BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY [C3T1G3]
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY [C3T1G3] GANTH 196
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alverta Gutkowski on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GANTH 196 at James Madison University taught by Richard Lawler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/214001/ganth-196-james-madison-university in OTHER at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Exam 4 Review Bioarchaeology the study of skeletal remains from archeological sites to understand context of life and death from cultural and archaeological perspective VS Forensic anthropology the study of skeletal remains and other evidence to determine cause and context of death Legal and criminal matters Often concerned with establishing identity Forensic odontologists compare dental xrays of person while alive and from recovered individual Both develop biological profile age sex ancestry injurydisease Biological Profile Age bonesteeth eruption pattern change most during 0 18 years so identifying age is easiest during this period Sex Pelvic bones and differences in skull Ancestry traits of a high frequency in certain populations or culturally specific traits that belong to certain groups Injurystressdisease can leave permanent marks and scars on hard tissues like teeth and bone adult teeth show nutritional stress Enamel hypoplasia enamel on teeth only partially develops usually lines or pits on tooth enamel defect is proportional to the length of time growth was hindered Taphonomy study of what happens after death skeletal patterns that occur antemortemvs postmortem Important to distinguish if something is a cultural process deliberate burial or a taphonomic process random death and assemblage of bones Helps us tell if something is human intention or a natural process Adaptive phenotypic plasticity making short term adjustments to phenotype based on environment AKA physiological adjustment in response to environment Change itself is not inherited Capacity is inherited and adaptive Capacity to respond ie Adaptations darker skin in tropical environments VS phenotypically plastic responses ability to tan in tropical environments Variation temperature Cold climates Short term vasoconstriction narrowing of blood vessels and reduced blood flow to the skin Long term larger body shorter limbs More internal mass relative to skin surface leads to heat retention Hot climates Short term vasodilation expansion of blood vessels and increased blood flow to the skin Long term smaller body longer limbs Less internal mass relative to skin surface leads to heat release Variation altitude Oxygen less concentrated at high altitudes Hypoxia lack of oxygen Short term increased respiration and heart rate produces more red blood cells Long term larger lungs larger heart mass slower rates of maturation Variation Skin color Made of dermis and epidermis epiabove Melanin determines pigmentation more melanin darker skin short term tanning skin changes color from exposure to sunlight long term Population s average skin color reflects adaptations to protect from UV radiation Human biological variation skin color 39 Distribution of skin color by region Elasuttl s Skln Color Map 2 1 2005 Wadsworth 7 Thomson Darker skin protects against skin cancer and folate acid destruction both caused by UV radiation which is intense along the equator and lighter skin allows for vitamin D synthesis Evolution of Skin Color We became less and less hairly so fewer parasites better cooling Disadvantages more exposure to UV radiation 0 Solution Melanin production regulates our ability to absorb UV and synthesize vitamin D which results in differences in skin color Classifying human diversity Phenotypic based on arbitrary but visible aspects of phenotype 9 skin color hair type nose shape Ethnocentric and teleological the people doing the classifying put themselves at top Biological determinsm idea that social and cultural characteristics are genetically determined and correspond to racial phenotypes Taxanomically arbitrary mistaken idea that units below the species level had distinct biological boundanes 0 Race is an arbitrary concept Today social scientists talk of ethnicity ones cultural identity or biologists use populations or ancestry Some traits that can distinguish ancestry incisor shape palate shape nasal spine chin shape Genetic differences exist among individuals and populations But broad geographic regions are NOT genetically homologous Africa Europe Asia North America etc Broad social categories are NOT genetically homologous Africans Europeans Asians Organization of the brain Brain stem metabolic activities 9 hunger thirst etc Cerebellum balance posture movement coordination Cerebrum higher brain functions 9 4 lobes Primary cortex regions involved with motorsensory input Association cortices regions involved in processing signals from primary cortex Hemisphere sulci gyri neurons Reorganization of hominin brain Olfactory bulbs became smaller 9 less reliance on smell more on vision Increase in frontal lobe 9 analytical reasoning cognition memory judgment Primary visual region shifts to interior Large brain in genus Homo Expensive tissue hypothesis smaller gut more energy for brain growth meat eating makes it easier to digest so also more energy and selection increased meat eating Radiator hypothesis brain uses a lot of energy and can overheat so new way of cooling the brain evolved allowed for bigger brain to cool 9 emissary veins Brain size and intelligence Cranial capacity not a predictor at all 0 IQ scores assume that all aspects of intelligence are correlated and can be measured by 1 test assumes that IQ intelligence not true intelligence genetics isn t a fixed trait nutrition and learning can increase IQ scores 0 Intelligence probably modular and has culture specific components Communication any act even unintentional that conveys information between individuals examples scent marking facial expressions postures vocalizations universal among animals nonhuman modes of communication tactile olfactory visual vocal Language System of communication used by humans Spoken verbal expression and anatomical specializations for speech Semantic words linked to real world objects events actions aka words have meaning phonemic words from small arbitrary sounds called phonemes grammatical system of word classes verb tenses and word order syntax FOXPZ important gene in language and speech production is conserved so the sequence of nucleotides is similar across many species 0 Likely that the capacity for language was direct target of natural selection others argue language is innate but a by product of several things and not a direct target of natural selection Why did language evolve Social gossip as a function to exchange social info about group members when group sizes are large Social contract language functioned to establish contracts and social bonds among ancestral monogamous units Social flare evolved and functions as a way for males to attract females Contemporary human genetic variation 0 Recolonization and back migration creates genetic similarities between regions 0 Single migrations can result in founder effect creating sharp divisions in allele frequencies 0 Cline a gradual change in frequency of a genotype or allele over geographic space small mating between populations smooth out allele frequencies across space Evolutionary psychology Focus on brain brain dictates behaviors 0 Brain has many many task specific modules each programmed by natural selection to cause a particular behavior Modern skulls house stone age mind brain designed to solve problems by our hunter gatherer ancestors Universal behavior patterns 0 Universal emotionsfacial expressions anger fear disgust happiness sadness 0 Why did disgust evolve prevent pollution and disease from entering body people who liked disgusting things did not leave descendants Humans give preferential treatment towards close kin Humans are good at detecting cheaters Females prefer Males prefer females who males who are relatively younger are wealthier are animated are stronger have clear skinshiny hair are ambitious have hourglass bodyshape are relatively are symmetrical older are symmetrical Sickle cell anemia and malaria Sickle cell AA AS SS 9 healthy or sickle celled dle from die from die from SICkleCe malaria sicklecell 5 u i AA SA SS AA 5A 55 Genotype fitness inmalariapresent environment Genotype fitness in malariaabsent environment Balanced polymorphism maintenance of 2 or more alleles in a population due to selection for the heterozygote AKA selection maintains those 2 alleles in a population Epidemiological transitions 0 Huntergatherer small groups low population density nomadic infection could wipe out entire group but not affect other groups groups can move out of infectious areas 0 Agriculturalsedentism large groups high density sedentary domesticating animals 9 new vectors disease could rapidly spread increased technology also helped spread disease 0 Industrial Technology to fight diseases Mortality switches from infectious agents to old age diseases Antibiotic revolution optimism and arrogance Post industrial New viral and bacterial agents Old diseases in new places and also new diseases from new environments Caused by population growth deforestation and consumerism zoonotic globalization and urbanization Human life cycle Prenatal stage maternal offspring conflict offspring wants more investment than parent is willing to give Infant stage weaning conflict Juvenile period childhood still dependent on parent for foodprotection juvenile socially dependent on parent learning social skills for adulthood adrenarchy release of a hormone from adrenal glands that helps shape brain Subadult period onset of sexual maturity lower rates of skeletal growth up to sexual maturity then growth spurt after puberty
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