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by: Charlie O'Keefe


Charlie O'Keefe
GPA 3.57

Stephen Poulson

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Stephen Poulson
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Charlie O'Keefe on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GSOCI 210 at James Madison University taught by Stephen Poulson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/213998/gsoci-210-james-madison-university in OTHER at James Madison University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
lThe differences between functionalism symbolic interactionist and con ict perspectives Functionalism o believe that existing social arrangements are important for society to function social structure is an organism believes that in order for a society to survive organizations and cultural patterns are formed that undertake functions 0 dysfunctions are negative consequences of group organizations eg racism and poverty but functionalists believe that these dysfunctions can have functional consequences eg poor people do dirtydangerous work 0 structural functionalism believe that society is a system that functions they focus on social institutions structures in society family religion education etc not good at describing con ict 0 Symbolic interactionist o believe that reality is constructed by individuals symbols are assigned meanings language is symbolic and social groups assign and renegotiate the meaning of place and space using symbols 0 cannot have a sense of self if alone 0 concentrates on individuals not institutions and why they think and feel their identities but is often focused on the construction of narrow interactions tends to downplay the idea that there is a reality independent of human consciousness Con ict theorists o believe existing social relationships are generally beneficial for certain people and disadvantage other groups of people 0 believe state governance and its institutions generally enforce rules that favor an elite class Functionalists tend to regard the state as a system that allows for plurality economy defines who we are 0 social class is a primary concept eg social class and how certain crimes are punished o con ict theorists are generally good at studying social change the economy is the variable that determines conditions of society Economy made of production gt work conditions political process society Commodity fetishismfetishism attributes life autonomy and power to nonliving objectsdolls sticks places or in capitalism money or other commodities He stresses the importance of the superstructuresubstructure idea The substructure means mode relations of production is the base of the superstructure politics state rel phil In other words how the economy functions effects the way politics state etc function Superstructure Politics and the state religion philosophy Substructure Means mode and relation of production the economy how goods and services are produced Communism New Fm chtem nmneting Fm Qvttem New Eco Svstem Competing Eco Svstem lt gt In addition Marx believes based on this diagram that economic growth and expansion will continue until it reaches communism Once it reaches communism Marx believes that society will not grow it will remain the same and there will be no more progression In years past people depended on a single person to do all of the production work on a product ex people used to go to a cobbler who would design make shoes and sell the nished product Alienated labor refers to the practice of today where assembly lines and factory work has made it so many people take part in the manufacturing of one item This means that they never see the nished product and as a result the manufacturers and laborers feel alienated or prideful in their work 4 The roles that laborers consumers and capitalists play in the economy 0 culture of capitalism is devoted to encouraging the production and sale of commodities For capitalists the culture encourages the accumulation of pro t for laborers it encourages the accumulation of wages for consumers it encourages the accumulation of goods The capitalist whose sole purpose is to invest money and accumulate pro t They invest money in banks insurance policies pension plans stocks slightly more than half of American families participate in the stock market either directly or through investment accounts education or other enterprises for which they expect to pro t Want to invest it so that it can return money 0 o The laborer whose sole means of support comes from the sale of his or her labor They work for wages Want to earn as much money as possible 0 The consumer whose sole purpose is to purchase and consume everincreasing quantities of goods and services They buy things Consumers want to spend as much money as they can The consumer may drive the culture of capitalism but without the laborer there would be no commodities to consume 0 Innovation creation of a product usually high capital output most expensive stage need an educated workforce research and development is expensive the product is introduced at a high price Standardizationdistribution of product introduction abroad less capital output manufacturing process is finetuned production cost decreases product cost decreases competition is introduced becomes harder to make a pro t Maturationproduct begins to be manufactured abroad production process very efficient product has been widely distributed labor cost becomes the determining factor in where the product is made This process impacts the US global south by reducing the number of jobs in the US It impacts the global south as a whole by creating more jobs for overseas thirdworld countries similar to the first quiz question scientists who support social structure believe that people who achieve success achieve it because of the surroundings they are born into They believe that success is a result of how they are brought up They believe that personality is formed by the surroundings they live in those who support the individual agency idea feel that those who achieve success do so because of the qualities they possess Success is gained not because of the surroundings they were born into but because of the opportunities that a person has made for themself and has taken advantage of 7 The definition of power The ability to compel people to do what they otherwise would not do because you want them to 8 Definitions of globalization 0 an action by social agents in one location that has significant consequences for people in other locations 0 time space compression technology that erodes the importance of distance and time on social interactions accelerating interdependence due to integration decline of importance of national borders e g the nationstate as a meaningful socialpolitical designation 0 decline of power of the nationstate compared to other entities eg multinational corporations 00 Example European Union you can work anywhere within European union The decline in the power of nation state compared to other entities e g multinational corporations Globalization can be A material aspect increased ows in trade facilitated by infrastructures and technologies getting from point a to point b A cultural aspect increasing use of English language and American popular movies Increasing people are responding to resisting many aspects of globalization when it affects local culture 9 The conditions mobility stratification discipline and resistance that modern labor encounters Mobility 0 New modern laborers are remarkably mobile with an increasing ability to move temporally and permanently to worksites 0 Current migration is dominated by people from global south India Mexico Latin America and South America 0 Cheap labor by relocating their manufacturing processes to countries where economic development through industrilization Examples are assembly plants in indioesia 0 Malaysia gutemala and mexico Because of this free trade zones were created Lately they have abandon old sites like mexico in favor a new sites like china and Vietnam Segmentation 0 Labor segmentation includes the division by race ethinicty regligion age and gender into certain labor occupations Currently most textile workers e gMexico are overwhelmingly women 0 In Malaysia women are picked between the ages of 16 to 24 because they are better able to concentrate on their routine work and have better eyesite o In Mexican factories women are preferred because they are believed that women have higher skill levels are more docile and are more willing to comply to the monotonous repetitive and exhausting assignments 0 Men are described as restless rebellious lesss patient and more likely to unionize and less tolerant of the working conditions 0 Also they prefer single women because they have less obligations and are not willing of work night shifts O 0 Because women are doing the work it is considered unskilled 0 They also pick women because they are least likely to organize demand better wages or press for better working conditions They are known as shy and submissive and are more used to following orders They are more easily intimidated and forced to obey Easiest to discipline Discipline 0 Factory work is relatively new type of labor late 18th early 19th century 0 Prior to this people worked at home or small shops 0 Factory settings meant workers accepted new concepts of time as it relates to work task 0 in Malaysia Sexual freedom has been increasing because of the increase of abortions 0 They are no longer around traditional family and church authorities so they have more freedom to be promiscuous o In order to maintain discipline factory owners and mangers suggest that some of their wages go to paying back to their parents 0 Also they maintain discipline by building relations with people in the womens home villages thus enlisting their help in controlling workers Example they make donations to community organizations in the villages that supply workers 0 They do this by providing transportation from work to home 0 Also they have workers show their parents overtime forms which indicates when they worked and other activities 0 Religion is used as means of discipline bc maylaysian is an Islamic country A law that woman and man can not be in close proximity results in immediate jail time if they are not married or relatives 0 Factories are a discipline in itselfthey are modeled like jails So they can be closely watched 0 Clothing are all the same and can not be 0 People in Malaysia are ware of the shift from traditional social time to the capitalist clock time Resistance 0 Malaysians resistance is more symbolic displayed by being possessed It happen twice within three years The second time it was 120 o A healer came in and sacrificed a goat to the possessing spirits on the premises 0 Other instances happened where women cried and screamed and other operators were ushered out They claimed that the factory was dirty 0 Such beliefs of spirit possession of factory workers in Malaysia are examples of the widespread critiques of capitalism that we find among people confronting capitalist production for the first time 0 Resistance is done through indirect form of masked criticism as in the baptism of money spirit possession or moral tales such as that of rumpelstilskinor direct form of protest and the organization of unions 39 Jandis 391 Jinstilld39 quot39 1 refer to chapter 3 of the text it has something to do with technology Merchantalism is the idea that more things should be sold rather than bought This was the common belief years ago but the industrial revolution paved way for new outlooks on the economy Because of technology during the industrial revolution goods could be produced faster cheaper and on a much larger scale This breakthrough led to more products at cheaper prices in addition to more jobs 11 The role of money in the culture of capitalism O O OO O O OO O OO O 0000 The economic power derived from turning workers into consumers was realized almost by accident Wages increased people bought more Credit was introduced in buying power Credit created economic growth and consumerism People were promised future pay When credit is extended whether it be by a store bank etc the effect of money has been created and buying power is introduced into the economy thus money was created Advertisers capitalized by altering the way products were advertised by explaining the effects of the product and the promise of richer fuller life etc Consumer laborer and capitalist and what ties these roles together you ask Money For the members of culture in capitalism the key element is money Money defines relationships not only between buyers and sellers in the marketplace or between employers or labors in the workplace but also other than love and fear No more powerful motivating force in our lives than money Robert guttman Culture of capitialism is the relations between capitalistslaborers and consumers tied together by pursuit of money GDP gross domestic product a measure of the money value of all goods and services produced and sold in a given time period Commodity money is money that has some value in itself beyond its exchange value In ation happens when money exceeds the value of goods and services provided thus driving up prices as buyers competed for scarce resources If supply of goods and services exceeded the money supply prices would decline as sellers compted for limited dollars which would lead to de ation The money supply must grow if the economy is to remain healthy and for the money supply to grow there must be a steady increase in the things or services that money an uy Money is the interval to everything and nohing is free Money in every aspect is for life Money internationally shapes our structure It shows how people are ranked in society 12 The roles of the core periphery and semiperiphery according to the world system theory 0 O OO O 0 These ideas are how countries de ne themselves The world intergraded economically in the early 16th century Trade was considered normative Africa was last to integrate This marks the beginning of integrating economically These changes effected other areas It was believed that every country was engaging in world trade No countries were believed to be singled out from the rest of the world Core industrialized countries in the global political economy Sometimes a reference to the elite which are the most sophisticated countries United States Europe and Japan SemiPeriphery Countries that occupy an intermediate position between core and peripheral zones Mixed economies but primary for production when wages increase they go to the core China India Indonesia Mexico Periphery the least developed economies primarily provide raw materials and cheap labor Bolivia wherever labor is the cheapest They grow a crop then they sell it Some describe the core and periphery using social class as the dominant variable 0 O O O O 0 Labor in Detroit vs labor in global south have no relationship Today people are doing the same work but south like GMC Relationship with capital have equal about amount of money Elite facilitates and controls capital to make money Eventually labor is not always going to be separated in will realize and have relationship with other laborers Ron Wilson approaches the symbolic interactionist perspectives in the article War as a metaphor He discusses the importance that perception helps us how we view the world We interpret each other through each other perspectives Manipulation and misinterpretation of words can be the definition of the situation He explains that there is a great chance of success if the situation is presented where the general public can identify with them Symbolic interaction is taken place because Ron explains that language is symbols is anything meaningful that represents something else Metaphorically speaking the war on terror attempts seriousness and promotes the definition of the situation all while showing the seriousness of the problem Through these different descriptions of metaphors having to do with war it is a result of an always changing society and a mutual interaction among individuals Ron does argue that before we can agree on mutual interaction or support we must pick a better metaphor other than war


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