GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY [C5SD]
GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY [C5SD] GPSYC 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Jose Keebler on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GPSYC 101 at James Madison University taught by David Daniel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see /class/213986/gpsyc-101-james-madison-university in OTHER at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
p I I I r 39 g branchofr 39 throughout the life span 0 concerned with physical cognitive and social change Zygote developing prenatal organism from about 2 weeks through 2 months after conception formed from the inner cells of the zygote Fetus developing prenatal human from 9 weeks after conception to birth Teratogens literally Poisons are any agents such as chemicals and viruses that can cross the mother s placenta and harm the developing embryo or fetus Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS Refers to the physical and cognitive abnormalities that heavy drinking by a pregnant woman may cause in the developing child Maturation refers to the biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior relatively uninfluenced by experience or other environmental factors Cognition refers to all the mental processes associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating Schemas mental concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret information in Piaget s theory of cognitive development Assimilation Refers to interpreting a new experience in terms of an existing schema according to Piaget s theory Accommodation Refers to changing an existing schema to incorporate new information that cannot be assimilated Sensorimotor Stage n Piaget s theory of cognitive stages lasts from birth to nearly age 2 During this stage infants gain knowledge of the world through their senses and their motor activities Object Permanence Develops during the sensorimotor stage is the awareness that things do not cease to exist when not perceived Preoperational stage Lasts from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age in Piaget s theory During this stage language development is rapid but the child is unable to understand the mental operations of concrete logic Conservation the principle that properties such as number volume and mass remain constant despite changes in the forms of objects it is acquired during the concrete operational stage Egocentrism n Piaget s Theory refers to the difficulty that preoperational children have in considering another s viewpoint Theory of Mind Our ideas about our own and others thoughts feelings and perceptions and the behaviors these might predict Autism A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication social interaction and understanding of others states of mind Concrete Operational Stage Lasts from about ages 6 or 7 to 11 Children can think logically about concrete events and objects Formal Operation Stage n Piaget s theory normally begins about age 12 During this stage people begin to think logically about abstract concepts Stranger Anxiety The fear of strangers that infants begin to display at about 8 months of age Attachment An emotional tie with another person shown in young children by their seeking closeness to a caregiver and showing distress on separation Critical Period Limited time shortly after birth during which an organism must be exposed to certain stimuli or experiences if it is to develop properly Imprinting The process by which certain animals form attachments during a limited critical period early in life Basic Trust According to Erikson it is a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy a concept that infants form if their needs are by responsive caregiving Adolescence Refers to the life stage from puberty to independent adulthood denoted physically by a growth spurt and maturation of primary and secondary sex characteristics cognitively by the onset of formal operational thought and socially by the formation of identity Puberty The early adolescent period of sexual maturation during which a person becomes capable of reproducing Primary Sex Characteristics Body structures Overies testes and external genitalia that enable reproduction Secondary Sex Characteristics The nonreproductive sexual characteristics breasts male voice quality body hair Menarche First menstrual period Identity One s sense of self According to Erikson it is the primary task of adolescence Social Identity Refers to person s selfconcept as defined by the groups to which he or she belongs Intimacy Ability to establish close loving relationships Primary task of adolescence and early adulthood according to Erikson Emerging Adulthood Period from age 18 to the midtwenties when many young people are not yet fully independent Wysocki PSYCHOLOGY 101 FINAL REVIEWFALL 2010 CLASS NOTES CHAPTER 5 DEVELOPMENT Bonding critical period only has a certain amount of time to occur child contribution no bonding from child s point ofview mother contribution if she fully believes in bonding process may be overbearing Theories of attachment Psychoanalytic Freud Learning Skinner Contact Comfort Harlow Ethological Bowlby Attachment Classifications Secure attachment gets upset when mom leavesfeels better w return Av0idant attachment doesn t get too upset when mom leavesstill fine w return early daycare Ambivalentresistant attachment child actually resists comfort w return clingy amp angry Erikson Psychological crisis model 3 components of identity crisis disagreed w Freud s over emphasis on sex quest to be unique focused on individual amp society continuity of experience w past superego theory solidarity w group ideas Trust vs Mistrust birth 9 1 yr Autonomy vs shamedoubt 1 9 3 yrs Initiative vs guilt complete goals 39 6 yrs Industry vs Inferiority perfect 6 9 12 yrs latent Identity vs role confusion career 12 9 19 yrs Intimacy vs Isolation sharing 19 925 yrs Gerativity vs Stagnation 25 9 50 yrs Ego Integrity vs Despair 50 9 older accept life Prenatal Development Germinal Stage fertilization 9 2 weeks create zygote fertilize egg cell division im lantation into uterine wall Embryonic Stage 2 9 8 weeks construction of support structures placenta cord sac development of body structures heart brain lungs respiratorynervous system Fetal Stage 8 weeks 9 birth finishing touches growth refinement Age ofViability 22 9 28 weeks has the chance to live outside host r 1 effects on prenatal fetal alc syndrome Alc is 1 teratogen in Western World timing type of teratogen different types will affect different things amount of drugs or alc genetic vulnerability maternal weight gainage Adolescence transitional stage between child amp adulthood puberty period of rapid physical growth associated w adolescence sexual maturity adult heightweight menarchyspermarchy lSt period lSt wet dream secular trend lowering of age at which young people reach adult heightweightmaturity CHAPTER 9 THINKING LANGUAGE INTELLIGENCE Problem solving methods Algorithms rules that you follow always leading to an answer Framing way an issue is presented Solving a problem understand it generate hypothesis test it draw conclusions Con rmation Bias actively looking for things that make you seem right BeliefPerseverance ignoring things that don t reinforce or tries to make you change your mind Anchoring Heuristic the offer you provide Ex When you receive lower than sticker price on buying a car you think you re getting a good deal Functional Fixedness see something one way while solving a problem can t see it any other way Conjunction Fallacy when people estimate the odds of 2 uncertain events happening together are greater than the events happening alone Types of tests Achievement things you ALREADY know Aptitude detect FUTURE behaviors prediction on POTENTIAL Steinberg s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Componential analytical abstract processingefficient info processing school smart Experiential creativity ability to combine unrelated facts Contextual practical maximize strengthscompensate for weaknesses street smart CHAPTER 13 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS Dissociative Disorders awareness is separated from self dissociative identity disorder multiple personality disorder Personalig Disorders enduring pattern of inner experience Stable personality traits that differ from everyone else enduring in exible socially maladaptive Antisocial no sense of guilt or conscious when harming someone usually charmingmanipulative Mood Disorders Boys act out Girls act in gtAggression gtDepression Depression is less severe than major depressive disorder 1 stressful experience 9 2 Negative explanatory style 9 3 Depressed mood 9 4 Cognitivebehavior changes Bipolar lt gt depression normal mania you think weird ideas will work amp you can do anything Attribution style amp depression Intemalexternal you suckboss sucks Stabletemporary attribution never changesyou just had a bad day Schizophrenia high genetic component split mind disorganized delusional inappropriate feelings strange bizarre thoughts not coinciding w realim split bw real and imagination internalexternal cognitive thinking disorganized thoughts language difficulty concentratingfollowing instructions difficulty completing tasks memory problems lt 0 gt LESS OF SOMETHING MORE OF SOMETHING apathy lack of emotion no hallucinations visual social functioning can t shake tactile auditory delusions handsmake eye contact racing thoughts Word salad words get all mixed up in thought or speaking Catatonia stereotypical movement or no movement Paranoia afraid something will happen Delusions of grandeur thinking they are someone else CHAPTER 14 THERAPY Biological In uences 6 9 Psychological In uences Personality SocialCultural In uences Humanism in 1960 s free will human potential movement emphasis on growth amp reaching own potential Maslow amp Rogers Humanistic approach focus on mental capabilities that set humans apart from other animals Self awareness creativity planning deciscion making responsibility important to understand how a person views the world behavior motivated mainly by innate drive to growth that prompts people to fulfill their unique potential MASLOW S HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS self fulfillment Self actualization 7 achieving self potential psychological needs Esteem 7 that you re important in the world psychological needs Love needs 7 social interactions basic needs Safety needs 7protection securi basic needs Physiological needs 7 food shelter clothes Maslow s ideas most people are controlled by defiency orientation looking down the pyramid growth orientation leads to satisfaction may not be the best but allows you to look up the pyramid Roger s selftheory Actualizing tendency innate inclination toward growth amp fulfillment that motivates human behavior expressed in a unique way by each individual Personality shaped by actualizing tendency amp evaluations made by others Personality theory9 positive regard people s opinions on you Conditional positive regard nothing is ever good enough until you earn someone s respect Self regards self does not equal ideals not genuine Ashame guilt try to live up to Self does not equal shoulds hard for you to achieve selfactualization Client centered therapy focus is on creation of relationship unconditional positive regard treatment of client as a valued person empathy see world through their eyes active listening tools paraphrasing inviting clari cation re ection of possible posture intonation How you say it Behavior therapy emphasis is on helping patients view psychological problems as learned behaviors Goal retrain techniques systematic desensitization get someone close to their fear modeling leams desirable behavior by watching assertive amp social skills training client taught to interact more comfortably amp effectively positive reinforcement extinction remove reinforcers that follow particular response ooding block routes to escape but one in situation w fear amp to stop rewarding escape punishment aversive conditioning associate physicalpsychological discomfort w undesired behavior Cognitive Behavior therapy learning principals that change how you think not your behavior Evaluationg psychoactive drug treatments there are ethic amp sex differences in response to drug treatment potential problems drug may only mask the problem or cause addictionabuse When are patients most likely to commit suicide When getting BETTER from depression Social Psychology Conformity Obedience yielding to real or imagined pressure control of mass Asch subject went along w group focus on self ego for 37 of trails doing what you re told bc of authority In room filling w smoke 90 Milgram Germans aren t evil they obey of participants stayed People do most damage to others in social groups shocks Attributions in uences that people make about the causes of events other people s behavior or their own Fundamental attribution error observes bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining other people s behavior Self serving bias tendency to attribute your own success to internal causes amp your failure to situational ones Self effacing bias tendency to attribute one s success to external factors amp failures to intemal ones 3 components of attitude cognitive beliefs what you think affective emotions how you feel behavioral actions what you do How to change attitude Fear repetition channeling Techniques to persuade reciprocation someone will give you something before they ask for something scarcity things that are scarce are more attractive desirable authority follow lead of legit expertauthority commitment once we take a stand willing to say yes to consistent commitments liking willing to do more for friendsloved ones ex Tupper wear party consensus willing to say yes to request if people are near conformitybandwagon QM P NH RANDOM SHIT TO KNOW FROM TEST 3 Psychoanalytic perspective example if Joe remains depressed after a break up w his gf who reminds him of his dead mother stage theories regard development as discontinuous if depressed amp nondepressed people receive similar grades on a diagnostics tests suggests it s not valid Ex Of reaction range in many traits of genetics do not set exact backgrounds they suggest range ofpossible expressions depending upon environmental conditions measure of adult head size is likely to have a mgh level of reliability amp low level ofvalidity according to psychoanalytic perspective anxiety is sometimes produced by the submerged mental energy associated w repressed impulses credible explanations for the secular trend include better medical care amp nutrition according to Piaget cognitive growth is promoted in search for cognitive equilibrium Ex Of Representitive Heurisitc ken is 6 6 and people automatically assume he s on the bball team uni ed capacity theories of intelligence argue that intelligence is one thing but can only be viewed by measuring multiple correlated attributes Ex of con rmation bias people see carjacking as more serious than failing to use seatbelts bc carjacking is more memorable Ex of aptitude test test to see capacity to leam to program computers Harlow s experiements systematically demonstrated need for comfort food During middle amp early adult hood crystallized intelligence increases amp uid decreases Ex of Holophrase using the word more to mean I want another cookie Ex of social cogn perspective women are more vulnerable to depression bc of leamed helplessness Ex of selffulfilling prophecies if individuals expect someone labeled as mentally ill to be hostile they may act unfriendly which causes hostility RANDOM SHIT TO KNOW FROM ONLlNE QUIZZES Erikson trust is to infancy as identity is to adolescence relationship bw intelligence test scores amp school grades are assessed by predictive validity availability heuristic our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event in terms of how readily instances of it s occurrence are remem ere heritability of intelligence refers to the of variation in intelligence wl a group that s attributable to genetic factors depression is associated w low epinephrine levels amp low serotonin during adolescence maturation of the frontal loves lags behind that of the limbic system DSM lVTR is most likely criticized for classifying an excessively broad range ofhuman behaviors as psychologically disordered children understand the world primarily by observing the effects of their own actions on other people objects amp events during the sensorimotor stage authoritarian parenting style parent imposes rules amp expects obedience permissive parenting parents ubmit to children s desires authoritative parenting both demanding and responsive MORALITIES preconventional before age 9 focuses on self interest obey rules either to avoid punishmentgain concrete rewards conventional early adolescense morality focuses on caring for others amp upholding laws amp social rules postconventional w abstract reasoning of formal operational thought people may reach a 3ml moral level Actions are judged right bc they ow from people s rights or from selfdefined basic ethical principals
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