SOCIAL ISSUES IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT [C4GE]
SOCIAL ISSUES IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT [C4GE] GSOCI 110
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Dr. Jose Keebler
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charlie O'Keefe on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GSOCI 110 at James Madison University taught by Chris Colocousis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/213996/gsoci-110-james-madison-university in OTHER at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Social Issues Study Outline Part One Basic elements of capitalism a Capitalism lifestyle and idea that the economic system is reliant on the marketing production and consumption of goods and services and the relations among and between capitalists consumers and laborers b Free trade World system a Referring to parts of that world as developed or under developed b To speak of the different levels and dominances of cultures and areas of the world c Core and periphery i Core central to capitalism and economically free ii Periphery underdeveloped and unadvanced No beneficial industries besides raw materials CI Global system of inequalities global position of societies which are essentially capitalist e LEVEL THAT WHICH A COUNTRY IS ECONOMICALLY FREE CAPITALIST i Semi periphery becoming large economies Capitalists laborers and consumers a Capitalists invest and accumulate profit b Laborers gain support from sale of their labors c Consumers purchase and consume d Generally the average American is all at once or at least at different points of their lives Elements of globalization a Globalization seemingly peripheral developments changing every aspect of life in a capitalist manner b Cause seeking new economic opportunities and creating new institutions c Production markets finance technology corporate restructuring changing structure of work and change of role of state movement of people cultural homogenization i Neoimperialism economic dependence and downslide for global dominance ii Externalities unintended side effects that devastate communities because of unregulated economies inequalities and wealth Extent of capitalism in the world a Half 23 are capitalist around the globe b IVlajority are primarily capitalist c 15 mostly socialist cl 25 evenly mixed e Anything one that is not repressed is mainly capitalist f MAP those from British Empire with the exception of Africa seem to thrive greatly with gdp and hdi VI VII VIII Xl Xll Xlll i Same with economic freedom Importance of growth in capitalism a No job no money no investments which does not buying which does not jobs and so on b Failure to produce invest profit and buy would mean instability In the economy socially and politically in society Use value exchange value a Use value exchanging objects for other objects values stay constant and consistent object for object or money for object b Exchange value object is to produce and obtain commodities when a commodity is bought then sold for more money money buys commodity and is then sold for profits exchange value Commodification a Things becoming monetarily valuable b Traditionally had little to no value and now has value 9integrated as consumer goods i Ex water Commodity fetishism a Attributes animate life to money by saying it can create more money by spending it etc i Masks the exploitation of labor land and people Role of money in capitalism Supplies jobs profits etc makes something worthless hold a value keeps economy healthy c9591 makes objects of value obtainable i By work labor or investing Role of greed in capitalism a Maintains the economy b Individual is greedy capitalism encourages it and greed drives capitalism and competition within it PCW does notP a Production consumption wages DOES NOT profit b If wages and profit were to be equal then no profit would exist Elements of culture a llnew culture of capitalismquot sustained economic growth free markets economic globalization privatization enforce laws with respect to property rights and contracts 57 Encourages productions and sale of commodities c Encourages accumulation of wages and for consumers the accumulation of goods 53 Humans no naturally driven to accumulate wealth or work but are learned beliefs and behaviors of capitalism Part 2 Development and global economic equalities VI VII VIII Relationships between patterns of colonization and present inequality a Majority of inequality is between nations b Increase in income disparity since 1800 and increasing gap c Among and across nations income is increasingly uneven d Population is important to consider e MAP Inequalities seem to be OVERALL decreasing however inequalities among core and periphery seems to be greatly increasing Nation state and nationstate a State a political identity with identifiable components Institution with social order that is imbued with the right to legislate and use force Can use physical force to maintain regulation of citizen and other societies i Prison guards military and police b Nation cultural identity and political identity group of people who share common culture language heritage and belong together c Nationstate members of a certain nation that follow rules of a certain state Role of force in state a Regulates taxes social security citizenship voting secures obedience controls economic life i Uses force to control economics secure obedience gain monopoly ensure circulation of goods and pay for war etc Manufacturing consent 3 The efforts of government and corporations to manipulate the manner in which policies and events are represented by the mass media and interpreted by the citizen Role of the other 3 Functions to unite nation states as a common form ofdislike or hate i Something to bond over or familiarize with each other over ii Strong way to build national unity or identity Global Income Inequality historical and current trends regional differences a Total income inequality decreasing from 1978198 difference from 6548 b However income inequality between individuals is greatly increasing Gap is growing Extent of poverty in the world a Below poverty line has gone from 85 to 515 billion people b 80 of the world s population is below the poverty line c Huge increase in present years of those below poverty line Extent of US spending on foreign aid a US gives highest dollar amount out of all countries but lowest percentage i Actual aid is nearly halfor less than promised aid ii Sweden Norway Denmark and Netherlands are highest percentage contributors US poverty rate and recent trend 3 19592009 same as then now in numbers over people in poverty but lower in population percentage because are taking into account the population increase b U5 poverty spiked in 1995 and decreased then returned back to a significant increase in numbers and decrease in percentage X Extent of work among poor families in US and ow wage jobs in the US a Vast majority 90 of officially poor households contain at least one worker i A fact that tends to be ignored in explanations of poverty that focuses on laziness or lack of work 1 Due in part to the preponderance of lowwage jobs in the US economy 2 22 of jobs don t pay enough to move someone above the poverty line XI Extent of wealth mobility in US a Those born into poorest spot 45 stayed in poorest i And 5 ended up in richest b 35 33 of those in 2quot 3rd and 4lh wealthiest stayed there c 55 of those in richest stayed there cl Mobility to one level above was consistently 2025 X Wealth vs income 3 Income is money flowing in and wealth is net worth that a person has b Not highly correlated c Wealth is more unequally distributed than income cl Wealth provides stability can grow without income and can be accumulated and shared from person to person e Wealth everything you own and can accumulate overtime 1 Income how much is coming in per year and can vary overtime g Can have a lot of one and not a lot of another h Inheritance plays an important role in wealth i Wealth inequality is greater but is not as detrimental as income inequality because income limits ability to accumulate wealthmakes for less flexibility Part 3 Genderlnequality Sex vs Gender 3 Sex is the biological term i Consistent over time ii Male vs female b Gender is related to sex but is a social construct of it out of patters of interaction i Men vs women ii Masculine vs feminine iii quotBe a lady be a man manupquot Patriarchy VI VII VIII a Overarching system or global concept where men occupy an advantaged position and women an opposite disadvantaged position Use of rape as a weapon of war a Liberia b Gives the abuser control and power or at least a sense of demoralizing and proven effective c Used as a scare tactic and way of enforcing control and power generally over weaker and female population 9still remains as 50 of a population they normally would not have covered or encountered Recent trends in and aspects of global gender inequalities a Difference in income has remained the same over time b Difference in economically active workers and national legislators has decreased i Yet overall income difference has remained the same c Differences in schooling have decreased but not significantly d adult literacy primary school enrollment tertiary school enrollment secondary school enrollment have all significantly decreased Extent and trend in gender gap in wages a Women earning a higher percentage of what men earn i Still approx 1020 less than men however b Women s earning as a percent of men s by race 39 White women earn approx 80 of white men s earnings BlackAfrican and Hispanic Latino s earn 90 of the men of their race s earnings OVERALL INCREASE IN PERCENTAGE EARNED iv Total increase is approximately from 63 to 80 now US trends in male and female labor force participation 3 Male labor force decreased over time slightly b Women labor force greatly increased in 90s and leveled off c Total participation had minimal increase amp leveling off Global cities 3 NYC and HONG KONG are central to global economy b 2000 biggest were Japan US and Europe c 2004 same as above d 2008 biggest were China Japan US and less in Europe i All areas unsurrounded by land or landlocked port cities ii global economy countries Survival Circuits a Lack of access to resources forced to work or voluntarily worked b Worked only to survive c Included movement of women over borders and greater migration into being since globalization Extent of effect of occupational segregation by gender in US Xl a Women make 80 of what men do b 465 of women in labor force but only hold 8 of all executive positions c Dramatic underrepresentation of women Glass ceiling a Barriers that prevent women from reaching top of corporate hierarchy i Obstacles 1 Biological children Stereotyping Gender roles Parental successes P1Pquot Social aspects of offices by gender Feminism a Wish and desire to make genders under 100 equality b Equal opportunity vs equal numbers c Women are denied this by biological restraints d Born out of gender discrimination rooted in a maledominated society Part 4 Population Demographics and Health Global population future projections and regional differences j k m 19502050 increase to 106 or 74 billion people 20502300 increase to 364 billion people OR decrease to 23 billion people i Dependant on adaptation or destruction Less developed expected to increase at a greater rate more developed to remain fairly constant By region Asia and Africa are expected the greatest and seemingly only real increase in population Though the increase is extreme i Somewhat ofa decrease in European population expected Demographic transition theory a b C a b World population growth increased only very slowly from human beginnings Relatively steady population growth was maintained because of high birth rates off set by high death rates i When there was lower mortality birth rates remained the same and population rose rapidly Then birth rate declined out of pressure and necessity and growing popularity of contraception Population stabilized ATLEAST in developing countries Wealth flows theory Explains reproductive decisions made by families 2 strategies to adopt i economic gain to have children maximizes family size ii Economic gain to not have children minimizes family size VI VII VIII c Child contribution wealth flows from children to parents i Nigeria gain by having big family but in western culture children drain on resources Famine vs endemic hunger a Famine result of crop failure climate disruption or changed Includes entitlements to food i Is NOT most common ii Not because of food insufficiency but by massive unemployment high food prices brought by fear of food shortages 1 No money no land starvation b Endemic hunger most common i Not by overpopulation ii Goes largely unnoticed etc by governments because they do not want to admit failure to take care of and provide for their citizens iii Economic and social policies of government are often responsible iv DAILY INSUFFICIENIES OF FOOD Not because of insufficient amounts of food v Poverty and lack of ability to get food Availability of food around the world a Food availability is rarely the issue b Availability of money etc to get food is usually rare c Production of food NOT determined by global need for food but for the market for the need for food and how many have the means to buy it d Distribution of available is surely the issue Differences in hunger by region and wealth a Alarming hunger and serious in Africa mostly Not at all in US Europe Canada and Australia Low hunger in South Africa and Asia 31957 Less that 5yrs old children who are under weight 39 Poorest 20 have highest As wealth increases underweight children decreases and vice versa iquot South Asia highest followed by developing regions subSaharan Africa North Africa and Asia I3lttent of obesity around the world and regional differences a US has highest obesity followed by Europe Canada and Australia i Obesity considered BMI of greater than 30 Recent trend in global health inequality and regional differences a SubSaharan Africa decreased GREATLY in life expectancy overall and are the lowest in life health expectancy in current b Highest increase overall was South Asia for life expectancy c Highest total of life expectancy are Japan and Western Europe Overall health inequality decreased around 1995 and increased greatly in 2000 higher than starting point in 1980 XI XII XIII Global HIV prevalence and differences by region and sex a SubSaharan Africa has the greatest HIV 67 ofentire population with HIV b 6 children 47 men and 47 women of total population Extent of antiretroviral drug therapy and recent trend a SubSaharan Africa had huge increase from 2002 2009 b And increase in East South and SouthEast Asia c North Africa and middle east Latin America and Europe and Central Asia remained generally constant Migration push and pull factors a Push factors i What makes the immigrants leave nation of origin 1 Natural disasters injustice bad economy repression etc b Pull factors i What makes the immigrants come to a new nation 1 Stability racial diversity income and good economy available jobs new and promised life c Generally a combination of push and pull bring and immigrant to migrate SU historical phases of immigration relative size of US foreignborn population and immigrants country oforigin a Globally 40 migrated to developing countries and 60 migrated to developed countries i Of the developed 20 US and 33 Europe Immigration to the US spiked in 1990 19101920 and fell in 19401950 US foreign born country oforigin 391 U i Largest from Mexico 31 i 42 just labeled as all other countries cl Number of foreign born in US population i 10 in 1850 grew to 15 in 1920 ii Huge drop to 4 in 1970 and then back up to 16 in 2006 e Work force i Huge number of immigrants in the agricultural related industries 1 Smaller in construction but also significantly large ii 121 are foreign born in population and 147 are foreign born in civilian labor force 1 Both increased greatly from the past PART 5 Ethnic conflict war and terrorism World Bank IMF and structural adjustment a MFcurrency exchanges for other currency monetary policies i S to nations in debt crisis loans VI b World Bank periphery focus lend funds to countries to encourage economic development c Structural adjustmentMF and World Bank facilitate exchange of money money comes from core countries to help periphery in exchange for a structural adjustment Way for core to control the periphery Putting into neoliberalism prioritize no restrictions if take money you will agree with neoliberalism will take place Dictated ways to adjust structures of others governments Secure cheap access to periphery s imports iv Puts ideas of free trade less of a safety net into place v RACE TO THE BOTI39OM race to less money for exchange value and higher in use value ulterior motives vi Doublestandard we ask less developed countries to ascribe to something we do not follow More about access to resources Elements of neoliberalism a Liberal is a large role of government in society b Economically liberal view no role of control and government in economy c Economic ideology Post WWII that focuses on necessity to unleash market in an unfettered way 39 Free as possible market If market is controlled with freedom greater benefit for the greater number of people iquot Free trade less safety net Marketdominant minority a Ethnic minorities who for varying reasons can economically dominate the indigenous majorities around the world i Chinese in Philippines whites in south Africa Ethnic cleansing a Policy designed by one ethnic group to remove and rid of another ethnic group from a certain geographic area by violent or terrorinducing means i Serbs and Croatians b Catalysts seems to commonly be ethnic and economic differences Iu I39 I i More often than not the and 39 I were DC and disproportioned by the expansions of neoliberal policies and capitalism Genocide a Systematic extermination of an ethnic religious cultural etc groups i Rwanda ii Holocaust Protestant and Islamic fundamentalism and antisystemic movements a Protestant and Islam i Same timeera both feel that events were from divine design both focuses on recruitment of the youth both focuses on conversion VII VIII ii But still very different b Anti systemic movement is not necessarily about challenging capitalism but rather the moral decay that capitalism has brought on i Fighting against the idea that the market has replaced religion and the idea that capitalism and religion challenge each other c Protestant fundamentalism antisystemic movements were prompted by modernization and secularization of the Protestant churches and the growing challenge to religion and science technology and culture Main fight was that the market and capitalism replaced religion d Islamic fundamentalism prompted by Western influence British which was forced on them and the poverty of the majority peasants and the excess of oil sales i All issues seen as a result of straying from religion Conditions under which religious justifications for violence appear Common in times of struggle violence is justified because it can be seen as war War a route to winning and in the case of winning violence is a route to gaining back religious lead and control No war would me no chance of religious gain b Three reasons for religious justifications When struggles are seen as a defense of basic identity dignity and religious justification are needed 1 Cultural war with religious implications Political confrontations adopt religious justifications when losing a struggle would be unthinkable If the struggle is blocked and cannot be won in real time 1 More likely to be reconceived on a llsacred plane saying the victory is in God s hands US governments definitions of terrorism a 57 Squot Premeditated politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub national groups or clandestine agents usually intended to influence an audience Activities that involved acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the US or of any state that appear to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population to influence the policy of a government by intimidation or coercion or to affect the conduct of a government by mass destruction assassination or kidnapping The unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government the civilian population or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives Blacks definitions and elements of terrorism a Selfhelp organized by civilians who covertly inflict mass violence on other civilians 39 Includes foiled plans attempts threats to inflict mass violence on civilians Social control killsmaims a large number of people mass violence collective and well organized more warlike unilateral and covert civilian targets Less gamelike than war iv A threat backed by force X Extent of US military presence around the world a Only 46 countries without US military presence i Mostly in Africa b 156 with troops c 7 with new bases Iraq Iran and middle east 0 63 with bases and troops Australia US Canada Europe and western south America XI Structure of US budget and extent of US military spending 3 Income security and labor greatest spending in budget by far b Discretionary budget showed that 58 is for military comparatively 1 is food and 4 is education XII The clash of civilizations a Civilizations cultural entity villages regions ethnic groups religious groups and nationalities b Western Confucian Japanese Islamic Hindu Slavic orthodox Latin Americas and African civilizations c More clashing because basic differences are a concrete and nonchangeable i Smaller and interconnected ii Weakened state identity iii Dual western role growth of civilization consciousness iv Cultural differences less mutable than other differences v Economic regionalisms in inhibit integrations 1 West is a universal civilizationtoo controlling d Iron curtain Orthodox Christianity and Western Christianity Line of conflict XIII Osama Bin Laden s grievances against the US a We attack them side with Jews steel oil and wealth our forces in every country b He is because of all this calling us to Islam to stop oppression and immorality debauchery leave their lands end support of their corrupt leaders c Wish for us to deal with them with mutual interest and benefits PART 6 Global environmental issues I Sustainability a b C The capacity to endure For humans the potential for longterm maintenance of well being which has environmental economic and social dimensions Ability to continue the way of life that will continuously support life as we know it II Sources and sinks a b Sources stocks from which we get our materials we need i Rivers wood from forests Sinks elements of the environment that absorb the waste we create i Atmosphere and landfills VI VII VIII c Interaction of the two not just about sinks but about the sources and keeping them sustainable etc Treadmill of production a Refers to ways in which capitalism is constantly expanding or accelerating the production of goods and thus consumption b And how that causes environmental degradation because of the use of raw materials and the large production of waste PlAlTl a r u t I u I b This approach hides the biggest pollution sources instead of highlighting them i Number of people times the abundance of materials and technology that is usedignores pollution sources completely and just focuses on how pollution is vaguely created Overshoot a Populations can exceed ecological limits research on ecological footprints shows that humankind is consuming resources at a rate well in excess of earth s carrying capacity Ecological footprint of humankind a Built up graphs consistencies are land cropland forest grazing b Carbon has a huge increase and takes up majority of the builtup graph Well above the biocapacity of one world currently consuming 15 worlds i Different from the 75 of an earth in 1961 Percapita ecological footprint in US and other nations global perperson share a US is 5 of the global populations and 23 of CO2 emissions and 25 of annual oil consumption b Ecological footprintyearly US 24 acresperson Germany 16 iquot 45 china iv 15 Bangladesh c Footprint globally should be 47acresperson d If whole globe consumed like US we would need 5 planets to be sustainable Disproportionality in environmental harm vs economic benefit of industries a Chemicals create a 292 GNP94579 toxic release b Primary metals 13 GNP91338 toxic release c Others 9578 GIIP4083 toxic release Weather vs climate a Weather atmospheric conditions at one time i llit s cold today b Climate weather and atmospheric conditions and patterns over a long period of time i llit s cold most of the year and has been for the last 10 years Scientific consensus on climate change per the IPCC a In US not really a consensus b Media coverage gives a disproportionality and news paper shows the issue to be very controversial i Everywhere else it is scientifically established the global warming and climate change is a real and serious issue XI Recent and long term trends in and g gas a Temperature increase i Long term constant increases from 18602000 1 4C to 2C ii Also in last 25 years that has been a steep and fast inclination up to 4C increase b In temperature mean in north hemisphere i Longterm is HUGE increase in last 200 years or 100 in tem ii Constant rapid rise iii 2 to 4 in last 100 years c Greenhouse effect shows the same patterns i Relatively stable until last 200100 years it more than doubles XII Human impact on global climate a Global climate change is generally consistent without including human factors anthropogenic factors b W human products it is about sz increase in temperature c C02 is obviously the largest contributor XIII Recent changes in sea level and future projections a Already passed sea level of0 b Present to future prediction 500mm increase by 2100 c And past shows that from 1800 to present sea level has increased approx 200 mm increasing the greatest from 1950 to present XIV Recent trends in republicans and democrats perspectives on climate change a Global warming already begun i Less republican and more democrat b Global warming exaggerated i Democrats less republicans more c Global warming exists i Both increase in beliefs to current date CI Global warming related to human activities i More democrats less republicans e Consistently different at a constant ratio for democrats and republicans with exception that it exists XV The quotSix Americas of climate change and recent trends a Alarmed concerned cautious disengaged doubtful and dismissive 39 More doubtful and more dismissive Less alarmed and concerned and disengaged iquot More cautious Part Six Global E 39 39 Issues A Sustainability a The capacity to endure b For humans 7 The potential for long term maintenance of well being which has environmental economic and social dimensions c The ability to continue the way of life that will continuously support life as we know it B Sources and Sinks a Sources Natural systems that provide us with the material inputs we use stocks from which we get our materials we need i Rivers ii Aquifers gives us water ii Forests gives us timber v Fertile soil gives us food b Sinks Natural systems that absorbs the waste we generate elements of the environment that absorb the waste we create i Atmosphere and land lls 7 greenhouse gases ii Rivers and oceans 7 which can also be sources Interaction of the two 7 Not just about the sinks but also about the sources and keeping them sustainable etc C Treadmill of production a Refers to ways in which Capitalism is constantly expanding of accelerating the production of goods and thus consumption b And how that causes environmental degradation because of the use of raw materials and the large productions of waste c The treadmill framework is one of the dominant J J39 in 39 39 39 39 J and its basic claim is that capitalism cannot be made environmentally sustainable because capitalism apparently needs to grow continuously And if economic growth is predicated on increased resource use in a world of finite resources then that means continuous expansion is inherently unsustainable The treadmill metaphor is that the dynamic of production and consumption is constantly accelerating D Jevon s Paradox a York on BB talks about the JP the idea that efficiency improvements in resource use instead of lowering overall resource use as you39d think can actually result in more of the resource in question being used over time because increased efficiency means increased profits which get reinvested into more productive capacity such as factories power plants etc b EMT is an important theory in environmental sociology and represents the opposite of treadmill of production theory that capitalism is not inherently unsustainable and can be made sustainable through continued technological innovation and modernization that takes ecological valuesconcems into account E Ecological Modernization Theory F 1PAT a ImpactsPopulationAf uenceAmount of a population hasTechnologyEff1ciency of machines and resource use b This approach hides the biggest pollution sources instead of highlighting them i Number of people times the abundance of materials and technology that is used Ignores pollution sources completely and just focuses on how pollution is vaguely created O G Overshoot a Populations can exceed ecological limits as research on ecological footprints show b The graph showing humanity39s ecological footprint c Overshoot is the idea that we ve exceeded the earth s ability to sustain our collective rate of resource use both in terms of sources and sinks or that we ve exceeded the carrying capacity of the earth according to the graph this took place several decades ago So just know what it means and that we39ve already passed into it according to the graph H Ecological footprint of humankind a Built up graphs consistencies are i Land ii Crop land iii Forest V Grazing b Carbon has a huge increase and takes up the majority of the build up graph Well above the bio capacity of one world is currently consuming 15 worlds i Different from the 075 of an earth in 1961 I Percapita ecological footprint in US and other nations global perperson share a The US is 5 ofthe global population and takes up 23 of carbon dioxide emissions and 25 of annual oil b Ecological footprintYearly i US 24 acresperson ii Germany 14 acres iii China 45 acres 39v Bangladesh 15 c Footprint globally should be 47 acresperson i If the entire globe consumed like the US we would need 5 planets to be sustainable J Szasz inverted quarantine perspective a Inverted guarantine separating healthy people from a dangerous community opposite of normal quarantine when we separate unhealthy people from the healthy environment K Disproportionality in environmental harm vs economic benefit of industries a Chemicals create a 292 of GNP and 4579 toxic release b Primary metals create 13 GNP toxic release c Others create 9578 oftoxic release d Freudenburg s work shows that there s disproportionality between the parts of our economy that produce the majority of environmental harm and how much of our economy they contribute In other words the majority of harm comes from industries that are very small in terms of overall economic benefit For Freudenburg this means that the quotjobs vs environmen quot tradeoff is a false one because dirty industries only make up a small part of our economy L Weather vs Climate a Weather Atmospheric conditions at one time i It s cold today b Climate Weather and atmospheric conditions and patterns over a long period of time i It s cold most ofthe year and has been for the last 10 years M Scientific consensus on climate change per the IPCC a In US there is not really a consensus b Media coverage gives a disproportionality and the newspaper shows the issue to be very controversial i Everywhere else it is scientifically established the global warming and climate change is a real and serious issue For the political consensus on CC just know that as shown in the Frontline documentary quotHot Politics there have been several shifts in the degree of consensus starting in the late 80s where most folks were concerned then waning in the 1990s then all sorts of talk from both sides of the 2000 presidential campaign with Bush arguably quotout greeningquot Gore and a real dissolution of consensus through the 2000s The interaction effect with party and education on climate change perspectives is that the effect of education on climate change views is different for Republicans and Democrats For the latter those who say they understand the issue a great deal are more likely to see it as a real issue For 0 3 1 Republicans the greater their selfreported understanding the less likely they are to see CC as an issue that needs to be addressed N Recent and long term trends in temperature and greenhouse gas concentrations a Temperature increase i Long term constant increases from 18602000 1 04C to 02C 2 Also in the last 25 years there has been a steep and fast inclination up to a 04C increase b In temperature mean in the northern hemisphere i Long term is a HUGE increase in the last 200 years or 100 years in temperature ii Constant rapid rise iii 02 to 04 in last 100 years c Greenhouse effect shows the same patterns i Relatively stable until last 200 to 100 years it more than doubles 0 Human impact on global climate a Global climate change in generally consistent without including human factors anthropogenic factors b With human products it is about 2 times increase in temperature Carbon dioxide is the largest contributor Majority of Americans believe its humans fault i 52 believe humans caused global warming ii 48 believe its natural causes P Recent changes in sea level and future projections a Already passed sea level of0 b Present to future prediction 500mm increase by 2100 c The past shows that from 1800 to present sea level has increased approximate 200mm increasing the greatest from 1950 to present Q Recent trends in Republicans and Democrats perspectives on climate change a Global warming as already begun i Less Republican and more Democrat b Global warming is exaggerated i Less Democrat and more Republican c Global warming exists i Both have an increase in belief to the current date d Global warming is related to human activities i More Democrat less Republican Consistently different at a constant ratio for Democrats and Republicans With the exception that it exists R Interaction effect of politics and education S The Six Americas of climate change and recent trends Alarmed 2008 18 2010 7 10 Concerned 2008 7 33 2010 7 29 Cautious 2008 7 19 2010 27 Disengaged 2008 712 2010 7 6 Doubtful 2008 711 2010 713 Dismissive 2008 7 7 2010 7 16 i More doubtful and more dismissive ii Less alarmed and concerned and disengaged iii More cautious T Why climate change matters from the US Navy perspective oo rump96x The reason that climate change matters from the US Navy perspective simply because everything they deal with will be changing including ports shipping and new areas of ocean opening up etc as sea levels rise U Fisher s explanation of US climate change policy and role of US natural resource endowment a The key point is that the US fossil fuel endowment the size and geographical spread affects congressional representatives and senators39 votes on issues related to doing anything about climate change folks from coal states are less likely to support climate change legislation and 26 ofthe 50 states are coal states V Diamond s perspective on big business and environmental protection a Big business will save the earth ecological modernization b Some businesses are among the worlds strongest positive forces for environmental sustainability because i Lower consumption of environmental resources saves money in the short run ii Maintaining sustainable resource levels and not polluting saves money in the long run iii A clean image reduces criticisms a Corporations have a lot to gain by establishing environment friendly business practices W Zizek s perspective on environmental degradation and what we should do about it His argument is that we shouldn t be afraid of going much further technologically and intervening with natural systems to essentially fully engineer the environment to suit our own needs This relates to the whole treadmill of production vs ecological modernization theory debate in environmental sociology it s closer to the latter than the former Part Seven Resistance Rebellion and Finding Solutions A Weapons of the weak a Subtle resistance to cultural domination i Historically when Capitalism has disrupted things b Strategies we have as a weak to retaliate to an authority i Gossip or sabotage if given an essay assignment at the end of the semester c Weapons ofthe weak is a tool that was used in peasant rebellions i Malaysia As income inequality and advances in agricultural production undermined the poor weapons of the weak character assault or theft was used B Capitalism as a revolutionary force C Role of land in peasant protest likely future of peasant protest according to Robbins D Soros idea ofthe threat posed by laissezfaire ideology a The problem with Capitalism the way it is today is that it is founded on an absolute truth that markets are always right i This quotAbsolute Truth leads inhibits our ability to question the theory which like Socialism has no scientific backing Soros adds thus contradicting the idea of an Open Society one which people can live in accordance with their different views and beliefs peacefully b For Soros the only way to compensate for this Fallibility is to accept it learn from our mistakes and keep it in mind whenever we are tempted to claim something as an absolute truth This is the only way we can achieve the construction of an open society E Re exivity and relation to human fallibility a Re exivity Because we are examining the world society in which we live our own examinations effect the world and in effect themselves This is the cause of unavoidable human fallibility F Revolutions of 1848 and 1968 and implications for future change a 1848 Independence for colonies national antisystemic movements etc b 1968 Identity politics women s rights etc G Primary aims of antisystemic movements
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