for Union v 4 South Crittendam 1 v 1 4 of Mary Todd Lincoln39s brothers and 3 of her brother in laws fought for the CSA Economically border states look like the North Many commercial ties to the free states Slave the border states all had slaves Not as strong and actually getting weaker as the war approached Kentucky 20 of the population was enslaved Maryland 13 Crittendam Compromise Border States resented radicals on both sides for trouble knew that the fighting would be on their soil Which side would the border states choose Their fate would determine the outcome of the war Delaware would become 15 enslaved free blacks are 10x the enslaved population free secession was never a real threat legislature unanimously denied secession Governor was a unionist Sent 1112 thousand men to the union and only 1000 to CSA MARYLAND Lincoln takes the stick approach If he lost Maryland he would lose DC Determined to losing the Capital at all cost i Secessionists were very vocal in MD ii April 19 1861 Baltimore Secessionist mob attacked one of the first Union army militia 6th Mass Militia First blood of civil war Governor asked that no men be sent through MD Mob cut telephone and telegraph wires to cut communication four Massachusetts soldiers lay dead along with 12 Baltimoreans while 36 troops and an undetermined number of civilians were wounded m Men had to come through water and rail because Lincoln couldn39t send them through Baltimore 11 Suppression in Maryland 81 Legislature in special session this is how you would succed There is pro union sentiment in Fredrick where the convention takes place b Union major but vocal and active southern minority 9 Baltimore eastern shore and southprosucession US Floods the state with troops the take control of the railroads occupy Baltimore suspends habeas corpus declares Marshall law Troops round up disloyal Marylanders private citizens are arrested chief of police and mayor of Baltimore Intimidated by force the special session rejected succession they also protested the military occupation of the state Unionist candidates win 72 of the vote see evidence of political Arrest southern sympathizers on site coercion was probably 57000 to 26000 is attributed to intimidation and soldier votes furlough was granted Fall elections of 1861 ended fears of MD joining the CSA CSA thought that after the federal hold of the state ended MD would want to join the Confederacy thus the SONG 30K white men would fight for union 9K black 20K for Confederacy Lincoln really had to tread carefully Didn39t want to drive them into Kentucky home state of Lincoln and Davis A true brother39s war 20 slaves highest of any other border states Larger population than any other state in the south except for VA Geographic position controlled vital river connections MS Columbia Lincoln hoped to have god on his side but knew he had to have KT To lose Kentucky would be to lose the whole game by Lincoln Kentucky declared itself NEUTRAL Proconfederate governor Beriah Magoffin said KT would send no men to fight against their brother Officially refuses Davis39s request for troops but allows for the CSA to secretly get men Citizens say KT should stay in the Union but not fight Lincoln wants to stay out of KT to allow unionists in that state to rise up Series of special elections where unionists would come up in the ranks Both sides N S start to create a military on the border of the state Confederates invade October 1861 Lee politically it is a disaster Confederate invasion of KT ends the neutrality legislature calls on Lincoln for aid troops KT takes a stance against the confederacy Lincoln puts troops on towns on the River 1861 KT secessionists pass a bill of secession and has a provisional government Actually joins the confederacy officially 9 not a true government No one paid attention to it Richard Hawes governor of the provisional gov t of KT Occupies the mansion for a few hours Inaugural gala was cancelled because everyone Star would remain on Confederate ag A KT representative was sent to e f g interference h unnecessary i j but they did not k 111 Kentucky39s Neutrality a Confederacy b c d e etc f g h i j k in the ranks 1 m n o p q left town r the CSA gov t s Men sent to fight 50K for union 30K for confederacy IV V t Stronghold of anti lincoln 1864 Lincoln losses the relection McClellan wins by a LOT KT doesn39t follows Lincoln39s laws Missouri39s War within a War Q97 PPPF i p a 4339 S Internal civil war in Missouri Largest population of all the slave states Controlled the Missouri Mississippi River network Held the largest arsenal in Cincinatti Claiborne lackson governor anti union calls the draft diabolical and evil Wants to have Missouri be a southern state Takes control of the St Louis police force and puts them under pro confederate officers April 1 1861 seize US arsenal and plots to take the large one in St Louis Davis sends cannons to help ackson take the StLouis arsenal secretly sent them in boxes labeled marbel Nathaniel Lyon preparing Missouri to fight for the union prepares for the muskets of St Louis be transferred to IL keeps enough guns for his men 1861 they surround and capture confederates i The men get into a sucuf e in a town and 28 men die US and Confederates break out into war and both sides send men and supplies ii Sterling Price confederate captain previous governor spares with Lyon Wilson39s Creek Battle Lyon and his men are defeated Lyon is killed Battle of P Ridge NW AK drives confederates out of Missouri officially but fighting still continues in Missouri Unionists in Missouri are in majority but don39t control the government It is controlled by secessionist and Claiborne ackson Unionists declare that the governor and all legislative offices should become vacant Vote to overthrow the legal government of Missouri Create a new government that is loyal to the Union i They appoint Hamilton Gamble as the governor Claiborne ackson the actual mayor confederate actually elected gov t votes to succeed the gov t and joins the CSA gets a star on their ag 80K fight for union 30K for confederacy the state may be officially in the confederacy the populas is pro union Vicious guerilla war starts extension of Bleeding Kansas jayhawks Murder terror roberty i August 31 1863 William Quantrill and his men including Iesse Iames invade a town and kill 163 men US Gov t sweeps some counties of all its citizens to avoid bloodshed Raids skirmishes and blood Missouriconstant state of terror The Secession of West Virginia 81 New border state b East center of power and slavery Westvery few slaves and few interests in the east stronghold of unionism resent the power of the Eastslaveholders c West Virginians called upon a special session 26th of the states 150th counties and only half of WV counties decided to organize and make a unionist government for the ENTIRE state of Virginia This minority decideds that they are the state government of Virginia d Elect Francis Pierpoint as the governor i Pass a bill of secession from their fake VA government and create their own state e 19k to 5k really only the unionist voted to succeded The rest boycotted Pass their own constitution under Pierpoint Need to concent to the constitution i Needed to create their own fake government to create WV ii A legal fiction that they all sign on too f Lincoln OPPOSES admission of WV because it was clearly illegal but than agrees in DEC 1862 because the US needed help and than formerly becomes a state in une 1863 with the governor of Arthur Boreman g Capital of WV is Wheeling h Breadbasket of the country i West Virginia had to emancipate their slaves to come into the union the other slaves kept their slaves because they didn39t leave the union KT and DE will hold onto slavery until after the war the other states will eventually adopt emancipation with a huge fight VI 1 Turning Point of the War Gets the Ohio river controls the western states by controlling Maryland and WV controls DC and their railroad lines by keeping KT and Missouri keeps a hold of the river system that helps the victory ofthe US9 TURNING POINTS BORDER STATES without them it would have been almost impossible to win the war George McClellan William Quantrill Leonidas Polk Pea Ridge Arthur Boreman Richard Hawes Perryville Sterling Price Hamiton Gamble Francis Pierpoint Thomas Hicks US Grant Claiborne ackson Wilson39s creek The Abolition of Slavery Song The BattleCry of Freedom one ofthe most popular Union songs uly 1862 I Emancipation Proclamation Ending slavery was the most revolutionary aspect of the war Announced by Lincoln in 1862 How would this change the union war 1knew that the policy would help to maintain party unity republicans 2 confident that such a policy would strike a military blow against the Confederacy undermine the slavery system 3 increasingly confident of the border states and increasingly frustrated of the stubbornness of the border states not wanting gradual emancipation 4 Certain that such a policy would have a positive impact on Europe liking the Union France and England liked the Confederate thought it would thwart incoming international aid to Confederacy and stop a blockaide uly 12 1862 border states refused gradual emancipation uly 13 1862 Told Seward and P V that he would make an emancipation proclimation uly 22 Tells Cabinent Montgomery Blair postmaster general speaks out against this only thought it would throw election to the democrats Seward tells him to wait for a military victory otherwise it would like a cry for help Lincoln agrees has to wait for 2 months loss of 2nd Bull Run has to withstand steep decline in morale Strenuous attacks from the radicals asked to remove George McClellan people on the right want to make gains in fall election sept 17 1862 George McClellan and the army of the Potomac vs General Lee and army of northern virgina battle of Antietam Lee withdraws from Maryland quasi victory terrible cost bloddiest day in American history victory for Lincoln to make his proclamation Sept 2 1862 preliminary emancipation proclamation union purpose is to restore the union and emancipation is a military necessity reaffirms that he wants Compensated emancipation endorses voluntary colonization as of Ian 1 1863 if the southern states don39t come back to the union slaves in those states would be forever free Ian 1 1863 actual emancipation proclamation takes effect Declares that slaves that are in states of rebellion are free excludes the border states and areas of the Confederacy that were under union occupation Tennessee parts of northern VA and LA 832000 slaves Most radical part is that it invites freed slaves to join the union army and navy limited parts arms former slaves against their masters Immediate Criticism and ridicule only proclaimed aboltion where he Can39t free them by Democrats Boring and dry proclamation justified entirely on military grounds legitimate act of war no appeals to morality or no discussions of fundamental principals Cold legalistic document Ahead of northern public opinion II Came out before the 2nd confiscation act applies to all slaves not just those to rebel masters Lincoln believed that he had constitutional grounds to do so doing it as a military act commander in chief can t do it in a place that isn39t under rebellion Military expedient to defeat confederate armys Reaction to the Emancipation Proclamation 39quot9 P9539 lt Reaction was mixed Everyone knew that it was radical Lincoln didn39t know how white northerners would react Republicans favored it for the most part Dec 1862 passed an endorsement of the emancipation proclamation all republicans in favor all democrats opposed Lincoln playing his last card race baiting Democrat39s view Democrats are staunchly opposed to this revolutionary war and change they want the constitution as it is and the union as it was Fuels and helps to form a growing anti war faction Peace Democrats The republicans call the peace Democrats the Copperheads they represented the tip of a growing resistance movement Emancipation becomes a true wedge Democrats take a strong stand against the war and its expansion Democrats urban poor ethnic Irish motto for the working man states rights strength in the MidWest and Eastern cities Indiana Ohio Republicans rising middle class party of banking enforcing morality big government Dems 96 opposed Reps 99 in favor Emancipated slaves that will be turned lose will steal white jobs Democrats Irish laborers feel threatened by the slaves coming north Northern Racism George Iulian our people hate the negro Northern Dems do make gains in the Fall election 32 seats in House governor in N and NY legislatures in IL and IN Republicans do well in the Northern states in western states Elections of 1862 was a set back for the Reps but not that bad hey still had majority in the house and senate some men in the army don39t want to fight for black slaves George McClellan didn39t like the emancipation proclamation a coups to take over Washington and overthrow Lincoln Northern army was mostly in favor to take revenge on the South rebel Southern whites hate the union soldiers while the slaves are gladly joining the union lines Many soldiers would become reluctant liberators 33 bb CC European reactions worked Initial response was critical of Lincoln said it was hypocritical Public opinion greatly than shifts in favor of union because the war shifts to be a war of slavery not succession England was waiting to see what happened in Antietam to recognize them as a country Didn39t recognize them because they lost and the emancipation proclamation Emancipation Proclamation and the Battle of Antietam is the SECOND TURNING POINT of the Civil War first was the border states joining the union Despite the exemptions of the EP and its legal status African Americans and the aboltionist allies embrace it as an abolitionist document no turning back not a war of union now a war of liberation Must be a war of conquest No peaceful reconciliation south will never come back A war to the end finish dd Henry Hallac to US Grant the character of the war has changed we ee ff 88 III must conquer the rebels or be conquered by them Strengthens union cause ends threat of European intervention war against slavery North is fighting to create a new union revolutionary war December 1 1862 Lincoln to congress we cannot escape history We are for the union The world knows we know how to save the union bear the responsibility of liberating the slave Lincoln and Colonization 81 f g h IV Wants congress to authorize the appropriation of money outside the US Wants gradual emancipation until 1900 Lincoln asks black leaders to support colonization because of white prejudice Wants to have a pilot trial Robert Pervis wrote to Lincoln that it is as much our country as it is yours Gets congress to appropriate 60000 to send 450 blacks to try an experimental colony by Haiti ended up being a disaster dying and starving Lincoln sent ships for survivors and amitted mistake After emancipation proclamation he never talked about colonization Thought blacks should receive minimal rights in the last 2 years of his life Thirteenth Amendment a b 39 quot9P Lincoln knew that the Supreme Court could vote against it What if George McClellan wins election he wants to get rid of emancipation proclamation What happens to slaves in not conquered area Needed to establish a legality to his actions Repub v Dem issue Emancipation was required in west Virginia gradual emancipation g Maryland 1864 new constitutional amendment needed a popular referendum the civilian people vote no but with overwhelming support by Maryland soldiers it passes with razor thin margin h Missouri same thing i Occupied states only a small portion of southern unionists that can vote it passes not true white opinion i KY and DE both want slavery until its last day no emancipation until the 13th amendment k Language drawn up in 1864 April une First time to be used to accomplish reform on nationwide scale need 23 majority had it in senate not the house Dems don39t want to mess with constitution with the war say it should be the states to decide Republicans Lame duck congress pushing threw the 13th amendment Llincoln throughing his hole heart 11956 house approves with blacks watching ratified in 1865 southern states forced to ratify it in readmission southern states were not given money for their slaves Great Emancipator Didn39t embrace full equality Master of time Knew when to push and how much to push for change Refuses to retreat from the emancipation proclamation The title is given to him by his refusal to retreat from the proclamation First statue erected by Lincoln was done so by former slaves g At his funeral procession Giddeon Wells says that there are no truerer mourners than the black former slaves h Douglass wants Lincoln to do more faster and on the high road Said that he was cold but as a statesman he was swift and a true statesman j I 5 P V Th 39 wmsr9 39 sn Keywords William Seward George McClellan Gideon Welles Antietam Montgomery Blair Copperheads The coming of the Civil War 18201860 92214 129 PM 7 Worsening Crisis Keywords Henry Clay Nat Turner 1831 Wilmot Proviso 1846 Charles Sumner Dred Scott 1857 Lincon Dougas Debate John C Calhoun Gag Rule Stephen Douglas Preston Brooks Roger Taney Pottawatomie Creek Denmark Vesey 1822 Slave Power Kansas and Nebraska Act 1854 John C Fremont Lecompton Constitution Black Republicans Song John Brown39s Body Written by Mass soldiers not originally written about John Brown harper ferry just a guy in their regime Union battle song 92214 129 PM Centrality of Slavery as an overlying topic for every single snowball a d Constitution 35 clause white man in south had more voting power southern power in the senate Electoral college granting winner take a9 no northern sectional presidency Declaration of Independence Jefferson owned slaves central paradox of American history slave v freeagainst british Trace different developments of the beginnings of the North v South see distinctiveness and differences 1 8 Aquistion of new territory state slave or free gt what will it do to the senate 1819 appies for admission into the US as a SLAVE state tip balance in favor of the slave states i not a problem bc Maine wanted to be a state was a part of Mass ii If Missouri and Maine both joined it would be 1212 Gradual emancipation for Missouri if it joins the USA done by northern house Henry Clay The Missouri Compromise Let Missouri and Maine come in at the same time Draw a line across the remaining part of the Louisiana Purchase 3630 everything north free south slave to put an end to the argument This compromise really split the country into northern and southern Kept parties in check whig and democratboth had northern and southern wingseveryone wants slavery off the table 1 2 3 1824 1822 every 2 years made a series of tariffs made things from England you bought more expensive most were in the North South Carolina is suffering in a deep depression not really from tariffs but blames the tariff 1828 The tariff of abonimations what threw SC over the edge 4 John C Calhoun Theory of Nullification publishes a pamphlet that says each state should have the right to nullify every federal law essentially every individual state can determine the constitutionality of a federal law i Fed Gov t Pass an amendment to the constitution that they have the right OR they can throw out the law South Caroina decides they want to nullify the tariff and if not they will leave the nation i Andrew Jackson denies nullification says the union is perpetual says nullification is treason will back up his words with guns 1 South Carolina reents votes to repeal nullification 2 Question of state rights and slavery not really the tariff 3 If a gov t can impose tariffs over their rights they can end slavery eventually 4 SC is the only black majority slave state Whites are fearful to the threat of abolition 6 Establishes the right and threat of succession summary of event 1 Denmar Thesy revolt 2 NAT TURNER 1831 Virginia 70 followers in a 2 day rampage massacres woman and children ended by Virginia militia makes southerners sensitive to the threat of abolition 1831 birth of abolitionist movement i The Liberater Paper in Boston ii Flood the south by propaganda south want to censure the mail it is censored and the south does not allow any abolitionist papers in the south iii Flood congress with their complaints has to be read aloud in congress iv GAG RULE 183544 any petition that had to deal with slavery would be tabled and not read into the record pushed through by southerners 4 Southern whites start to unify the proslavery argument viewed slavery as a necessary evil i In the 1830s defend slavery view it as amazing not an evil a divine god39s will on earth 5 Both political parties had to keep slavery on the docket to keep voters 6 Church breaks over slavery i Methodist breaks in half south and north 1843 ii Baptist breaks too 1844 7 Slave Power want to spread slavery everywhere despite the North 1 A not so veiled threat to gain territory for southern states to get more area for slaves 2 Wilmont Proviso this war is not about slavery any territory gained will be free territory i Wilmont was super racist and didn39t want black people near him ii South contributes most of the men and the spoils won shouldn39t be not allowed to take their property into their territory iii Passed in house blocked in senate 3 US won had major amounts of land Cali 4 Zachary Taylor Whig gets this problem never voted in his life i Decides to admit all the gained land as 2 states as free ii Starts the most series sectional crisis iii At the time it was 1515 iv Mississippi calls southern states into a convention for succession Done by Henry Clay 1 Will admit California as a free state 2 Split New Mexico in half Utah forms popular sovereignty win for the south 3 Abolish the slave trade not slavery in DC A wash pleases no one 4 Fugitive Slave LawIntroduction into a new rigorous slave walk allows southerners to find their slaves in free states and bring them back most controversial Any citizen could be made to help find southerners slaves if asked Wouldn39t pass as a whole so Stephen Douglas little giant and Henry Clay break each part up and get them passed by themselves The calm seemed to occur but NOTo 5 1 Admit Kansas and Nebraska as popular sovereignty disavows the Missouri Compromise Sets off a firestorm of animosity 3 The party system collapses Whig ceases democrats fracture 39 Squot3939gt i Single issue parties come about Republican 0 Border Ruffians Voting Fraud Kansas had 2 rival gov ts pro and anti slavery Pro slavery mini army sacks an antislavery stronghold Lawerence KS The Caning of Charles Summer insulting SC and Andrew Butler i Butler39s cousin beats Summer 4 yrs to recover ii South rejoices Joh C Fremont republican candidate didn39t win but showed a northern president could be voted without any southern votes i Republican party one issue is to stop the spread of slavery 7 Worsening Crisis Dred Scott Case a slave but was staying in free territory for a while Roger Taney leader Supreme Court Decision Scott is still a slave A black man has no rights that a white man is bound to respect Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional from the start Congress has no right to put laws on slavery Lecompton Constitution A constitution presented to the gov t for approval supported by James Buchanan fraudulent Douglas a democrat stopped this bill so it wasn39t passed Southern states were pissed at Douglas and felt betrayed Lincoln Douglas Debates Douglas won in 1860 John Brown believed that slavery could only be destroyed by violence hacked 5 men to death in Kansas with his son 0 Ceased a army arsenal hoped for slaves to come and help them to combat slavery 10 of brown s followers die 6 wounded John Brown would be sentenced to hang for murder treason and etc Southerners are afraid of northern fanatics When Brown is hanged church bells and cannons go off in the north southerners are outraged and scared they arm themselves Back republicans Southerners form small militias Brown passed note to jailer I John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty and will never be purged away but with blood I had as I now think vainly attered myself that without Very much bloodshed it might be done 92214 129 PM Slavery and Union WarAims Song Huntington Family Singers like the vonTrapp family Get Off the Track Yale students hated these people I Lincoln39s Attitudes towards Slavery and Race a Lincoln known as the Great Emancipator i Complicated by his personal views of race ii Born in Kentucky a slave state lived in central Illinois for most of his life but there was a large southern avor b Illinois had a long history of hatred of African americans weren39t allowed to vote attend public schools hold public office c People were not in support of racial mixing lincoln said I have not or never have been in any way of bringing equality of black and whites nor to intermarry with white people to forbid racial equality in favor of having the superior position of the white race d Lincoln was opposed to social equality but saw slavery as a great moral evil wanted to see its extinction e 1864 If slavery is not wrong nothing is wrong f Divides between human rights and citizenship rights there is a division African Americans are entitled to human rights but not political rights Lincoln g Lincoln felt that slavery was theft in the right to put into his mouth to put the fruits of his labor into his mouth the black man is equal to the white man h Didn39t believe whites and blacks could live together white prejudice wouldn39t let it happen i Voluntary colonization removal of free blacks to somewhere else possibly Africa j Lincoln39s political platform was to stop slavery spreading and gradual emancipation 50 100yrs Didn39t believe the prez had the power to stop emancipation in states it already exists k To damage slavery they would enhance the union war effort and strengthen its principles i government strong link between emancipation and colonization didn39t think whites and blacks could coexist ii Moderates opposed slavery worried about the effect on public opinion and war Lincoln didn39t want a long war initially the war was supposed to be limited 1 Reason for war restore the status quo succession is treason didn39t want to reshape the southern society succession is not real the southern states would still than have the constitutional rights including owning states Lincoln and followers were worried about a blanket emancipation because it could make the border states leave and northern support lessen II Republicans and Emancipation as a War Aim a Republicans opposed to the expansion of slavery i The time frame varied 3 semi separate groups ii Conservatives former Democrats gradual demise of slavery voluntary action of states not legally come from coercion of federal government strong link between emancipation and colonization didn39t think whites and blacks could coexist iii Moderates opposed slavery worried about the effect on public opinion and war Lincoln didn39t want a long war initially the war was supposed to be limited Reason for war restore the status quo succession is treason didn39t want to reshape the southern society succession is not real the southern states would still than have the constitutional rights including owning states Lincoln and followers were worried about a blanket emancipation because it could make the border states leave and northern support lessen i Radicals and their abolitionist allies wanted abolition now Emancipation would weaken south preserve the union punish disloyal slave holders shorten the war Military Necessity Frederick Douglass said that emancipation would eventually become a war aim Crittendenlohnson Resolution war isn39t about slavery just to restore the union Passed the house 117 2 Senate 305 to reassure the border states Lincoln expand war in the name of Miliatry Necessity 18611862 war was to bring back the south nothing about slavery Iohn C Fremont plasses Missouri on Marshall Law promises to confiscate property and free the slaves of southern sympathizers makes public policy threatens to drive border states into the confederacy Lincoln wants the removal of slaves out of his emancipation Fremont says no and so Lincoln removes him and takes him out of the picture David Hunter Union commander department of the South GA FL and SC makes an emancipation that all slaves are free Lincoln denies it gets accused of betrayal 111 Congress and Slavery 81 b Slaves force the issue on congress says the war is about slavery not returning the south to the north Slaves run away to union lines legally you are supposed to return them to their masters doesn39t make sense why would you aid enemy Bejamin Butler general at Ft Monore in VA union outpost May 231861 3 slaves escaped to their lines their owner showed up the next day Butler refuses to return them and declares them as contraband If slaves are truly property and the south is truly a foreign nation they can take contraband Now that we have slaves what does the union do with them The slaves have military value labor construction9 issue goes to congress FWIQ b First Confiscation Act Aug 1861 Passes upon strict party lines First break in bipartisan support for the war effort Union army could seize property including slaves that are aiding the rebellion Bull Run convinces the Union that the war won39t be short Crittendam gets defeated Republicans 267 A new series of laws get passed instead i A law prohibits the return of slaves even to masters ii Congress abolishes slavery in DC Pay slave owners 300 slave iii une 1862 prohibits slavery in all new territories iv Iuly 171862 Second Confiscation Act designed to punish treason US could seize property of any person in rebellion to US and the slaves of anyone that supports the rebellion would be forever free if they fell into union hands doesn39t matter if you are a border or confederate 1 Lincoln doesn39t like it because congress took his thunder Sent his veto message to congress but signed it into law anyways Precedes as if the bill has never been passed doesn t enforce 2 Would need to have laws and court cases about how to determine how loyal slave owners are 3 Lincoln wanted war time emancipation to be his power alone Lincoln and Emancipation a Lincoln believed that emancipation should be gradual because wants to minimize the aspects of emancipations i Thought it would have to be the states not federal gov t didn39t think that feds had the power ii Compensate the slave owners iii Fed gov t could assist the states in paying for the slave owners iv Emancipation would be gradual up until 1900 v Emancipation should be followed by voluntary colonization Lincoln calls for a joint resolution in congress 85 Dems opposed all Republicans in favor blanket emancipation for slaves i Writes an emancipation policy for Delaware compensation plan 400 slave opposition proves so strong that is opposed May 1862 conference of border states at the white house Lincoln tells them that the cost of emancipation would be less than the war lie 87 days of fightinggt slaves of DC MS KY MD DE Says can39t be blind to the time Border states reject his proposal i They come back months later Lincoln says the incidents of the war can39t be avoided and the longer it goes on the border states will have nothing in value when their slaves are emancipated lost vote 229 Lincoln still saying that his paramount effort is not to stop succession and but stop slavery eventually but has already written the emancipation proclamation Said that a radical change in policy would be required e Horace Greeley Lincoln writes him a letter about gradual emancipation When a slave reaches the age of 20 or 25 they will be free Letter to congress David Hunter Song Lincoln and Liberty 1860 presidential campaign each candidate had multiple songs written for them Sucker State plant life fish The Secession Crisis North and south were unwilling to compromise Harpers Ferry 1 The Election of 1860 1 ohn Bell new party Constitutional Union Party conservative unionist designed to appeal to former Whigs upper south and border states didn39t talk about slavery or sexual agitation no principles except for the constitution the law and the union No vigorous champion VP Edward No chance of winning just want to prevent Republicans from wining in the electoral college In the house of rep there are more conservatives 2 Stephen Douglas Democrat popular sovereignty only the true person that the WHOLE country loves unionist party 12 electoral votes total i Democratic Party splits in half at their convention last national party is broken a Southern want slaveholders to be able to take slaves into the new terroties They leave the convention 8 southern states Arkansas b Northern wouldn39t allow slaveholders to move slaves because it would be political suicide protective tariff transcontinental railroad 3 Iohn C Breckinridge Southern democrat states rights sweeps 11 southern states Lincoln was not on the ballot 4 Abraham Lincoln Republican party sectional northern only prevention of slavery s expansion into the new territories Not won an election in a little while slight experience and little exposure Came from Illinois prosouth needed to carry if going to win moderate on everything Opposed to slavery s expansion but didn39t say it needed to end immediately Slaverymoral evil Old LOYAL Whig large part of the republican party was whig Everybody s second choice nobody really loves Lincoln but he is a great 2nd acceptable to all factions of the party didn t alienate everybody Nominated on the third ballot Ignored experience Only served 1 undistinguished term in the house Really did nothing Elected with 39 of the popular vote 54 of the northern vote Carries every free state except for N they split btwn Lincoln and Douglas 180 electoral votes 27 more than needed winner take all how a man in the minority gets elected by a majority Comes in 4th in the border states i Republican party pledged not to interfere with slavery in the south but wouldn39t let it expand ii Northerners were voting to rebuke the south slave power Northerners were tired of being pushed around by the minority of the country iii Richmond Paper said he was illiterate and an abolitionist iv First time in history that an anti slavery and anti south president V William Seward made too many enemies too radical wouldn39t be able to carry the doubtful states Illinois and Penn so wasn39t nominated to be the presidential candidate of the republican party II Secession and the Formation of the CSA Formed by outrage of Lincoln39s being elected Southern radicals almost wanted Lincoln to be elected so they would have an excuse to succed 4 REASONS SOUTH SUCCEEDED 1 Loss of the political power of the south northern states had elected a pro north candidate without a single southern vote they would be able to continue to do it in the future too 2 Direct threat to slavery its ultimate existence and furthering The North could pack the supreme court continue to elect abolitionist presidents 3 Lincoln39s election would incite their slaves to rebel in the wake of Iohn Brown and the conspiracy that the republican party funded him 4 Northerners able to tyrannize the south 4 Groups of Southern Thought 1 Unconditional Unionist Southerners who believed that succession was treason almost none found in the south majority position in the Border States 2 Conditional Unionists Able to succeeded under certain conditions not treason Lincoln was not a full reason to succeed let39s wait to see until Lincoln actually acts and if its bad we will succeed small minority in the deep south Majority in the middle states and border states 3 Cooperationists secessionists Lincoln39s election is cause for succession the south should act as 1 meet as a group make demands to north if not meet than succeed support in the deep south and middle 4 Immediate Secessionists don39t wait for a southern convention want to act majority in deep south some support in upper south little in the border state can39t wait for all the states just succeed state by state FIRE EATERS Charleston Paper tea has been thrown overboard and revolution occurs 1860 SC succeeds can39t wait 1861 a month before Lincoln is sworn in office LATX FL GA MS States meet and elect Iefferson Davis and write a constitution Upper South is worried that the deep south acted slowly Upper south didn39t succeed until Ft Sumtner Why did most radical voices win 0 Better organized waiting for this day already had the press and network in place propaganda already in place o Time didn39t allow cool down time III IV 0 Deep South greatest number of slaves in the deep south so they felt the most threatened I SC 1 MS 2nd succeed and slaves FL was 3rd in succession and in slaves 5050 The Failure of Compromise Never before were there as little cool heads Iames Buchanan had to avoid a war and succeed to the southern states Buchanan39s presidency was a paralysis just wanted to not have war in his presidency Crittenden Compromise proposed by Crittenden of KT in Clay39s old desk 0 Resurrect the 3630 and draw it to the coast 0 Protect slavery where it exists 0 Doesn39t get enough support from sucessionists 0 Does get approval in the senate but war breaks out so it fails Daniel Webster Clay Calhoun all dead more radical people took over to broker the crisis thus why no compromise The crisis has gotten more elevated The 2 groups had no interest in compromise the successionists had their own country the northerners had just won their first election on this issue and couldn39t retreat Everything occurring over the last decade was building up to this event Too far too turn back Lincoln and the Secession Crisis Lincoln doesn39t take secession seriously at first Wants to just do nothing no provoking to allow saner southerners to take control Star of the West US resupplies at Ft Sumtner and SC shots at it STRONG nationalist Wants to remain defensive no overtly offensive act wants to wait for the South Silently supporting the Crittendam Compromise First Inagural Address March 4 1861 balance btwn the sword and olive branch pledges to uphold slavery and fugitive slave law the union is perpetual secession is anarchy no con ict without being the agressors Seward urges Lincoln to be very nice Lincoln closes the speech with we are not enemies but friends Lincoln received a letter from Major Robert Anderson that unless he immediately resupplies he would have to concede to the South within 24 hrs of being a president Keywords ohn Bell William Seward Star of the West Stephen Douglas Iefferson Davis Robert Anderson Iohn Breckinridge Crittenden Compromise Alexander Stevens the worst thing to do is succeed because we can39t be in congress than once we are apart Lincoln can go full throttle on us


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