Popular in U.S Government
Popular in Statistics
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke McGloon on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POSC 225 at James Madison University taught by Jennifer Byrne in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see U.S Government in Statistics at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
POSC 225 Chapter 2 Americans Have deep roots in a variety of diverse and sometime con icting traditions Share a common set of values attitudes and beliefs political culture American political culture Representative democracy and capitalism Rule of law in resolving dispute and determining political winnerslosers Compromise Electing representatives Liberty and opportunity over equal outcome There is a sense of acceptance and pride in the American system Alex de Tocqueville o Wrote Democracy in America Said America was a nation ofjoiners 0 Americans tend to join groups more frequently and more widely than people in other nations Allows and teaches one to be more tolerant Immigration 0 America has numerous subcultures causing governing the country to be a challenge 0 The changing face of diversity causes change in political culture and politics 0 Just about everybody comes from someplace else 0 First waves of immigration came from the British Isles 0 Many Irish immigrants were catholic adding religious mix to an overwhelmingly protestant nation 0 Immigrant groups in order of migration Germany Scandinavians Norwegians and Swedes Italians Eastern Europeans Russians and Hungarians Poles 0 Immigration brought Jews 1900 sIots of antisemitism Russian orthodox and other nonprotestants o By virtue of their numbers modi ed the cultural and political landscape 0 Every generation of immigrants strived for the quotAmerican Dreamquot Todays Immigrants From Latin American and Asia largest sources Mexico amp China 0 Asians fastest growing migrating group Hispanics until 2012 o Hispanics largest minority group The quotKnowNothing movement 20 years Nativist Protestants opposed to the foreign contaminating in uences of Roman Catholics secret societies formed like quotThe Order of the StarSpangled Bannerquot to combat citizenship for Irish immigrants quotClosethebordersquot against Latinos Diversity census required by the Constitution to be taken every 10 years everyone in the country is supposed to be counted South Southwest and portions of the Northeast are the most diverse regions of the country States and regions with greater diversity are likely to voice different concerns and interests than states and regions with less diversity Scientists can estimate future numbers from the census but if immigration or birth rates should change the estimates could be off Liberalism and Conservatism Liberalism Active role for government in social and economic problems Spending money on government programs social security welfare Stay out of matters that they consider to be of moral nature abortion school prayer African Americans are more likely to express the liberal position African Americans are more likely to support government solutions to social problems and Democratic candidates for public office Women usually hold more liberal positions on social issues than men Conservatism Power of the marketplace Limited role for government power Suspicious of government programs Less involvement in and less money spent on government programs Instead put toward free enterprise Welfare can undermine the individual initiative Orient the government program welfare toward getting people to nd jobs Older Cuban Americans can be quite conservative Migration As large numbers of people move around with the US politics is inevitably affected Industrialization brought massive movement toward urban centers late 1800 searly 1900 s political attention turned toward urban development transportation sanitation labor laws Two politically meaningful populations shifts the Midwest and Northeast to the South and Southwest AND from the cities to the suburbs No longer a young age Average life expectancy women80 men75 As 1940 s1960 s Baby Boom generation ages Iots of old people political attention is paid to health care matters 768 million people will reach age 62 and qualify for social security will reach 65 and qualify for medicare services 2030 1 in 5 US residents will be 65 or older 2050 will double in numbers since 2008 and number of people 85 and older expected to triple Skepticism among older voters was largest roadblocks to Obama s health care plan Political Socialization the process that shapes our individual awareness of and relationship to politics Young kids will have a limited cognitive or factual understanding of the president their relationship to the president will be highly affective or emotional Today kids have a more negative feeling towards the president which could be from the greater negative media coverage of the president or the access to the Internet at a younger age Children using the Internet has changed patterns of socialization Cynicism traditionally develop during adolescence Agents of socialization Parents and siblings friends teachers and school coworkers and job the media Political socialization plays out over a long period of time Family and friends 0 kids learn about politics from their parents and siblings o a primary agent of socialization o strongest relationship between parents and kids tends to be on the general level of party identi cation o If parents do not have the same party identi cation the child is equally likely to be Republican or Democrat 0 Peer groups and friends are interpersonal which allow them to be a primary agent of socialization Schools 0 A good source of political information and a fairly direct agent of political socialization 0 Exposure to political symbols and engaging in patriotic rituals works to develop a national identity making the classroom a subtle but important source of political socialization o A secondary agent of socialization Media 0 A secondary agent of socialization 0 Hard to make good judgment on what is factual and what is simply opinion Selective exposure The tendency to pay attention to messages that are consistent with existing attitudes or beliefs while overlooking messages that con ict with them we re more likely to pay attention to or believe media messages that reinforce our existing attitudes while ignoring others Selective perception An unconscious process by which we lter information that we deem irrelevant uninteresting or inconsistent with our attitudes and beliefs while absorbing information that conforms to our selfperception Agenda Setting The tendency for topics given great weight by the media to be given equally great weight by those who use the media such that the people and events considered important by those who determine media coverage will become the people and events that the pubic considers important in uences what we think about Generational effects people living during the Great Depression Vietnam War Baby boomers Life cycle effects The emergence of a kind of practical outlook on things when people acquire jobs families and the other trappings of middle age The older we get the less open we become to political and social changes Political Participation The range of activities people can engage in to in uence the political process While voting is the most commonly performed political act participation encompasses a host of things voting talking about politics contacting officials wearing buttons giving money working for a candidate going to political meetings protesting especially uncommon among young adults involvement in political activities is less than it was a generation ago with sharp declines in the percentage of people who VOTE Civil disobedience A peaceful means of protest whereby individuals draw attention to laws they consider unjust by disobeying them and being arrested for their actions Martin Luther King Rosa Parks Protesting Has been seen since the Boston Tea Party prior to the Revolution Shay s Rebellion during the Articles of Confederation individuals who opposed Obama s health care plan Vietnam War
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