Drugs of Abuse & Behavior - Week5 Notes
Drugs of Abuse & Behavior - Week5 Notes PSYC 3346
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristina Saiz on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3346 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Adolfo J. Alvarez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Drugs of Abuse and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Week 5 Drugs of Abuse and Behavior NERVOUS SYSTEM Consists of brain and spinal cord Electrochemical highly complex communicationtransmission system NE UROTRANSMI39ITERS There are many and they all have different functions Dopamine in relation to the eye dilates to see more of the pupil which is just an opening in the eye that allows light in for us to see Acetylcholine in relation to the eye contracts the pupil to make it look smaller Central Nervous System easy to remember because it s centralized it receives and sends information Peripheral Nervous System anything outside the central nervous system Brain is divided into 2 hemispheres and is contralateral contraopposite right hemisphere controls movement of the left side of the body eft hemisphere controls movement of the right side of the body Brain is comprised of neurons I glia cells quotglia comes from glue glial cells nourish and support the neuron they comprise the Blood Brain Barrier Blood Brain Barrier BBB barrier between blood and brain cells if drugs weren t able to cross the BBB we wouldn t feel any effects Dendrites receive information Axon carries information from the dendrites and transports to terminals Myelin sheath speeds up impulse through the axon if myelin sheath becomes deteriorated it causes multiple sclerosis Action potential the action taking place from neuron dendrite all the wat through to terminal didn t really get a definition on this one Synapses have 3 parts presynaptic membrane or terminal end of one neuron synaptic cleft or gap between the synapse postsynaptic membrane or terminal beginning of new neuron Neurotransmitters get sent from neuron to another and bind themselves to receptors RECEPTORS Binding starts the action potential 2 types of receptors 1 Excitatory amp 2 Inhibitory Neurotransmitters are neither excitatory nor inhibitory but receptors are either one or the other depending on where they bind examples meth amp cocaine bind to excitatory receptors heroin amp morphine bind to inhibitory receptors Dopamine DA attaches to excitatory amp inhibitory receptors is produced in the Substantia Nigra there are 5 receptors for dopamine REMEMBER different neurotransmitters have different receptors Agonist drugs 9 mimic the effect a neurotransmitter cocaine amphetamine methamphetamine mimic the effect of dopamine ack of dopamine causes Parkinson s disease difficult of movement effects cognition and motivation excess of dopamine causes some symptoms of schizophrenia pleasurable things release dopamine such as chocolate food laughing sex and kisses PleasureReward Pathway also called Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway pleasure center of emotions is the limbic system so Mr Alvarez says it makes more sense to tell your partner quotI love you with all my limbic system instead of your heart Psychoactive drugs have a direct or indirect effect 92 10 times release of dopamine which is why drug users say their first time using drugs was the best feeling they ve ever had and because of that they start to use drugs more and more to try and reach that same first effect Acetylcholine Ach attaches itself to 2 types of receptors in the heart inhibitory and muscle movement excitatory involved in activation of muscles attention memory learning Reated to Alzheimer s disease The agonist drug that mimics acetylcholine is nicotine Endorphins attach to inhibitory receptors Endo comes from inside the body orphin comes from morphine so endorphins are morphine produced inside the body agonist drugs that mimic endorphins opium heroin morphine endorphins get released when we experience pain if endorphins were as potent as heroin we would die because we wouldn t feel any pain endorphins also get released when people experience runners high have sex eat chile Glutamate this neurotransmitter attaches to excitatory receptors is involved in memory and learning mimicry an antagonist drug opposes the effects of drugs by blocking the receptors one such drug is PCP aka angel dust it acts on glutamate and is very unpredictable because it can be either an upper or a downer Serotonin aka 5HT9 5Hydroxytryptamine this neurotransmitter attaches to excitatory receptors mimicry agonist drug that mimics the effect of serotonin LSD hallucinogen magic mushrooms peyote MDMA ecstasy involved in depression sleep appetite body temperature sensory perception may feel no pain Telltale sign of PCP use is temperature goes up and because users feel so hot they start undressing Serotonergic Pathway starts in raphe nuclei serotonergic pathways occipital lobe visual cortex of the brain 5HT affected by Prozac antidepressant which is a psychoactive drug but it s not addictive because it does not produce any pleasure in the user Antidepressants are also called SSRIs selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors because they re reabsorbed into the membrane GABA Gamma Aminobutvric Acid attaches to inhibitory receptors the agonist drugs that mimic GABA are alcohol Benzodiazepines 9Xanax valium a Benzodiazepines sedative hypnotics involved in relaxation and sleep Adenosine attaches to inhibitory receptors the antagonist drug that mimics adenosine and blocks these receptors is caffeine is involved Anandamide attaches to inhibitory receptors the agonist drug that mimics anandamide is marijuana classified as mild hallucinogen even though for most people it acts as a relaxant like downers do involved in appetite pain relief sleep Neurotransmitter Reabsorption is when some of the neurotransmitter gets reabsorbed into the membrane Neurotransmitter Breakdown instead of the neurotransmitter being reabsorbed or attaching to a receptor some of them get broken down Psychoactive drugs in uence on neural transmission 0n receptors 0n Neurotransmitters 1 excitation 1 Synthesis production of neurotransmitter 2 inhibition 2 Transportation way they re transported within a cell 3 Storage vesiclessacs 4 Release 5 Degradation how they re broken down 6 Reuptake how they re reabsorbed THE ACTION OF DRUGS PHARMACOLOGY Effects are placed into 2 categories A Subjective 9 user reported experiences nonspecific effects non pharmacological effects B Objective 9 reliably measured effects example marijuana causes tachycardia which is heart rate increase pharmacological effects A NonPharmacological effects 1Characteristics of user gender women have less percentage of water than men amp less alcohol dehydrogenase so the alcohol stays in their body longer Height amp weight shorter or thinner people get drunk faster Foo slows down absorption of alcohol Water more water in your system makes less effect of alcohol in your system Ma sick person would feel the buzz faster Tire a tired person would also get the buzz faster Expectations for example if you have no expectation of marijuana and know nothing about what effects it will have on you it wouldn t be uncommon to feel no effect Mood for example when someone tries hallucinogens for the first time if they feel anxious or scared they will experience what we know as a bad trip Genetics if drug use or alcoholism runs in the family for men it carries onto the next generation Asians experience quotOriental Blush or quotAsian Blush they have a reaction to the alcohol that causes their faces to flush red and may get nauseous and throw up after the first sip 2Setting for example a heroin user would typically hide their drug use and have certain hidden places where they shoot up the drug and these settings can affect the experience of the high B Pharmacological Effects 1Chemical Structure comparing heroin to morphine the molecules in heroin are smaller than the molecules in morphine which causes the heroin to be more potent than the morphine because those smaller heroin molecules are able to get through the Blood Brain Barrier quicker Lipid solubility if it can be dissolved in fat it influences the effects For example Oxycontin used for pain compared to diamorphine heroin influences effects and one is more potent than the other 2Potency is not related to how addictive a drug is You need less dose of a drug to produce that effect There are 5 categories based on abuse potential and if drug has a medical use Schedule I have high abuse potential and has no current medical use Examples marijuana and heroin Schedule II have high abuse potential and current medical use Example oxycontin and medical cocaine the one used for certain types of surgeries like for your nose
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