BIOTECH NEW MILLENN II
BIOTECH NEW MILLENN II ISAT 351
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Vergie Ledner on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISAT 351 at James Madison University taught by Cynthia Klevickis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see /class/214009/isat-351-james-madison-university in Science at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Even more Answers for The 351 Exam 1 Review SheeT 21003 Guidelines for Exam Answer CourTesy of The Human AnaTomy and Physiology Case STudy ProjecT HAPCS 39 hTTpwwwniagaraedubcliffhapcssuchTml If a quesTion asks m Your answer should supply The name of someThing Name The process by which The cyToplasm of a eukaryoTic cell divides To produce Two cells cyToki nesis If a quesTion asks of The iTem quotWhaT is The role of volTagegaTed poTassium channels in producing The acTion poTenTialll The opening of The volTagegaTed poTassium channels causes The repolarizaTion and hyperpolarizaTion of The membrane poTenTial aT The end of The acTion poTenTial The correcT answer requires you To idenTify or give a measuremenT You should provide an explanaTion in YOUR OWN WORDS of whaT is being asked Don39T merely reiTeraTe whaT was in The lecTure or in The book quotExplain The difference beTween an ion channel and a pump An ion channel is a membrane proTein ThaT permiTs ions To passively move across The cell membrane from regions of high concenTraTion To regions of low concenTraTion A pump is a membrane proTein ThaT acTiver TransporTs subsTances across The cell membrane from regions of low concenTraTion To high concenTraTionII If a quesTion asks Your answer should provide a lisT of ALL of The iTems requesTed quotLisT aT leasT Two regulaTory roles for Ca2 in muscle conTracTionII Answer 1 Ca2 is involved in exocyTosis of neuroTransmiTTer conTaining vesicles in The synapTic knob 2 Ca2 binds To TroponinC and is said To be The Trigger for skeleTal muscle conTracTion If a quesTion asks You should describe a process a mechanism or a series of cause and effecT evenTs whereby someThing occurs quotHow does ATP use by skeleTal muscles lead To conTracTionII The myosm crossbridge formed beTween The Thick and Thin filamenTs and causes The myosin head To be released from iTs acTive binding siTe on acTin The hydrolysis of ATP Then causes The myosin head To be reorienTed and reacTivaTed reenergized in preparaTion for iTs reaTTachmenT To anoTher acTin molecule swiveling of The myosin head and The exerTion of The force of conTracTion If a quesTion asks quotlquot alumna 7 Your answer should presenT a logical coherenT series of sTepsacTions ThaT would SOLVE The problem IIPropose a wa To TreaT cancer ThaT relies upon whaT you know abouT The causes of unconTrolled growTh of cells h ince unconTrolled growTh in many cancer cells is associaTed wiTh abnormaliTies in proTooncogenes and Tumor suppressor genes iT would be reasonable To inTervene in The acTiviTies of These genes or The proTeins ThaT are made from Them For cancers arising from defecTs in proTooncogenes iT would be useful To pharmacologically inhibiT The acTions of The growTh promoTing oncogenes once They are produced or To enhance The counTerbalancing acTions of exisTing Tumorsuppressor genes Conversely for cancers arising from a loss of Tumor suppressor gene acTiviTy iT would be useful To also suppress The acTions of proTooncogenes or To resTore The normal acTions of The Tumor suppressor genes by gene Therapy or by giving pharmacological agenTs ThaT mimic The acTions of The Tumor suppressor proTeins ThaT have been osT I Review QuesTi ons 1 Which of The following sTaTemenTs abouT Transmission across aTypical chemical synapse is NOT True a NeuroTransmiTTer molecules are sTored in vesicles in The synapTic knob b AcTion poTenTials Trigger chemical changes ThaT make The neuroTransmiTTer vesicles fuse wiTh The plasma membrane o The ansmiTTin cell umm mug mun Minna m a li marlin w ill 39 imm i llquot i d The binding of neuroTransmiTTer To recepTors op receiving cell 2 n a resTing neuron a The poTassium concenTraTion is higher inside The cell Than ouTside b The ouTside of The cell membrane is negaTively charged wiTh respecT To The inside c The sodium 39 39 ll membrane is inacTive 9 e of The m um 39 gm 1 Ir quotf quotf 3 AcTion poTenTials are usually propagaTed in only one direcTion along an axon because 4 4 4 sodiumchannel node ofRanvier W a The Nodes of Ranvier only conducT in one direcTion c The nerve cell body has a higher poTenTial Than The axon Terminals d ions can only flow along The axon in one direcTion 5 How39s m elin differenT from oTher cell membranes ii in lips gi mil llMFVlla 6 A second sTimulus applied To a neuron or muscle fiber less Than 0001 second afTer The firsT will noT Trigger anoTher impulse This is called The refracTory period From whaT you know abouT The acTion poTenTial explain why There is a refracTory period and whaT is happening during This 39 d i39ii am it i gm ii a my 5 quotWm Jaw Mm n 7 Draw a graph of an acTion poTenTial and label The Threshold volTage and The resTing poTenTial When do Na channels open en do They close When do K channels open When o T ey close When is The NaK ATPase acTive I ii i a139 you kno 8 From wh across The membrane of a gian r squid axon are CI Na K inside 50 mM 400 mM ou rside 440 mM 20 mM b Na K inside 440 mM 20 mM ou rside 50 mM 400 mM C Na K inside 440 mM 400 mM ou rside I 50 mM I 20 mM I d Na K inside 50 mM 20 mM ou rside 440 mM 400 mM 9 The unequal dis rribu rion of ion concen rra rions across a nerve membrane is main rained by 8 ion channels neuro rransmi r rers c neurofransmi 39er recep rors Fquot 10 The res ring pofenfial across an axonal membrane is abou r a 0 mV i e e A i i PM 0 40 mV 1 variable be rween 60 mV and 40 mV 11 The lon range signaling componenf of a nerve cell is called The b dendri re c myelin shea rh 1 cell body 12 The nex r ques rions refer To The figure shown below 20 membrane g mth cm poteintial 3 HIV 60 7777 777777 a time milliseconds The TimedependenT change in The membrane poTenTial in The figure shown above is called a b The resTIng poTenTial c The Threshold poTenTial d hyperpolarizaTion During The porTion of The curve marked quotBquot a onl The K channel is oen ML ma Hm Llim aril iswm ua c boTh The K and Na channels are open 1 neiTher The K nor The Na channels are open Durin The orTion of The c cle marked quotCquot b only The Na channel is open 0 boTh The K and Na channels are open 1 neiTher The K nor The Na channels are open answer b The sTaTe indicaTed by The porTion of The cycle marked quotDquot is called a depolarizaTion b reolarizaTion ll w9yr39molu 39i mfioii d hypopolarizaTion 13 The specific connecTion beTween nerve cells and TargeT cells is called a an axon b a dendriTe c a s na Tic vesicle The funcTion of aceTylcholinesTerase is To a revenT The fusion of s naTic vesicles wiTh The lasma membrane 0 add aceTyl CoA To choline To form aceTylcholine d sTimulaTe release of aceTylcholine from synapTic vesicles 14 Release of aceTylcholine from synapTic vesicles in The nerve cells is Triggered by 39i L39 39 l b ATP hydrolysis c neuroTransmiTTer upTake d K upTake 15 Parkinson39s disease is a neurological disorder ThaT is associaTed wiTh a overproducTion of gamaaminobuTyric acid b underproducTion of monoamine oxidase overroducTion of doamine l UJT IDlIlquot l 3913r5ll Ci39iCm bl dia gwhi hz 17 NeuroTransmiTTer recepTors are locaTed wiThin a gap juncTions 39n n n d The synapTic clefT 19 Binding of aceTylcholine To The acelecholine recepTor proTein iniTiaTes an acTion poTenTial in The recipienT membrane Through selecTively increasing The inward flow of K reaTive To The influx of Na b decreasing The ionic permeabiliTy of The posTsynapTic membrane inducin aceT lcholine release from The posTsynapTic cell E r i l 1 cm cmiqlrmia armANN 4 IIAdulT zebrafish reTinaII Muscle ConTracTion 21 WhaT role do ATP molecules play in The process of conTracTion of a skeleTal muscle fiber a ATP molecules cause The cross bridges of Thin filamenTs To bind To Thick filamenTs b ATP molecules cause The binding siTes for Thick filamenTs To be exposed on Thin filamenTs c ATP molecules provide energy To enable myosin cross bridges To change conformaTion so ThaT They are able To bind To The acTin molecules on Thin filamenTs l l m 22 Muscle TeTany resulTs from depleTion of ATP during sTrenuous or prolonged muscle conTracTion Describe whaT happens during TeTany How does iT end 23 Calcium regulaTes muscle conTracTion Where is iT sTored WhaT causes iTs release To which proTein does iT bind WhaT proTein is responsible for reTurning calcium To iTs inTercellular sTore 24 Why are dead people called sTiffs Describe whaT happens during rigor morTis 25 WhaT is The difference beTween fasT TwiTch whiTe muscle fibers and slow TwiTch red muscle fibers I Signal TransducTion 26 Give a specific example of a membrane receT a as a ligand gaTed ion channel Ti as a Tyrosine kinase Tin mmim 7 by inTeracTing wiTh a 6 proTein i ria 27 6 proTeins are involved in many signal TransducTion paThways Briefly ouTline The essenTial componenTs of how a 6 proTein is sTrucTured and how iT works in general WhaT does adenl aTe c clase do Where is iT locaTed 1 A H Draw a sTep by sTep diagram of how an exTernal sTimulus can acTivaTe adrenaline release and ulTimaTely resulT in an increase in blood glucose A I The locaTion of epinephrine synThesis is a The beTa cells of The pancreas b The Th roid 7 i d The ski 33 Hormone recepTors ThaT acTivaTe or inhibiT adenyl cyclase musT firsT acTivaTe a roTein kinase C 39al39iw c phospholipase C d proTein kinase A 34 cAMP is a second messenger ThaT acTivaTes a gm mi in l39l i 4i awnmm hm ii39 39 39 y b The insulin recepTor proTein c 6 proTeins d phospholipase C 35 In The absence of a hormone signal The alpha subuniT of a 6 proTein binds To a cAMP b Ca2 lul39l 5 humid 1 law iqmqii ic l 3 d GTP A 0 Preproinsulin conTains a hydrophobic signal sequence ThaT does noT exisT in The acTive hormone The funcTion of This hydrophobic sequence is To a insure correcT foldin of insulin inTo iTs acTive form 39 i l li igl u39iiniii igoiquot ii Hiii lil 39 h I V39k39ilHI LLlcl c inhibiT hormone acTiviTy unTil iT is secreTed inTo The blood sTream d direcT cell proTeases in correchy processing proinsulin To form insulin Vision 1 Rhodopsin is a member of a family of membrane recepTor proTeins ThaT all have Transmembrane helical segmenTs a Two b four 0 seven 1 Ten answer c 2 11cis reTinal is derived from a viaTmin A b viTamin 312 c viTamin C d viTamin D answer a 3 The cofacTor in The acTive form of rhodopsin is linked To The proTein a by a proTonaTed Schiff base linkage To an arginine residue b by a nonproTonaTed Schiff base linkage To an arginine residue 0 by a proTonaTed Schiff base linkage To a lysine residue 1 by a nonproTonaTed Schiff base linkage To a lysine residue answer c 4 The ouTer segmenT of each rod cell conTains a 3 disks b beTween 10 and 40 disks 0 beTween 500 and 2000 disks 1 abouT 200000 disks answer c 5 The lens of The eye is made of a TransparenT proTein called a crysTallin b opsin c baThorhodopsin d lumirhodopsin answer a 6 In rod cells rhodopsin absorbs lighT maximally aT a 220 nm b 380 nm 0 500 nm 1 750 nm gt1 9 0 answer c Human cone cells are sensiTive To color because lighT of differenT wavelengThs has differenT energies which are more or less efficienT in acTivaTing rhodopsin b human cone cells have filTers ThaT allow only lighT of cerTain wavelengThs To peneTraTe Their disc membranes lighT rays enTering The eye are r efracTed differenle depending on The wavelengTh and because The cofacTor of rhodopsin is orienTed specifically wiThin The disc membranes rhodopsin acTivaTion is sensiTive To The angle of refracTion d cone cells have Three differenT rhodopsin molecules each of which is maximally sensiTive To a differenT wavelengTh answer d E O The orienTaTion of The reTinal wiTh respecT To The plane of The disc membrane is a parallel b perpendicular 0 parallel when iT is in The form of 11cis reTinal buT perpendicular when iT is allTransreTinal d perpendicular when iT is in The form of 11cisreTinal buT parallel when iT is allTransreTinal answer a When The elecTron densiTy increases near The niTrogen aTom of The Shiff base linkage in rhodopsin a The wavelengTh of The absorpTion maximum decreases b The wavelengTh of The absorpTion maximum increases 0 The wavelengTh of The absorpTion maximum remains The same d There are Two absorpTion maxima in The region beTween 380 nm and 630 nm answer a When opsin is mixed wiTh reTinal in viTro a neiTher 11cis reTinal nor allTransreTinal will bind b boTh 11cis reTinal and allTrans reTinal will bind c only 11cis reTinal will bind d only allTrans reTinal will bind answer c BaThorhodopsin is The firsT meTasTable producT of The phoTochemical reacTion of rhodopsin The cofacTor in baThorhodopsin is a 11cis reTinal b allTransreTinal c 9cis reTinal d 13cisreTinal answer b 12 Which of The following acTivaTes Transducin a baThorhodopsin b lumirhodopsin c meTarhodopsin I d meTarhodopsin II answer d H A Transd ucin is a a Ca2 binding proTein b a phosphodiesTerase c a Na channel acTivaTor d a 6 proTein answer d 14 The sequence of evenTs following absorpTion of a phoTon of lighT by a rhodopsin molecule in a rod cell is as follows a 1 Transducin is acTivaTed 2 phosphodiesTerase is acTivaTed 3 cGMP is hydrolyzed 4 Na channels close 1 Transducinis acTivaTed2 cGMP is 39 39 39 3 r39 r39 quot useis39 39 T 39 4 Na channels close 0 1 Transducin is acTivaTed 2 phosphodiesTerase is acTivaTed 3 cGMP is hydrolyzed 4 Na channels open Fquot d 1 Transducin is acTivaTed 2 phosphodiesTerase is acTivaTed 3 cGMP is synThesized 4 Na channels open answer a 15 When rhodopsin is acTivaTed by lighT The rod cell is a depolarized by The TransienT opening of Na ion channels b hyperpolarized by The TransienT closure of Na ion channels 0 hypopolarized by The TransienT opening of Na ion channels 1 polarized by The TransienT opening of Na ion channels answer b 16 Of The following which is a single subuniT inTegral membrane proTein wiTh a molecular mass of abouT 38000 a Transd uci n b phosphodiesTerase c gyanlylaTe cyclase d opsi n answer d 17 As rhodopsin cycles Through exciTaTion by lighT followed by regeneraTion a 11cisreTinal is isomerized To allTransreTinal which is Then regeneraTed insiTu Through a process ThaT involves 9cisreTinal and phosphaTidylcholine H 0 22 b AllTransreTinal is isomerized To 11cisreTinal which is Then released from The rhodopsin The 11cisreTinal is Then Transferred To The pigmenT epiThelium where iT is converTed back To allTransreTinal c 11cis reTinal is isomerized To allTransreTinal which is Then released from rhodopsin The allTransreTinal is Transferred To The pigmenT epiThelium where iT is converTed back To 11 cisreTinal in a series of reacTions ThaT involve reducTion by NADH esTerificaTion conversion To 11cisreTinol and finally oxidaTion To form 11cis reTinal d AllTransreTinal is isomerized To 11cisreTinal which is Then converTed back To form all TransreTinal in a reacTion ThaT requires lighT answer c GyanylaTe cyclase The enzyme ThaT converTs GTP To cGMP is sTrongly inhibiTed by a arresTin b Na 0 Ca2 d The I submiT of Transducin answer c PhosphodiesTerase is acTivaTed by a phosphorylaTion aT mulTiple serine and Threonine siTes b a complex beTween The I subunit of transducin and GTP 0 Na d allTransreTinal answer b The elecTrochemical poTenTial across The rod cell cyToplasmic membrane is generaTed by a The Na KATPase b The plasma membrane Ca2ATPase c phosphodiesTerase d movemenT of proTons across The plasma membrane in response To lighT acTivaTion of rhodopsin answer a The funcTion of arresTin is To a inhibiT producTion of cGMP b phosphorylaTe rhodopsin c bind To phosphorylaTed rhodopsin Thus prevenTing conTinued acTivaTion of Transducin d bind To phosphodiesTerase Thus rendering iT inacTive answer c Reversal of The acTivaTion of TheDII subunit of trans ducin is achieved by a replacemenT of bound GDP by GTP b binding of cGMP c hydrolysis of bound GTP leaving bound GDP and free inorganic phosphaTe 1 release of cGMP answer c N L In The pigmenT epiThelium The energy required To converT allTransreTinal To 11cisreTinal is supplied by a GTP hydrolysis b lighT c The Na gradienT across The cell membrane d hydrolysis of a phospholipid answer d 24 Each molecule of rhodopsin ThaT is converTed To meTarhodopsin II causes acTivaTion of a 1 molecule of Transducin b abouT 500 molecules of Transducin c abouT 25000 molecules of Transducin d abouT 25 x 106 molecules of Transducin answer b N UI GuanlylaTe cyclase caTalyzes The synThesis of cGMP from GTP If you Transienle inhibiTed This enzyme for lt 10 milliseconds a you would Transienle arresT The abiliTy of a rod cell To respond To lighT b The effecT would be The same as if The rod cell were responding To a lighT signal 0 There would be no effecT on The rod cell39s abiliTy To respond To lighT however There would be a negaTive effecT on The abiliTy To regeneraTe 11cisreTinal d 11cis reTinal would sponTaneously isomerize To form allTransreTinal even in The absence of lighT answer b 26 Gppr is a nonhydrolyzable analog of GTP ThaT can bind To Transducin in The presence of lighT acTivaTed rhodopsin FurThermore The complex beTween The Transducin I subunit and 613pr can bind To The reguIaTory pepTide of phosphodiesTerase Thus in The presence of 6ppr you would expecT ThaT rhodopsin Transducin and phosphodiesTerase would all funcTion normally rhodopsin would noT acTivaTe Transducin rhodopsin would acTivaTe Transducin buT Transducin would noT acTivaTe phosphodiesTerase rhodopsin would acTivaTe Transducin and Transducin would acTivaTe phosphodiesTerase buT The signal To acTivaTe Transducin could noT be reversed answer d 999 27 Transducin DJ GDP binds to a The reguIaTory pepTide of phosphodiesTerase b The caTalyTic subuniT of phosphodiesTerase 11
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