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## AS 220 Week 8 Notes

by: Thomas Notetaker

25

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5

# AS 220 Week 8 Notes AS 220

Thomas Notetaker
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Notes from Week 8 of AS 220
COURSE
Unmanned Aerial Systems
PROF.
Professor Wren
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
5
WORDS
CONCEPTS
UAS, UAV, Drones, AS 220, as
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Aerospace Engineering

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thomas Notetaker on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AS 220 at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Prescott taught by Professor Wren in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Unmanned Aerial Systems in Aerospace Engineering at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Prescott.

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Date Created: 03/17/16
3/15/16 Notes Homework: UAS components and their function: Read the posted file online and do it as homework (Due next Thursday) The AR Drone  Control system o How it flies  Angular velocity o Accelerometers, gyros, measurement unit (IMU)  Sensor fusion o Hardware  Parts list  Control through a smart phone  How it flies o On board FMS provides precision control and automatic stabilization features o Linux 2.6.32 o 1GB DDR2 RAM at 200MHz o WI-Fi b g n o 3 axis Gyro  Rotation and the axis o Pitch  Tilts forward and backward o Yaw  swivels left and right o Roll  tilts side to side  Six degrees of freedom  Angular speed o The length of the arc is equal to the length of the radius o Angular speed describes how fast the rotor tips travel around the center  Move forwards or backwards (pitch) o The drone changes pitch angle o Changes the speeds of the front and rear motors o Increase the speed of the rear motor and decrease the speed of the front rotor o Drone moves forward  Move left or right (roll) o Changes roll angle o Changes the angular velocities of each pair of opposite motors  Basic commands o Automated procedures  3 automated procedures  Take off: drone will take off and enter a hover  Land: the drone will start to land and the procedure will end when it has landed on the ground  Hover: drone will to hold in the same position in space  AR Drone’s sensors o Navigation board o Ultrasound sensors o 3 axis digital Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer is positioned at the center of gravity o An accelerometer is used in a +/- 2g range o Two axis MEMS gyroscope and a precision piezo electric gyroscope for the yaw measurement and heading control  Ultrasonic Sensor o Sends out a wave o Measures time it takes for the wave to get back o Calculates how close it is to the surface  Accelerometer o Measures internal force and such a force can be caused by gravitation (and ideally only by gravitation), but it might also be caused by acceleration (movement) of the device. As a result even if the accelerometer is in a relatively stable state, it is still very sensitive to vibration and mechanical noise in general  Gyroscope o Measures the rate of changes of angles  Parts list o Nav board o Body o Out door hull o Blades o Gear o Props o Motors o …  Controlling a UAS o Sheltered UAS pilots vs unsheltered  Sheltered: fixed, and can fit a lot of instruments inside  Sheltered: poor logistics  Unsheltered: easy to travel  Unsheltered: limited instruments  AR Drone Navigation o Altitude estimation  Gyrometers  Accelerometer o Where am I?  Ultrasonic  Vertical Camera  3/17/2016 Happy Saint Patrick’s Day! Notes: Autonomous systems:  Teleoperation o Use of a machine at a distance  Google’s advancement in robotics  Advancements in drone software o Swarm technology  Why use a robot: o Dirty, Dull, Dangerous  Human Machine Systems o Human  Sensory component  Cognitive component  Musculoskeletal component o Machine  Sensor equipment  CPU/ software component  Airframe  Humans are better at: o Sensory functions o Perceptual abilities  Stimulus generalization  Abstract concepts o Flexibility  Ability to improvise o Judgment o Selective Recall o Inductive Reasoning o Ability to detect small amount of visual and acoustic energy o Ability to perceive patterns of light or sound o Ability to improvise and use flexible procedures o Ability to store very large amounts of information for long periods and to recall relevant facts at the appropriate time o Ability to reason inductively o Ability to exercise judgment  Machines are better at : o Alertness o Brute force o Accuracy  Characteristics of robots o Sensing  Sound  Light  ultrasonic o Movement  motors o Energy  Battery/fuel o Intelligence  Theoretical Base for Robotics  Intelligence o Direct control o Supervisory control  Automation Description o Lowest: humans have to make all of the decisions o Highest: the computer decides everything and acts autonomously  Autonomous control o Manual control o Action control o Batch processing o Shared control o Decision support o Blended decision making o Rigid system o Automated decision making o Supervisory control o Full automation  UAS Autonomy

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