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# Chapter 1, psychology 101/102. "Thinking Critically with Pschological Science" PSY 101

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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Idenu on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Louisiana Tech University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Louisiana Tech University.

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Date Created: 09/26/15

PSY 102 CHAPTER 1 THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE INTUITION This is an effortless immediate automatic feeling or thought as contrasted with explicit reasoning Albert Einstein said quotThe only real valuable thing is intuition HANDSIGHT BIAS This is the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it It is the l knewitallalong phenomenon Hindsight Bias Example An individual notices that outside it s beginning to look a little bit gray He says to himself I bet that it s going to rain this afternoon When it actually does rain the individual tells himself that he was certain that it would when he saw the clouds rolling in earlier Hindsight Bias Example You are nervous to take an exam for which you waited to study until the very last minute When you take the exam you feel unsure about the results however when your grade comes back a 8 you exclaim to your friends quotI was sure that I d aced that exam and actually believe it in hindsight Certain factors support tendency for hindsight bias Selective recall Need for closure Three levels to hindsight bias Memory distorlon I said it would happen Inevitability It had to happen Foreseeability I knew it would happen Problems If you knew it all along you will not examine why it happened Make us overconfident in our own judgments Solutions Consider the opposite Consider and explain alternalve outcomes Overconfidence We humans tend to think we know more than we do we tend to be more confident than correct I In our natural eagerness to make sense of our world we perceive patterns I Hindsight bias overconfidence and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events often lead us to overestimate our intuition Scientific Attitude 0 Helps us sift through hindsight bias overconfidence and perceive patterns to reality 1 Curiosity 2 Skeplcism 3 Humility Critical Thinking In whatever subfield and in whatever setting psychologists seek to maintain a scientific attitude Examines assumptions Appraises the source Discerns hidden values Evaluates evidence Assesses conclusions SCIENTIFIC METHOD 0 Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behavior or events 0 Hypothesis A testable prediclon often by a theory 0 Operational Definition a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures operalons used in a research study How would you operalonally define love What is intelligence 0 Replication repeating the essence of a research study usually with different parlcipants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other parlcipants and circumstances Empirical Evidence Evidence gained and verified through objective observation measurement and experimentation Case Study Examines one individual or social unit in depth in the hope that the findings can be generalized Survey asking people to respond in depth to a series of questions or to report on their behavior Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behaviors as it occurs in its natural setting PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS To observe and record behavior To detect naturally occurring relationships to assess how well one variable predicts another To explore cause and effect Correlation A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other Positive correlations indicate that two factors increase or decrease together A 100 Negative correlations indicate that as one factor increases the other decreases A 100 Regression toward the mean the tendency for extreme or unusual scores or events to fall back regress toward the average EXPERIMENTATION Experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors independent variables to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process the dependent variable By random assignment of participants the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors Experimental group in an experiment the group exposed to the treatment that is to one version of the independent variable Control group in an experiment the group not exposed to the treatment contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evalualng the effect of the treatment Random assignment assigning parlcipants to experimental and control groups by chance thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups Confounding variables in an experiment a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect Doubleblind procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research parlcipants and the research staff are ignorant blind about whether the research parlcipants have received the treatment or a placebo Commonly used in drugevaluation studies Placebo effect experimental results caused by expectalons alone any effect on behavior caused by the administralon of an inert substance or condilon which the recipient assumes is an aclve agent In an experiment participants are randomly assigned into experimental and control groups which are then subject to independent and dependent variables ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH Informed consent must be given and participation must be voluntary Students may not be coerced into research participation Deception can be employed only under certain conditions Personal information about research participants must remain confidential Information about the study must be provided to participants who should also be debriefed STARTISTICS A branch of mathematics used by researchers to organize summarize and interpret data We use statistics both to describe data and as a basis for inferring information from data Statistics are often presented in a graphic or visual form DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Mathematical methods used to organize and summarize or describe data Frequency Distribution is a summary of how often various scores occur in a sample of scores Score values are arranged in order of magnitude and the number of occurrences is recorded The simplest representation ofa frequency distribution is a table A frequency polygon is a graphic representation of frequency distribution using points connected by straight lines It is also known as a line graph A histogram is a graphic representation of frequency distribution using vertical bars It is also known as a bar chart MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY The most frequently occurring score in the distribution The score that divides a frequency distribution exactly in half The same number of scores fall above and below the median The sum of a set of scores in a distribution divided by the number of scores The mean is also known as the average Descriptive statistics Frequency polygons quickly show if the shape of a distribution is skewed or asymmetrical In a skewed distribution more scores occur on one side of the distribulon than the other Polygon shows a negative skew more scores are at the higher end of the scale Polygon shows a positive skew more scores are at the lower end of the scale Variability Information about the spread of the scores in a distribution These distributions have the same mean but different variability the scores are spread out differently Measuring Variabilitv The Normal Curve I A theoretical distribution that is symmetrical with the mean median and mode all falling at the exact middle of the distribution Sometimes called a quotbell curve or a standard normal curve distribution Range the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution Standard Deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Normal curve a symmetrical bellshaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data most scores fall near the mean about 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it and fewer and fewer near the extremes INFERENTIAL STATISTICS Mathematical methods used to draw conclusions about a population based on a sample of data In psychology inferential statistics are used to determine the likelihood of a study s outcome being due to chance or to real differences Statistical significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance The ability to make inferential statistics and the scope of the inferences depend on the population a complete set of something people nonhuman animals objects events and sample a subset of the population of the subject under study INFERENTIAL ERRORS Type I error Erroneously concluding that study results are significant Type II error Failing to find a significant effect that does in fact exist PSY 102 CHAPTER 1 THINKING CRITICALLY WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE INTUITION This is an effortless immediate automatic feeling or thought as contrasted with explicit reasoning Albert Einstein said quotThe only real valuable thing is intuition HANDSIGHT BIAS This is the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it It is the l knewitallalong phenomenon Hindsight Bias Example An individual notices that outside it s beginning to look a little bit gray He says to himself I bet that it s going to rain this afternoon When it actually does rain the individual tells himself that he was certain that it would when he saw the clouds rolling in earlier Hindsight Bias Example You are nervous to take an exam for which you waited to study until the very last minute When you take the exam you feel unsure about the results however when your grade comes back a 8 you exclaim to your friends quotI was sure that I d aced that exam and actually believe it in hindsight Certain factors support tendency for hindsight bias Selective recall Need for closure Three levels to hindsight bias Memory distorlon I said it would happen Inevitability It had to happen Foreseeability I knew it would happen Problems If you knew it all along you will not examine why it happened Make us overconfident in our own judgments Solutions Consider the opposite Consider and explain alternalve outcomes Overconfidence We humans tend to think we know more than we do we tend to be more confident than correct I In our natural eagerness to make sense of our world we perceive patterns I Hindsight bias overconfidence and our tendency to perceive patterns in random events often lead us to overestimate our intuition Scientific Attitude 0 Helps us sift through hindsight bias overconfidence and perceive patterns to reality 1 Curiosity 2 Skeplcism 3 Humility Critical Thinking In whatever subfield and in whatever setting psychologists seek to maintain a scientific attitude Examines assumptions Appraises the source Discerns hidden values Evaluates evidence Assesses conclusions SCIENTIFIC METHOD 0 Theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behavior or events 0 Hypothesis A testable prediclon often by a theory 0 Operational Definition a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures operalons used in a research study How would you operalonally define love What is intelligence 0 Replication repeating the essence of a research study usually with different parlcipants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other parlcipants and circumstances Empirical Evidence Evidence gained and verified through objective observation measurement and experimentation Case Study Examines one individual or social unit in depth in the hope that the findings can be generalized Survey asking people to respond in depth to a series of questions or to report on their behavior Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behaviors as it occurs in its natural setting PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH METHODS To observe and record behavior To detect naturally occurring relationships to assess how well one variable predicts another To explore cause and effect Correlation A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts the other Positive correlations indicate that two factors increase or decrease together A 100 Negative correlations indicate that as one factor increases the other decreases A 100 Regression toward the mean the tendency for extreme or unusual scores or events to fall back regress toward the average EXPERIMENTATION Experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors independent variables to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process the dependent variable By random assignment of participants the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors Experimental group in an experiment the group exposed to the treatment that is to one version of the independent variable Control group in an experiment the group not exposed to the treatment contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evalualng the effect of the treatment Random assignment assigning parlcipants to experimental and control groups by chance thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups Confounding variables in an experiment a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect Doubleblind procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research parlcipants and the research staff are ignorant blind about whether the research parlcipants have received the treatment or a placebo Commonly used in drugevaluation studies Placebo effect experimental results caused by expectalons alone any effect on behavior caused by the administralon of an inert substance or condilon which the recipient assumes is an aclve agent In an experiment participants are randomly assigned into experimental and control groups which are then subject to independent and dependent variables ETHICS IN PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH Informed consent must be given and participation must be voluntary Students may not be coerced into research participation Deception can be employed only under certain conditions Personal information about research participants must remain confidential Information about the study must be provided to participants who should also be debriefed STARTISTICS A branch of mathematics used by researchers to organize summarize and interpret data We use statistics both to describe data and as a basis for inferring information from data Statistics are often presented in a graphic or visual form DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Mathematical methods used to organize and summarize or describe data Frequency Distribution is a summary of how often various scores occur in a sample of scores Score values are arranged in order of magnitude and the number of occurrences is recorded The simplest representation ofa frequency distribution is a table A frequency polygon is a graphic representation of frequency distribution using points connected by straight lines It is also known as a line graph A histogram is a graphic representation of frequency distribution using vertical bars It is also known as a bar chart MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY The most frequently occurring score in the distribution The score that divides a frequency distribution exactly in half The same number of scores fall above and below the median The sum of a set of scores in a distribution divided by the number of scores The mean is also known as the average Descriptive statistics Frequency polygons quickly show if the shape of a distribution is skewed or asymmetrical In a skewed distribution more scores occur on one side of the distribulon than the other Polygon shows a negative skew more scores are at the higher end of the scale Polygon shows a positive skew more scores are at the lower end of the scale Variability Information about the spread of the scores in a distribution These distributions have the same mean but different variability the scores are spread out differently Measuring Variabilitv The Normal Curve I A theoretical distribution that is symmetrical with the mean median and mode all falling at the exact middle of the distribution Sometimes called a quotbell curve or a standard normal curve distribution Range the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution Standard Deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Normal curve a symmetrical bellshaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data most scores fall near the mean about 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it and fewer and fewer near the extremes INFERENTIAL STATISTICS Mathematical methods used to draw conclusions about a population based on a sample of data In psychology inferential statistics are used to determine the likelihood of a study s outcome being due to chance or to real differences Statistical significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance The ability to make inferential statistics and the scope of the inferences depend on the population a complete set of something people nonhuman animals objects events and sample a subset of the population of the subject under study INFERENTIAL ERRORS Type I error Erroneously concluding that study results are significant Type II error Failing to find a significant effect that does in fact exist

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