MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY HTH 300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adah Reilly on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HTH 300 at James Madison University taught by James Hammond in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/214060/hth-300-james-madison-university in Health Sciences at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Chapter 10 Aneurysm bulging of an arterial wall caused by a congenital defect or an acquired weakness of the arterial wall produced as blood is pushed against it Aneurysmectomy surgical removal excision of an aneurysm a bulging of an arterial wall Angina pectoris chest pain usually caused by an insufficient supply of blood to the heart Angiocarditis inflammation of the heart and blood vessels Angiogram a recording obtained from an angiography procedure an x ray of a blood vessel after injection ofa contrast medium Angioma tumor that arises from a blood vessel Angioplasty general surgical repair of a blood vessel includes procedures to reopen blocked vessels Angiorrhaphy suturing a blood vessel to close an incision Angioscopy use of a flexible fiberoptic instrument or endoscope to observe diseased blood vessel in order to assess the lesion and decide upon a mode oftreatment the procedure also includes use of a camera video recorder and monitor Angiospasm abnormal contractions spasms of a blood vessel wall Angiostenosis narrowing of a blood vessel Aortogram a recording of an x ray of the aorta Arrhythmia any loss of rhythm in the heartbeat Arteriogram a recording of an x ray of a particular artery Arteriorrhexis rupture of an artery Arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries the artery walls lose their elasticity and become brittle Atherectomy surgical removal of a fatty plaque within a blood vessel using a specialized rotary knife and a catheter flexible tube Ateriotomy an incision into an artery Atherosclerosis narrowing of an artery due to the deposition of a fatty plaque along the internal wall Atrial septal defect congenital condition characterized by an opening in the septum that separates the right and left atria allowing blood to pass between the atria Atrioventricular defect defect usually congenital that alters the structure of both an atrium and a ventricle Auscultation physical examination that consists of listening to the internal sounds using a stethoscope sounds that suggest abnormalities are often caused by dysrhythmias Bradycardia an abnormally slow heart rate usually under 50 beats per minute Cardiac arrest cessation of heart activity Cardiac catheterization insertion ofa narrow flexible tube or catheter through a coronary blood vessel to withdraw blood samples measuring pressures and inject contrast medium for imaging purposes Cardiac pacemaker battery powered that is implanted under the skin and wired to the SA node produces timed electric pulses that replace the pacemaking function of the SA node Cardiac tamponade acute compression ofthe heart due to the accumulation of fluid within the pericardial cavity Cardiodynia a sensation of pain in the heart Cardiogenic a condition that originates from the heart Cardiologist physician who specializes in the treatment of patients with heart disease Cardiology field of medicine that focuses on the treatment of patients with heart disease also a department within a hospital where heart disease patients receive care Cardiomegaly abnormal hypertrophy enlargement of the heart Cardiomyopathy a general disease of the heart muscle Caridopulmonary resuscitation emergency response procedure that includes artificial ventilation and external heart massage in an effort to resuscitate or revive the patient Cardiovalvulitis inflammation of the heart valves Caludication a pain in the limb usually the lower leg caused by poor circulation Coarctation of the aorta congenital disease in which the aorta is narrowed causes reduced systemic circulation and fluid accumulation in the lungs Congenstive heart failure chronic condition characterized by the inability of the left ventricle to pump enough blood through the body to adequately supply systemic tissues also called left ventricular valve Cor pulmonale literally heart lung in French chronic enlargement ofthe right ventricle that results from congestion within the pulmonary circulation also called right ventricular failure Coronary angiogram a recording of an x ray of the heart s circulation Coronary artery bypass graft surgical procedure in which a blood vessel is removed from another part ofthe body and inserted in the coronary circulation to bypass blood flow around an occluded coronary artery Coronary artery disease generalized condition ofthe arteries ofthe heart characterized by reduction of blood flow to the heart wall the most common cause is atherosclerosis Coronary occlusion blockage of an artery that supplies the heart often due to atherosclerosis Cyanosis blue coloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by oxygen deficiency Deep vein thrombosis the abnormal presence of stationary blood clots within the deep veins of the leg Defibrillation electrical charge to the heart in an effort to defibrillate or to stop fibrillation of the heart delivered by paddles onto the skin of the chest or to the heart muscle directly ifthe chest has been opened Doppler sonography ultrasound procedure that evaluates blood flow in an effort to determine the cause of a localized reduction in blood flow Dysrhythmia a disturbance or abnormality of the heart s normal rhythmic cycle Echocardiography ultrasound procedure in which sound waves are directed through the heart to evaluate heart anomalies the recorded data is called an echocardiogram if performed during exercise to identify heart conditions the procedure is called stress echocardiogram or stress ECHO Electrocardiography procedure in which the electrical events associated with the beating of the heart are evaluated and a represented by deflecting ofa pen on a graph known as an electrocaridogram or EKG when the heartbeat is measured during physical activity using a treadmill or ergometer the procedure is called a stress electrocardiogram which is useful for detecting heart conditions Embolectomy surgical removal of a floating blood clot or embolus Embolism blood clot or foreign particle that moves through the circulation which can produce a severe circulatory restriction when it becomes lodged in an artery pluralemboi Endarterectomy surgical removal ofa fatty plaque or a blood clot from the interior of an artery Endocarditis inflammation of the endocardium a common cause is a bacterial infection in which case it is called bacterial endocarditis Fibrillation uncoordinated rapid contractions of the ventricles or atria resulting in circulatory collapse Heart attack acute episode during which the heart fails to pump blood effectively also called myocardial infarction Heart block an interference with the normal electrical conduction of the heart often the result of a sudden reduction of blood flow that affects the SA or AV node Heart flutter extremely rapid but regular contractions of the heart either atrial or ventricular Heart murmur an abnormal soft blowing or rasping sound head through auscultation ofthe heart Hemorrhoidectomy surgical removal of the hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids varicose vein in the anal region produces symptoms of local pain and itching Holter ambulatory monitor portable electrocardiograph worn by the patient monitors electrical activity ofthe heart over twenty four hour periods providing useful in detecting periodic or transient abnormalities Hypertension persistently high blood pressure includes essential hypertension in which the condition is not traceable to a single cause and secondary hypertension in which the high blood pressure is caused by the effects of another disease such as atherosclerosis Hypotension chronic condition of low blood pressure lschemia an abnormally low flow of blood to tissues often the result of atherosclerotic plaque formation or blood clots Magnetic resonance angiography magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and coronary blood vessels Myocardial infarction acute episode during which the heart fails to pump blood effectively resulting in death ofa portion of the myocardium also known as heart attack Myocardial radionuclide perfusion scan test in which blood flow perfusion to cardiac cells ins monitored following injection of an isotope the test may be performed while the patient is under stress or at rest