GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY [C5SD]
GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY [C5SD] GPSYC 101
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 1 Naturenurture issue the controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience to the development of our traits and behaviors Nurture works on what nature endows Biopsychosocial approach considers the influences of biological psychological and socialcultural factors Each level provides a valuable vantage point for looking at behavior and is an integrated viewpoint that incorporates various levels ofanalysis and offers a more complete picture ofany given behavior or mental process Correlation the extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well either factor predicts the other 0 Positive correlation between 0 and 100 indicates a direct relationship meaning that two things increase together or decrease together 0 Negative correlation between 0 and 100 indicates an inverse relationship meaning that as one thing increases the other decreases Clinical Psychology a branch of psychology that studies assesses and treats people with psychological disorders Psychiatm a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical drug treatments as well as psychological therapy Chapter 2 Chapter 3 O Plasticim the brain s ability to modify itselfafter some types of damage The brains ability to change especially during childhood by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience Spilt brain a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain s two hemispheres by cutting the fibers mainly those ofthe corpus callosum connecting them Neurotransmitter chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons When released by the sending neuron neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse Consciousness our awareness ofour environment and ourselves Sleep apnea a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings stop breathing while sleeping Hypnosis the social interaction in which one person the hypnotist suggests to another person the subject that certain perceptions feelings thoughts or behaviors will spontaneously occur Dissociation a split in consciousness which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others A split between different levels ofconsciousness as vivid form ofeveryday mind splits Physical dependence a psychological need to use a drug such as to relieve negative emotions as the body responds to the drug s absence the user may feel physical pain and intense cravings Tolerance having continued use ofalcohol and other psychoactive produces a tolerance the diminishing effect with regular use ofthe same dose of a drug requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug s effects Withdrawal the discomfort and distress that follows discontinuing the use ofan addictive drug Chapter 4 Environment every nongenetic in uence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us External influences nurture that defines us Temperamen a person s characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity Heredity predisposes one quickly apparent aspect of personality or emotional excitability Seems to be biologically based and tends to remain stable throughout life Evolutionam psychology the study ofthe roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection understanding human nature lndividualism giving priority to one s own goals over group goals and defining one s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification North America Western Europe Australia or New Zealand Collectivism giving priority to group goals often those of the extended family or work group and de ning one s identity accordingly Group identification can provide a sense ofbelonging a set ofvalues and loyal friends China South Korea Middle East Gender role a set of expected behaviors for males or for females Our expectations about the way men and women should behave Gender typing the acquisition ofa traditional masculine or feminine role Social learning theom the theory that we learn social behaviors by observing and intimidating and by being rewarded or punished assumes that children learn genderlinked behaviors by this Chapter 5 Attachment an emotional tie with another personal shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver or showing distress in separation A powerful survival impulse Critical periods an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking knowing and remembering and communicating Chapter 6 Sensation the process by which out sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment Perception the process oforganizing and interpreting sensory information enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events Chapter 7 Classical conditioning a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Pavlov Unconditioned response the unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus such as salivation when food is in the mouth Conditioned response the learned response to a previously neutral but now conditioned stimulus Conditioned stimulus a previously neutral stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response Operant conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened iffollowed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher Skinner Positive reinforcement increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli such as food A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the response 0 Term 0 Description I 0 Example Positive Reinforcement Add a desirable stimulus Getting a hug receiving a paycheck Negative reinforcement increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response IT IS NOT A PUNISHMENT 0 Term 0 Description I 0 Exam le Negative Reinforcement Remove an aversive stimulus Fastening seatbelt to turn off beeping Observational learning learning by observing and intimidating others Modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior 0 Mirror neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so The brains mirroring ofanother s action may enable imitation and empathy whose activity provides a neural basis for imitation and observational learning Chapter 8 o Memom the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information o Encoding the processing of information into the memory system for example extracting meaning Getting memory into our brain Storage the retention ofencoded information over time Retrieval the process of getting information out of memory storage M a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier as on a fill in the blank test 0 Recognition a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned as on a multiplechoice test Chapter 9 o Cognition all of the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating Protompe a mental image or best example ofa category Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird such as a robin o Heuristic a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms Confirmation bias a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence 0 Linguistic determinism Whorf s hypothesis that language determines the way we think different languages impose different conceptions of reality Chapter 10 0 Motivation a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it towards a goal lncentive a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior to lure or repel us Anorexia an eating disorder in which a person diets and becomes signi cantly 15 of more undeniveight yet still feeling fat continues to starve o Bulimia an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating usually of high calorie foods followed by vomiting laxative use fasting or excessive exercising Chapter 11 o Catharsis emotional release the catharsis hypothesis maintains that releasing aggressive energy through action or fantasy relieves aggressive urges 0 Type A Freidman and Rosenman s term for competitive hard driving impatient verbally aggressive and anger prone people 0 Type B Freidman and Rosenman s term for easygoing relaxed people Chapter 12 c Free Association in psychoanalysis a method ofexploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing Freud o Unconscious according to Freud a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes feelings and memories According to contemporary psychologists information processing ofwhich we are unaware Painful memories often from childhood could be retrieved and released in the unconscious