AS 220 Week 8 Notes
AS 220 Week 8 Notes AS 220
Popular in Unmanned Aerial Systems
Popular in Aerospace Engineering
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thomas Notetaker on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AS 220 at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Prescott taught by Professor Wren in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Unmanned Aerial Systems in Aerospace Engineering at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Prescott.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
3/15/16 Notes Homework: UAS components and their function: Read the posted file online and do it as homework (Due next Thursday) The AR Drone Control system o How it flies Angular velocity o Accelerometers, gyros, measurement unit (IMU) Sensor fusion o Hardware Parts list Control through a smart phone How it flies o On board FMS provides precision control and automatic stabilization features o Linux 2.6.32 o 1GB DDR2 RAM at 200MHz o WI-Fi b g n o 3 axis Gyro Rotation and the axis o Pitch Tilts forward and backward o Yaw swivels left and right o Roll tilts side to side Six degrees of freedom Angular speed o The length of the arc is equal to the length of the radius o Angular speed describes how fast the rotor tips travel around the center Move forwards or backwards (pitch) o The drone changes pitch angle o Changes the speeds of the front and rear motors o Increase the speed of the rear motor and decrease the speed of the front rotor o Drone moves forward Move left or right (roll) o Changes roll angle o Changes the angular velocities of each pair of opposite motors Basic commands o Automated procedures 3 automated procedures Take off: drone will take off and enter a hover Land: the drone will start to land and the procedure will end when it has landed on the ground Hover: drone will to hold in the same position in space AR Drone’s sensors o Navigation board o Ultrasound sensors o 3 axis digital Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer is positioned at the center of gravity o An accelerometer is used in a +/- 2g range o Two axis MEMS gyroscope and a precision piezo electric gyroscope for the yaw measurement and heading control Ultrasonic Sensor o Sends out a wave o Measures time it takes for the wave to get back o Calculates how close it is to the surface Accelerometer o Measures internal force and such a force can be caused by gravitation (and ideally only by gravitation), but it might also be caused by acceleration (movement) of the device. As a result even if the accelerometer is in a relatively stable state, it is still very sensitive to vibration and mechanical noise in general Gyroscope o Measures the rate of changes of angles Parts list o Nav board o Body o Out door hull o Blades o Gear o Props o Motors o … Controlling a UAS o Sheltered UAS pilots vs unsheltered Sheltered: fixed, and can fit a lot of instruments inside Sheltered: poor logistics Unsheltered: easy to travel Unsheltered: limited instruments AR Drone Navigation o Altitude estimation Gyrometers Accelerometer o Where am I? Ultrasonic Vertical Camera 3/17/2016 Happy Saint Patrick’s Day! Notes: Autonomous systems: Teleoperation o Use of a machine at a distance Google’s advancement in robotics Advancements in drone software o Swarm technology Why use a robot: o Dirty, Dull, Dangerous Human Machine Systems o Human Sensory component Cognitive component Musculoskeletal component o Machine Sensor equipment CPU/ software component Airframe Humans are better at: o Sensory functions o Perceptual abilities Stimulus generalization Abstract concepts o Flexibility Ability to improvise o Judgment o Selective Recall o Inductive Reasoning o Ability to detect small amount of visual and acoustic energy o Ability to perceive patterns of light or sound o Ability to improvise and use flexible procedures o Ability to store very large amounts of information for long periods and to recall relevant facts at the appropriate time o Ability to reason inductively o Ability to exercise judgment Machines are better at : o Alertness o Brute force o Accuracy Characteristics of robots o Sensing Sound Light ultrasonic o Movement motors o Energy Battery/fuel o Intelligence Theoretical Base for Robotics Intelligence o Direct control o Supervisory control Automation Description o Lowest: humans have to make all of the decisions o Highest: the computer decides everything and acts autonomously Autonomous control o Manual control o Action control o Batch processing o Shared control o Decision support o Blended decision making o Rigid system o Automated decision making o Supervisory control o Full automation UAS Autonomy
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