Chapter 1 HTH 100
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke McGloon on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HTH 100 at James Madison University taught by Regina Prodoehl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 299 views. For similar materials see PERSONAL WELLNESS [C5W] in Nursing and Health Sciences at James Madison University.
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Health 100 Chapter 1 Accessing Your Health The amount of sleep you get every night can affect your body weight your ability to ward off colds your mood your interactions with others and your driving inadequate sleep is one of the most commonly reported impediments to academic success For people between the ages of 1544 unintentional injury is the leading cause of death Life expectancy expected number of years of life remaining at a given age such as birth 0 With vaccines and antibiotics life expectancy increased dramatically Cause of death shifted to chronic diseases heart disease cerebrovascular disease cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease 0 the average in the US is 787 years 0 Life expectancy in the US is several years below that of many other nations obesity poor access to health care poor health behaviors social inequality and poverty can all be to blame Healthy life expectancy the number of years remaining at a given age without disability chronic pain or signi cant illness Healthrelated quality of life HRQoL Assessment of impact of health status including elements of physical mental emotional and social function on overall quality of life Wellbeing Assesses the positive aspects of a person s life such as positive emotions and life satisfaction Burdens of Health Economics Obesity burdens the US health care system and the US economy overall 21 of current medical spending is on obesity Smoking excessive alcohol consumption and illegal drug use place an economic burden on our communities and society as well as bring social and emotional consequences To what extent should the public be held accountable for an individual s unhealthy choices Models of Health Medical Model A view of health in which health status focuses primarily on the individual and a biological or diseased organ or tissue perspective Prior to the 20th century Cure the individual s disease Surgery removing the diseased body part Treatment rather than prevention Public ecological Health Model Views diseases and other negative health events as a result of an individual s interaction with his or her social and physical environment Early decades of the 1900 s Recognizing poor people were victims of environmental factors over which they had little control polluted water and air a lowquality diet poor housing and unsafe work settings Of cials began to recognize and address other forces affecting human health hazardous work conditions air soil and water pollution negative in uences in the home and social environment abuse of drugs and alcohol stress unsafe behavior diet sedentary lifestyle and cost quality and access to health care Shifting focus from treatment to disease prevention World Health Organization WHO proposed a new de nition of health quotHealth is the state of complete physical mental and social well being not just the absence of disease or infirmity Emphasizing health promotion policies programs that promote behaviors known to support good health Began to engage in promotion programs that identify people who are engaging in risk behaviors Risk behaviors those that increase susceptibility to negative health outcomes Dimensions of Health 1968 Ren Dubos biologist environmentalist and philosopher de ned health as quota quality of life involving social emotional mental spiritual and biological tness on the part of the individual which results from adaptations to the environmentquot Wellness The achievement of the highest level of health possible in each of the several dimensions Physical Health the shape and size of your body how responses and acute your senses are how susceptible you are to disease and disorders general body functioning overall physical tness your body s ability to heal ability to perform activities of daily living ADLs Social Health the ability to have a broad social network and maintain satisfying interpersonal relationships with friends family members and partners being able to give and receive love and to be nurturing and supportive in social interaction successfully interacting and communicating with others adapting to various social situations and daily behaviors Intellectual Health the ability to think clearly reason objectively analyze critically and use brainpower effectively to meet life s challenges learning from successes and mistakes and making sound responsible decisions having a healthy curiosity about life and an interest in learning new things Emotional Health being able to express emotions when appropriate and to control them when not self esteem selfcon dence trust love and many other emotional reactions and responses Spiritual Health having a sense of meaning and purpose in your life believing in a supreme power or following a particular religion s rules and customs the ability to understand and express one s purpose in life to feel a part of a greater spectrum of existence to experience peace contentment and wonder over life s experiences to care about and respect all living things Environmental Health understanding how health of the environments in which you live work and play can positively or negatively affect you protecting yourself from hazards in your own environment working to preserve protect and improve environmental conditions for everyone ELLNEss NTUM 7 7 WELLNEsiPmApI M quotPir i i g I 39 Mature s Death wail MMwa PNAD 3 T Neutral Point Np discerhahle illness or wellness determinants of health The range of personal social economic and environmental factors that in uence health states Healthy people published every 10 years with goal of improving the quality and increasing the years of life for al Americans goals set for 2020 Attain highquality longer lives free of preventable diseases Achieve healthy equity eliminate disparities and improve health of all groups Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all Promote quality of life healthy development and healthy behaviors across all life stages Healthy People 2020 classi es health determinants into individual behavior biology and genetics social factors policymaking health services and health disparities Individual BehaviorBiology and Genetics Modi able determinants behaviors that are within your power to chance poor nutrition low in whole foods high in sodium processed meats and trans fats lack of physical activity excessive alcohol consumption CVD liver disease cancer motorvehicle accidents tobacco use cancer high blood pressure and respiratory disease lead to 1 in 5 deaths in American adults Nonmodi able determinants biological and genetic determinants things you cannot typically change or modify genetic disorders sickle cell disease hemophilia cystic brosis allergies asthma CVD diabetes and certain cancers age race sex ethnicity metabolic rate body structure Social Factors The social and physical conditions of the environment in which people are born or live crime violence mass media technology poverty availability of healthful foods transportation living wages social support educational orjob opportunities natural environment good lighting trees or benches state buildings homes schools workplaces exposure to toxic substance the present of physical barriers Economic Factors People who are in lower socioeconomic brackets on average have substantially shorter life expectancies and more illnesses than do people who are wealthy Lacking access to quality education from early childhood to adulthood Living in poor housing with potential exposure to asbestos lead dust mites rodents and other pests inadequate sanitation unsafe drinking water and high levels of crime Being unable to pay for nourishing food warm clothes and sturdy shoes heating and other utilities medications and medical supplies transportation counseling services tness classes Having insecure employment or being stuck in a low paying job with few bene ts Having few assets to fall back on in case of illness or injury 34 of college students report nances dif cult to handle The built environment includes anything created or modi ed by human beings buildings roads transportation systems electric transmission lines communication cables health changes for the built environment include sidewalks quotopen streetsquot free of motor traf c bike paths public transit systems supermarkets Policy making key role in protecting public health banning smoking in public places mandating seatbelt use in motor vehicles and helmets for bikes and motorcycles requiring vaccination before enrolling in classes banning cell phone use while driving Affordable Care Act ACA intended to reduce the nation s health care costs while increasing Americans access to quality care Health disparities Differences in the incidence prevalence mortality and burden or diseases and other health conditions among speci c population groups race or ethnic background Health Belief Model HBM Belief An appraisal of the relationship between some object action or idea smoking and some attribute of that object action or idea smoking is expensive dirty causes cancer etc beliefs may subtly in uence health behaviors they may or may not cause people to behave differently HBM holds that several factors must support a belief before change is likely Perceived seriousness of the health problem the more serious the perceived effects are the more likely action will occur 0 Perceived susceptibility to the health problem those who perceive themselves at high risk more likely to take preventive action Perceived bene ts Perceived barriers too expensive too difficult inconvenient time consuming o Cues to action reminders alerts emails commercials Social Cognitive Model SCM Psychologist Albert Bandura Three factors that interact in a reciprocal fashion to promote and motivate change 0 Social environment in which we live 0 Thoughts or cognition values perceptions beliefs expectations sense of self efficiency 0 Behaviors often used to design health promotion programs positive change is less likely when role models are inadequate or absent Transtheoretical Model stages of change model Drs Prochaska and DiClemente Eventual change stages do not necessarily go sequentially o Precontemplation no current intention of changing o Contemplation recognize the problem amp begin to contemplate the need of change this stage can go on for years w out time amp energy 0 Preparation close to taking action thought about and may have come up with a plan 0 Action 0 Maintenance continues action and works towards making permanent important to be aware of relapses and develop strategies for dealing with such challenges 0 Termination behavior is ingrained now essential part of daily living How to improve your health behaviors Increase your awareness become knowledgeable in what you want to change and take stock of the health determinants in your life Contemplate change 0 Examine your current health habits and patterns stopping at Dunkin Donuts daily smoking constantly going to bed late o Predisposing factors ex kids are more likely to smoke if they have parents that smoke rather than parents who don t smoke o Enabling factors peers who smoke enable one another s smoking 0 Reinforcing factors can support or undermine your effort to change smoking friends when you want to stop smoking 0 Identifying the factors that encourage or discourage a habit is part of contemplating behavior change 0 Identify a Target behavior your ultimate goal or desire the change that is the greatest priority at the time and why it is important 0 Learn more about the Target behavior 0 Access your motivation and your readiness to change motivation is a social and cognitive force that directs your behavior motivation has to be combined with common sense commitment and a realistic understanding of how best to move from point A to B o Readiness the state of being that precedes behavior change 0 Develop selfef ciency An individual s belief that he or she is capable of achieving certain goals or performing at a level that may in uence events in life one of the most important factors of in uencing health status 0 Cognitive restructuring The modi cation of thoughts ideas and beliefs that contribute to stress helps to develop self efficiency 0 Cultivate and Internal Locus of Control the conviction that you have the power and ability to change is a powerful motivator people who have internal locus of control believe they have the power over their own actions driven by their own thoughts and are more likely to state their opinions and be true to their own beliefs ex resisting a friends pressure to smoke peope who have external locus of control believe they have NO control over a situation or others control what they do they easily succumb to feelings of anxiety and disempowerment and give up they are likely to suffer more signi cant symptoms of psychiatric illness following a natural disaster military service or other traumatic experience ex nds out diabetes runs in the family and resigns himself to facing the disease one day instead of taking an active role in modifying his lifestyle to minimize his risk for developing the disease Prepare for change set a realistic goal anticipate barriers reach out to others and commit 0 SMART goals Speci c attend a Tuesday aerobics class Measurable reduce alcohol intake on Sat night from 3 drinks to 2 Action oriented volunteer at animal shelter on Fridays Realistic Increase my family walk from 15 mins to 20 Time oriented stay in my strength class for the full 10 week session 0 Use shaping A stepwise process of making a series of small changes 0 Anticipate Barriers to Change Overambitious goals be realistic Selfdefeating beliefs and attitudes too young t or lucky Failure to accurately assess your current state of wellness realistic Lack of support and guidance peers who drink heavy when you want to cut down Emotions that sabotage your efforts and sap your will having a bad day ghting with someone distraction o Enlist others as change agents Modeling learning from role models and their change key component of the social cognitive model of change family members friends professionals 0 Sign a contract a formal behavior change contract is a promise to yourself a public declaration of intent and an organized plan that lays out start and end dates and daily actions also with a listing off possible barriers Take action 0 Visualize new behavior mental practice Imagined rehearsal a careful mental and verbal rehearsal of how you intend to act helps anticipate problems and improve likelihood of success 0 Learn to quotcounterquot substituting a desired behavior for an undesirable one 0 Control the situation Antecedents the aspects of the situation that come beforehand these cue or stimulate a person to act in certain ways Consequences the results of behavior Situational inducement Attempts to in uence a behavior though situations and occasions that are structured to exert control over that behavior once you have recognized the antecedents of a behavior you can employ situational inducement to modify those that are working against you 0 Change your SelfTalk Selftalk the customary manner of thinking and talking to yourself which can affect your selfimage Make it more positive and rational o Reward Yourself Positive reinforcement presenting something positive following a behavior that is being reinforced Consumable reinforcers edible items such as your favorite fruit or snack Activity reinforcers opportunities to do something enjoyable going on a hike taking a trip Manipulative reinforcers incentives such as getting lower rent in exchange for mowing the lawn or the promise of a better grade for doing an extracredit project Possessanal reinforcers tangible rewards a new electronic gadget sports car Social reinforcers signs of appreciation approval love such as loving looks affectionate hugs and praise Difficulty with employing positive reinforcers is determining which incentive will be most effective Extrinsic rewards reinforcers that may come from others Intrinsic rewards rewards or reinforcers given to yourself from yourself 0 Journal