BIOTECH NEW MILLENN II
BIOTECH NEW MILLENN II ISAT 351
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Vergie Ledner on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISAT 351 at James Madison University taught by Cynthia Klevickis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/214009/isat-351-james-madison-university in Science at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Questions for The Human Immune Systemquot 11 Where are blood cells made 12 What is the name of the most general progenetor cells that can potentially give rise to all of the different types of blood cells 13 What is the lifetime of a typical red blood cell A typical B cell A memory B cell 14 What is plasma What are its chemical components 15 What general chemical signals cause blood stem cells to proliferate and differentiate 16 What cells are deficient in thrombocytopenia What symptoms would this cause 17 During World War II Professor E J Colin developed a method of blood fractionation Plasma is pooled from 1000 or more donors and its protein components are separated Gamma globulin IgG is still made this way and is commercially available What is it used for 18 Why don39t people who receive gamma globulin develop antibodies against these proteins Or do they 21 Cells involved in the immune response are white blood cells What are the different kinds Where are they made Where do B cells mature W 22 Where do T cells mature An interesting fact 23 What is a mast cell 5 Tonsils are 8090 B cells 24 What happens in the spleen 25 The primary cell that processes antigen for presentation to B lymphocytes in order to stimulate immunoglobulin production is the a T helper cell b histocyte c macrophage d neutrophil 26 The immuno9lobulin class that produces most of the antibody activity in serum is 31 Define the following terms antibody antigen epitope immuno9lobulin class switch allelic exclusion MHC protein Fab plasma cells memory cells 32 What is the basic structure of I96 antibody What are the ways in which an I96 antibody can inactivate antigens 1 J b A a 33 The immune system develops antibodies in response to antigens viruses QM bacteria etc What happens when antibodies such as I96 blood fractions themselves are introduced to the body Examples of possible short essay questions a a 34 Draw a dia9ram outline and discuss the process by which macropha9es alert B cells to produce antibodies to a particular anti9en Your discussion should include but definitely not be limited to answerin9 the followin9 questions How does the macropha9e interact with the anti9en How does it present the anti9en to a B cell What other types of cells are required What membrane receptor proteins are required Include the role of some of the specific cytokines required for this process 35 There are more than 1000000 different Bcell receptors reco9nizin9 an equivalent number of different potential anti9ens However there are only about 100000 different 9enes in us How then is such diversity of Bcell receptor 9enerated 36 Lon9er essay What re9ulatory systems prevent B cells that make autoantibodies from becomin9 plasma cells In other words how does the immune system know it is attackin9 a patho9en and not your own cells Your answer should include a discussion of what happens in the bone marrow as B cells mature the role of MHC Class I and II proteins and the role of helper T cells in B cell activation 37 Three ways that I96 antibodies participate in host defense include neutralization opsonization and complement activation Briefly describe each a a wnm genenc mecnamsms are 1nyo1yed1n generanng annbody dwzrswy a 9 What mecnamsrns are 1nyo1yed m we c1ass swncn between membrane bound IgM and secrered 1ng 3 1o wnm nappens durmg 1ne c1ass snncn from secreted IgM 101967 a 11wna11s me comp1emen1 sys1em see tomp1emenmdyen1ure gt How are an11bod1es1nyo1yed m summanng the comp1emen1 cascade7 a 12 mm of we foHowmg1s NOT an achHy of am1bod1257 a bmd 10 an HBUN GMZB VOXMS b coat 1nfec11ous agents so they cannot attach to host c 1 e1 s c mark armgzns so 1na1 pnagocync ce11s can zngmf 1ne mfzcnous agen1 more easuy d des1roy ce11s mfzcvzd nun yruses MHC class II pro1ems are presen on me membrane surface of antigenpresenting cells Class II MHC molecules bind pe tide fragmenrs derived from profeolyticully degraded exogenous proteins a 13 Opson1za11on1s we process of iiiiiiii 314 Whmh 1mmunog1obu11n c1ass meduues a11erg1esgt nsonneae c 19 A s d Igb W 2 19 E was n casswuc 41 Ce11med1a1ed1mmunny1s par11cu1ar1y Wamer 1mpormm 1n provecnon agamsv whmh type of mfzcnorv Vmcessed amgen and cuss 1 we am gen nus cuss 1 we cymmo r we 2 What 15 MHC How 15 MHC mvo vzd m 1d2m1fymg 52V 1r numans naye 1nree d1ff2r2m c1asses of MHC pro1e1ns w m 20 d1ff2r2m MHC genes and were are 100 d1ff2r2m a11e1es for eacn gene now many d1ff2r2m numan 1d2mmzs are poss1b1egt Class 1 MHC proTeins are found on B cells and macrophages RBC39s B cells and Tcells T cells only all nucleaTed cells neuTrophils T cells and B cells 099991 4 PP PP PLh InTerleukin 2 is produced by B cells T cells macrophages neuTrophiIs masT cells 45 DiGeorge syndrome is a geneTic disease ThaT causes The Thymus noT To form WhaT sympToms would you expecT To see in an affecTed individual MHC class I proTeins are presenT on The surface of almosT all cells MHC class I molecules bind pepTide fragmenTs derived from proTeolyTically degraded proTeins endogenously synThesized by a cell 46 Tcells have recepTors analogous To The anTibodies in Bcells and wiTh similar diversiTy WhaT are some of The ways in which T cell recepTors are similar To anTibodies and whaT are some of The ways in which They are differenT from anTibodies 47 Each Type of T cell responds To anTigens bound To MHC molecules on The surface of self cells In facT T cells recognize anTigens only when presenTed To Them as a complex wiTh a MHC molecule WhaT membrane proTein CD anTigen defines a cyToToxic T cell WhaT kinds of cells do cyToToxic T cells aTTack WhaT MHC proTein complex does a cyToToxic T cell respond To WhaT membrane proTein defines a helper T cell WhaT MHC proTein complex does a helper T cell respond To 48 WhaT kinds of cells are suscepTible To HIV infecTion WhaT specific membrane proTein accounTs for This suscepTibiliTy Reference Cells Alivequot 5 1 SHARP swelling heaT redness and pain WhaT is The underlying cause for each of These characTerisTic sympToms of local inflammaTion Use The example of a Thorn prick To ouTline The sTeps involved in The local inflammaTory response WhaT cells are involved in The local inflammaTory response WhaT chemical signals are involved 4 52 InflammaTion is a key parT of nonspecific as opposed To specific or adapTive immuniTy Explain The difference 53 WhaT is meanT by The sysTemic inflammaTory response 54 AuToimmune diseases Typically affecT women more ofTen Than men AlThough The reason for This is noT fully known speculaTe on some of The reasons why This is so 55 For each of These auToimmune diseases iden1 ify The TargeT cells or Tissues of The auToanTibodies Lupus SLE Type I diabeTes HemolyTic anemia MS MyasThemia gravis Grave39s disease 56 For many auToimmune diseases There are geneTic links To parTicular HLA anTigen Types This isn39T a TighT linkinheriTance of a parTicular HLA anTigen Type usually does noT ineviTably lead To developmenT of a parTicular auToimmuniTy WhaT oTher facTors may be involved in auToimmune diseases On a molecular level whaT is The reason for The link To parTicular HLA anTigen Types 57 Occasionally one of The TreaTmenTs for auToimmune disease is To remove The spleen Why would docTors do This 58 How does cyclosporin A acT To suppress auToimmune sympToms Nonspecific immuniTy Specific or adapTive immuniTy Humoral immuniTy Cellular immuniTy InflammaTion MasT cells Eocinophils Macrophages Helper T Cells CyToToxic T Cells B Cells ComplemenT CyTokines HisTamine AnTibodies AnTigens MHC complex I and MHC complex II proTeins AnTibody class swiTch 61 MosT immunology Tesz divide The funcTions of The differenT cells of The immune sysTem inTo humoral immuniTy and cellular immuniTy Bu r of course The sTory of how The immune sysTem works is noT ThaT cleanly delineaTed You can see This for yourself by consTrucTing a concepTual map of The inTeracTions beTween The differenT Types of immune sysTem cells Be as deTai led as possible Draw lines To indicaTe each of The differenT inTeracTions beTween The differenT cellular componenTs of The immune sysTem and label each line wiTh brief deTaiIs abouT ThaT inTeracTion For example There is a line beTween macrophages and B cells because B cells produce anTibodies ThaT bind To The surface anTigens of foreign cells as parT of a process called opsinizaTion This is a signal ThaT sTimulaTes phagocyTosis by macrophages There is anoTher line beTween macrophages and B cells because macrophage processing of foreign anTigens is a parT of The process ThaT sTimLIlaTes B cells ThaT express appropriaTe IgM anTibodies To proliferaTe and sTarT making IgG anTibodies Your diagram should fill a full page and be color coded CUTANDPASTE GENES Par T 1 Heavy Gene Rear r angemenT Where does This process happen STar T wiTh an immaTur e B cell Randomly choose one allele RecombinaTion 9VDJC joining Draw a model of The recombined heavy chain gene in The box below On which chromosome is The heavy chain gene locaTed How many choices are There for The heavy chain quotVquot r egion How many choices are There for The heavy chain quotDquot r egion How many choices are There for The heavy chain quotJquot r egion Par T 2 LighT Chain Rear r angemenT Randomly choose one allele of eiTher The 7 or The K genes RecombinaTion 9 VJC Joining Is There a pr oducTive r ecombinaTion Yes allelic exclusion WhaT does allelic exclusion mean How does allelic exclusion come abouT N09 apopTosis Draw a model of The r ecombined gene in The box below On which chromosome is The 7 chain locaTed On which chromosome is The K chain locaTed How many choices are There for The lighT chain quotVquot r egion How many choices are There for The lighT chain quotJquot r egion How many choices are There for The lighT chain quotCquot region