INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC RELATIONS
INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC RELATIONS SCOM 260
Popular in Course
Popular in Communication Studies
verified elite notetaker
This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cyril Kling on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SCOM 260 at James Madison University taught by Michael Smilowitz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/214071/scom-260-james-madison-university in Communication Studies at James Madison University.
Reviews for INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC RELATIONS
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/26/15
1 What is consumerism 3 gt m 9 2 2 39 7 V lr 7 H Y 39V V39 y I 11 Mquot s A fewhistorical antecedents 7 I i 391 i 39 w l 739 39 317 7 H w y quot11 A fewhistorical antecedents Wthe ghmfety i quot the fight to be informed v w theri ghttochoose w l the right to be heard A fewhistorical antecedents protection from hazardous products l V and services protection from misleading advertising and labeling and 7 instead given good facts 39 being able to select from a variety 39 of competitively priced 39 satisfactory products andrservices ensuring that consumer interests affect the development of pro ducts services and government regulations A fewhistorical antecedents b What do consumer groups do Are consumer groups effective I 9 if ti if 3951 Are consumer groups effective Lessons for PR professionals 5 3 g i 1 A 3 gt WINS 2 Y 39V V y 39 O O 0 Internal Communication Applying the skills of public relations practitioners to the organization s most important audience Employees Management seeks to communicate its views and objectives to its employees 0 Management controls the formal internal communication process 0 Both formal and informal processes are rulegoverned informal rulesjust aren t written down Communicating effectively 0 Respect o Honest feedback 0 Recognition 0 Voice employees want their ideas heard 0 Encouragement Employee trust comes with being 0 Strategic o Honest 0 Open 0 Consistent Functions of Internal Communication 0 Indoctrination and Orientation I Information about the organization as a whole philosophy structure policies I Information relative to specific duties channels and work procedures I land 0 processes continue well past initial entry into the organization 0 Safety and Loss Prevention I Information helpful to protecting welfare of organizational membersorganizational resources 0 Compensation and benefits I Employees often regard this type of information as the most important function 0 Organizational change and development I Information provided to keep members informed about new plans and changes in objectives and strategies 0 Morale and satisfaction I Messages which objectives are the improvement of member s selfconcepts interpersonal relationships and attitudes about the organization I Assumes happy employees are hardworking employees Internal Communication Channels 0 Employee newsletter I Provides information regarding organizational wide events major changes visions successes and interesting things about members Ch 18 Public Relations and the Web Communication technologies have not made the work any easier for the professional communicator Problems with the WEB o The growing number of websites standing out in the crowd o No clear measures of web success 0 The nature of web development requires close working relationships among units not accustomed to working with each other computer geeks with marketing amp communication geniuses Website Planning 0 Shelbourne recommends that the process begins by thinking through the purpose of the site I How should the client be perceived I Who is the intended audience I What is the site intended to provide 0 Better websites encourages users to return again and again I Interesting graphics I Fun things to do I Free stuff I Contests 0 Shelbourne also recommends careful planning of the appearance I Keep graphics smalland toa minimum I Avoid lengthy Java scripts and applets I Provide easy to use navigation buttons and a table of contents The Web Site life cycle 0 Research goal definition and analyzing the competition 0 Specification Define features of web site determine technology requirements 0 Design Determine visual identity what is it supposed to look like implementation details who what when where 0 Development implement design collaborate with all involved units 0 Testing Make sure it works like it should 0 Marketing and release Prepare for launch publicize and promote website 0 Maintenance monitor traffic and answer emails publish regular site updates 0 Renewal Evaluate the site Site Promotion 0 Include URL I As part of client s stationary I In all printed and broadcast advertisements I In contributions to discussion groups and chat rooms 0 Other techniques I Reciprocal Linking Contact owners of related web sites and offer link to their site ifthe same is done for you I Go green I Go Pink I People friendly Government and Public Relations PR activities in government are involved in 0 Environmental issues programs 0 Political and issue advocacy campaigns 0 Grassroots organizing and advocacy o Letterwriting campaigns 0 Advocacy Advertising PR practitioners 0 Monitor government activity 0 Research public opinion on political issues 0 Disseminate information about government actions and pending legislation 0 Plan and execute political strategies Trade association activities represent particular professions and industries have offices in the nation s capital and many state capitals 0 Review pending legislation 0 Attend and report legislative actions 0 Maintain contact with regulatory agencies Researching Public Opinion 0 Monitoring of media s treatment of controversial political issues that may affect the client s present and future profitability and growth 0 Sampling target publics o Arranging focus group of political constituents Lobbying o Lobbyist individual who is paid by a third party to influence individuals in the executive and legislative branches of the federal government 0 Big Lobbyist groups I Oil companies I Antismoking groups I Tobacco companies I Pharmaceutical companies 0 Grass Roots Lobbying I Aimed at mobilizing constituents to contact and influence their representatives I Tools include computerized direct mailings local group meetings phone banks form letters email 0 Lobbying Reform Act of 1995 I Lobbyists must register with congress and report their clients the issues they are attempting to influence and their fees I Lobbyists cannot buy meals for congressional members unless 25 or more people are present I Senators cannot receive gifts worth more than 50 or free travel to special events 0 Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of 2007 Public Relations Communication activities that responsibly manage the interactions between needs of clients and relevant public good for client is good for public 1 Press agentry publicity through attention getting devicespublicity gimmickry Legacy of press agentry doing anything for publicity Beginnings did so much wrong that the reputation carries on 2 Publicity planned program to gain favorable media coverage of topics important to client 3 Promotion builds an image of a product 4 Propaganda political communication more negative to make people do something that otherwise they probably would not The 3R s of PR Responsible Comm professional to client and profession social ethical rightwrong Relational Comm Transactional benefits the public Researched Comm must know it works professionals paid to choose purposeful actions to deliberate programs PR is a Cyclical model research relevancy policy formation strategic programming tactical communication feedback assessment and adjustment Policy formation assess the research inputs and establish goals and objectives Programming plan and coordinate Marston s fourstep model of in uence 1 Research research attitudes about the issue at hand 2 Action identify action of the client in the public interest most important take action then communicate later 3 Communication communication that action to gain understanding acceptance and support 4 Evaluation evaluate the communication to see if opinion has been in uenced RACE research action communication evaluation ROSIE and RPIE PR is the management function which evaluates public attitudes identifies policies and procedures of an individual or organization with public interest and plans of action to earn public understanding Sharpe s Five Principles of Long Term Relationships Honest communication for credibility Openness and consistency of actions for con dence Faimess of actions for goodwill Continuous twoway communication to prevent alienation Environmental research and evaluation to determine actions History Caesar uses Gallic Commentaries to encourage soldiers through scribs early journalists also pamphlets and staged events Genghis Kahn advance men to scare the next town Catholic church vouchers for sins 1St press release in 1758 at Columbia 7 Kings College to announce graduation exercises Lessons learned in Revolutionary War Use of symbols Use of slogans Get your side of the story first to public Sustained campaign 7 war was longer than most thought it would PostRevolutionary Amos Kendall press secretary for Andrew Jackson ghost writer for speeches Ivy Ledbetter Lee Father of public relations in 1906 issued his declaration of principles Accurate information on things of value and public interest Trends in society Growth of big institutions Heightened public awareness and media sophistication people more segmented and specialized Increasing incidence of societal change con ict and confrontation Globalization and growing power of media Dominance of the Internet George Creel creates Four Minutemen to make 4 min presentations Created songs and Uncle Sam s poster I Want You Growth of Modern Public Relations Woodrow Wilson established Creel Committee to get public involved in WWI 1923 Edward Bemays taught lSt PR course New York University Wrote crystallizing public opinion and coined public relations counsel Worked tandem with his wife Doris Fleischmen mother of PR 1933 Clem Whitaker and Leone Baxter established lSt political campaign Managed 80 campaigns and only lost 6 used MEDIA BLITZ technique Office of War Information OWI new techniques for disseminating information during war J aps attack rubber told everyone to conserve rubber Increase of paid advertising in areas of Public service advertising Issueadvocacy advertising buying ad space Institutional advertising military as an institution Information Era in 60s Increased globalization and expectations of corporate social responsibility 1964 14 institutions offer bachelor s degree of PR Demand for twoway communication and more specific media formats Greater emphasis on scientific research methods Fisher theoretical perspectives determine aspects that are relevant and important power of association metaphor De nition of Public Group of people that 1 Faces similar situation 2 Recognizes what is problematic in the situation 3 Organizes to do something about the problem Types of publics Internal and external inside the organization Primary secondary and marginal most helphinder organization Traditional and future employees and current customers Proponents opponents and the uncommitted who the institution must deal with differently Spin Distinctive interpretation of an issue or action to sway public opinion Sophistry using fancy speech to in uence someone or something to do something Since Plato anyone that uses speech well cannot be trusted Shannon and Weaver Model Linear S0urce speaker s mind the thoughts feelings and speaker s wishes Enc0des transmitter attaches symbols the speaker wants to convey Channel all human senses to receive Dec0des receiver means by which the listener removes the thoughts and feelings from speaker Destinati0n where the message resides in listener Effectiveness is if s0urcedestinati0n Noise can occur anywhere in the process through physical or psychological noise Fidelity faithfulness of reproduction of the message 1 Clarity 2 Accuracy 3 Understanding 4 Acceptance Complication factors meanings are a subjective process and cant transgress denotative real connotative subjective and emotional Time is three layered present affects our past and future Chapter 3 Communication 1 Goals of communication To Inform informeducate a specific public To Persuade persuade people to take certain actions To Motivate To build mutual understanding Two PR Perspectives 1 Linear direct mechanistic structured view Must be something we can say to make our target act the way we want Ordered and connected Transmission of symbols from one person to another Refer to Shannon and Weavers Model Source encodes channel decodes Receiver 2 Relational transactional process and regards all participants as active agents Simultaneous we communicate by what happens between us Ballistic 2 Traditional theories of communication Two step ow theory organization will send a message to the media who would then relay that message to the masses Concentric circle theory people pick up and accept ideas from leaders whose impact on public opinion may be greater than the mass media Theories of Pat Jackson 5 step process Build awareness through mechanisms such as advertising and word of mouth Developing a latent readiness stage at which people begin to form an opinion based on knowledge emotions or relationships Triggering event an event naturally occurring or planned that makes you want to change your behavior Intermediate behavior the individual is determining how to best apply a behavior Behavior change adopting a new behavior SEMDR communication begins with the SOURCE who issues a MESSAGE to a RECEIVER who decides to take action Two addition steps are an ENCODING and DECODING stage Spiral of silence depends on the nonparticipation of the majority When someone is uninformed they will tend to side with the majority in fear of becoming isolated 3 Contemporary Theories of Communication Constructivism You should have some background knowledge of the receiver to identify how they think and thus challenge their preconceived notions Coordinated management of meaning Based on social interaction where each participant is affected by the other GrunigHunt public relations models 4 of them 1 Press agentrypublicity one way communication that sends a message to the receiver in hopes of getting favorable media attention 2 Public information one way communication with the intent of informing 3 Two way asymmetric two way communication organization puts out information and receives feedback from its publics 4 Two way symmetric free and equal ow of information between an organization and its publics 4 The Message The content is the message Content is the most important part of a message The medium is the message The medium by which the message is delivered is the most important New York Times vs a tiny online blog The person is the message The person delivering the message speaker is the most important part of the message 5 Receiver s Bias Stereotypes a stereotype can affect the way a message is received research shows a man with glasses is more believable than the same man delivering the same message without glasses Symbols Different symbols can leave different impressions on people examples are the thumbs up red cross or world trade center Semantics because language and the meanings of words change constantly they must be chosen carefully Peer Groups peer pressure generally prevails in terms of in uencing a bias Media Agenda setting is the ability of the media to tell the public what topics are important 6 Feedback Feedback may change attitudes crystallize attitudes give them that extra push to go ahead and do it create a wedge of doubt or do nothing Chapter 4 Public Opinion Public is a group sharing common interests opinion is the expression of an attitude on a specific topic Static Structural stationary and stable snapshot camera ex Campus of JMU Dynamic Functional movement changeable action and behavior video recorder Note it is much easier to hit a stationary target then a moving one 1 What are attitudes they can be positive negative or nonexistent Attitudes are groups of beliefs that are organized around a focal object or situation Attitudes predispose not cause a person to behave in a particular way toward object or situation Rokeach believes in two kinds of Attitudes Attitudes toward an object relate to a thing person or concept Attitudes towards a situation ex I like eating lunch with friends Attitudes are based on 7 characteristics 1 Personal size age social status 2 Cultural environment and lifestyle of a certain geographic area 3 Educational 4 Familial peoples roots children tend to squire their parents political affiliation tastes biases etc 5 Religious 6 Class 7 Race ethnic origin which today increasingly helps shape people s attitudes 2 Motivating attitude change Maslow hierarchy of needs llowest physiological needs food water sleep 2 safety shelter protection peace 3 love 1 39 39 love r 4 esteem recognition con dence intelligence success 5 highest self actualization becoming all that one is capable of becoming self fulfillment I I 39 Elaboration likelihood model 2 ways people are persuaded 1 When interested and focused enough to take a direct route to decision making 2 Not engaged on a message and need to take a more peripheral route 3 Power of Persuasion People may be of2 mindsets 1 Systematic carefully considered an argumentactively creatively and ale1tly 2 Heuristic skimming the surface and not focusing on the intricacies To successfully persuade you must cite evidence that coincides with their beliefs emotions and expectations 1 Facts facts are indisputable 2 Emotions emotional appeals love peace family patriotism 3 Personalizing people respond to speaking from personal experience 4 Appealing to quotYOUquot must consider what will appeal most to the audience 4 In uencing public opinion Opinion is highly sensitive to important events events of unusual magnitude tend to shift opinions from one extreme to the other 911 war on terror Opinion in uenced more by actions than by words unless the words are seen as an action At critical times people are more sensitive to the adequacy of their leadership Once selfinterest is involved opinion is slow to change People form opinions on goals easier than methods to achieving goals As people are provided information more readily opinion reveals a hardheaded common sense Complex Understanding of Public Opinion Direction evaluative quality of opinion 0 For vs Against 0 Pro vs Con Intensity how strongly people feel about their opinion Stability endurance or time that an opinion has been held Informational Support how much knowledge people hold about the object or opinion Social Support the in uence of peers to have a great impact on the individuals or little Grunig s Situational theory of Publics Two categories 0 Issue involvement I All issue publics active on all issues I Apathetic publics inactive on all issues I Single Issue publics active on one or a limited number of related issues I Hot issue publics media generated publics on topics of widespread social conversation 0 Problem Awareness I Non publics not affected by clientdon t affect the client I Latent publics not aware of impact client has on them or impact on client 0 Due to Lack of informationapathy I Aware publics recognize mutual involvement doesn t do more than possibly share information with one another I Active publics organize themselves to share information share info plan and do something about the issue or situation Theorizing and practice regarding public opinion operates primarily from a psychological point of view Psychologists communication is processed by the mind which affects our behavior Communication scholars communication is what affects the mind to behave Nature of values Terminal what you want at the end Instrumental what you have to do day by day to get to your terminal values Ch 5 Management Management process of Public Relations Managers insist on RESULTS Organizations provide for their public relation activities by 0 Hiring an external agency 0 Maintaining an intemal department 0 Some combination of both PR Management Process 0 Define the problem or opportunity research current attitudes or opinions Programming formal planning stage addresses key publics strategies and goals Action communications phase where you implement the program Evaluation 000 Grunig and Hunt 0 Boundary role PR manager s function at the edge between the organization and its external and internal publics one foot inside one foot out PR managers within an organization must report to top management 0 If it is to remain valuable to the organization the PR must be I Independent I Credible I Objective Planning PR plan must include 0 Clear objectives 0 Targeted strategies 0 Tactics to implement 0 Measurement methods Public Relations campaign plan 0 Backgrounding the problem 0 Preparing the proposal I Elements vary but generally include following Situational analysis Scope of assignment what the PR program will attempt to do Target audiences Research methods Key messages What do we want to tell our audiences Communications vehicles devices to be used Project team 0 Timing and fees 0 Implementing the plan speci c activities are de ned people are assigned to them and deadlines are established 0 Evaluating the campaign whether the plan worked or not Setting Goals Good goals can be measured MBOMBR Management by objectivesresults Powerful source of feedback 0 Ties public relations results to managements predetermined objectives in terms of audiences messages and the media Implementing MBO 0 Specification of organizational goals with objective measures of the organizations performance 0 Conferences between the superior and the subordinate 0 Agreement between superior and subordinate on objectives 0 Periodic reviews to assess progress 0 7 Steps to use MBO effectively I Defining nature and mission of the work I Determine key result areas I Identify measurable factors on which objectives can be set I Setting objectives I Preparing tactical plans Programming actions Scheduling Budgeting Accountability Reviewing Budgeting The key to budgeting relies on two steps Estimating the resources both personnel and purchases needed for accomplishing activities Estimating the cost and availability of those resources 0 Functional budgeting Used in public relations agencies for producing revenue I Dollars for staff resources activities are linked to revenue generating activities 0 Administrative budgeting staff activity and not responsible for generating revenue I Dollars are assigned generally against the department s allocation for staff and expenses There are payforperformance type programs which are frowned upon by most agencies because of no guarantee that their program will work Most agencies have the clients only pay for services rendered or on a year or monthly basis 0 Retainer basis the client will keep a certain percentage of the amount of money until the client is satisfied and the job is complete Gantt Chart series of tasks necessary for completion of the project at hand PERT Program evaluation and review technique shows the relationship between each activity TWO ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES PR professionals generally work in one of the two Staff support the primary business of the organization 0 PR is typically a staff function 0 Staff professionals provide support to the line functions Line primary task to earn revenue Staff managers cannot order line managers to follow any particular course of action The biggest difference between internal and external public relations is perspective The most difficult part is not attracting clients but retaining them The best clientagency relationships are free owing communications between internal and external public relations groups Reputation A companie s reputation is based on the rational products and performance and the emotional or behavioral factors like customer service and experience Harold Burson chairman of Burson Marteller states In the beginning top management used to say to us Here s the message deliver it Then it became What should we say Now in smart organizations it s What should we do Objectives Objectives should 1 Be written in the form of infinitive sentences 2 Identify only one speci ed outcome 3 Be verifiable 4 Specify the time frame or target date for completion Output objectives Specify the work processes and programs to be produced Actions and events displays exhibits ceremonies receptions open houses Uncontrolled media News releases media kits Controlled media Paid for by client PR advertising brochures Videos kiosks Impact objectives Specify the type of intended effects on targeted audiences Informational objectives intended to expose target publics to info about the client Attitudinal objectives intended to create a new attitude reinforce an existing attitude or change an attitude in a target public Behavioral objects Involve messages intended to cause a new behavior reinforce an existing behavior or to discourage the continuation of a behavior in a target public Chapter 6 Ethics 2 Ethics standards of conduct that indicate how one should behave based on moral duties and Virtues 2 PR is all about earning credibility acting ethically telling the truth and doing the right thing 39 Cardina1 rule of PR never lie 2 Essence of ethics 39 Utilitarianism consider the quot greater goodquot over what is best for an individual Categorical imperative act on that maxim which you will to become a universal law Principle of utility quotseek the greatest happiness for the greatest numberquot Applied ethics commonly accepted sense of professional conduct that is translated into formal codes of ethics Absolutism there are absolute standards that can be applied to every situation to judge whether the conduct is right or wrong Ex Ten Commandments O In doing the right thing we strengthen our character because of the con icts with interest that we deal with Situational Ethics every different context will have its own ethical standards 0 Think rationally in every situation 0 People are responsible for their actions Ethical Egoism Epicurus de ned the good life as the individual getting as much pleasure as possible 0 Often called hedonism 0 Don t worry be happy 2 Ethics change with society 2 Code of conduct formal statement of the values and business practices of a corporation 2 Formal codes of conduct can 39 Increase public con dence 39 Stem the tide of regulation 39 Improve internal operations 39 Respond to transgressions I BOTH PRSA and IABC have codes of ethics 39 Neither have much impact 39 90 of PR professionals are NOT apart of the IABC or PRSA 39 Codes are so vague that it is hard to determine what the violations are 9 o O N Corporate social responsibility how companies manage the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society gt Any social institution is responsible for the behavior of its members gt Recognition that we do not live in this world alone v Social responsibilities of organizations include 39 Environmental activities external relations employee safety 39 Employment diversity 39 Safe product lines marketing practices corporate philanthropy 2 Ethics in journalism news media 39 Should not communicate unofficial charges affecting reputation or moral character without giving the accused a chance to reply 39 Must guard against invading a person s right to privacy 39 Should not pander to morbid curiosity about details of vice and crime v Ethical theories 39 Attorneyadversary model compares PR to legal profession suggests practitioners have no obligation to consider public interest or any outside view beyond that of their client 39 Twoway communication model suggests practitioners balance their role as a client advocate with one as social conscience for the larger public 39 Enlightened selfinterest model suggests companies gain a competitive edge and are more respected in the marketplace if they behave ethically 39 Responsible advocacy model practitioner s rst loyalty is to their client but they also have a responsibility to voice the opinions of organizational stakeholders suggests practitioner s greatest need for ethical guidance is in the reconciliation of being both a professional advocate and a social conscience 2 PRSA S core values 39 Advocacy Honesty Expertise Independence Loyalty Fairness Chapter 7 The Law Lawyers advise clients on what they must do to defend themselves in a court of law and public relations advise on what they should do to defend themselves in the court of public opinion Public relations begin with the First Amendment of freedom of speech Defamation comment made to damage the image of another Libel printed falsehood Slander oral falsehood Must consist of l Falsehood made through print broadcast or electronic means 2 Person subject of falsehood was easily identifiable 3 Identi ed person suffered injury in the form of monetary losses For public figure must prove actual malice reckless disregard PR and Insider trading Every public company has an obligation to deal immediately with anything material Material announcement is one that might cause an investor to buy hold or sell stock Securities and Exchange Commission SEC adopted fair disclosure which requires companies to widely disseminate any material announcement Copyright law provides basic automatic protection for writers when in fixed form sufficiently permanent like Literary works musical dramatic motion pictures and sound recordings Internet Law Censorship 1996 Communication Decency Act nes and prison terms for indecent speech available to a person under 18 Declared unconstitutional in 1997 in free speech Intellectual Property Cybersquatting grabbing domain names that look alike for torment EFraud Litigation Public Relations managing the media process during the course of any legal dispute to affect the outcome or impact on the clients overall reputation Learn the process know the roadmap for the case Develop a message strategy what should be said at which stage Settle fast faster the settlement the less litigation visibility there is Anticipate high pro le variables be prepared for every inevitability Keep the focus positive less combative leads to quicker settlement Try settling again Fight nicely can be messy expensive and could produce casualties loss of jobs Ch 8 Research Research is the controlled objective and systematic gathering of information for the purpose of describing and understanding 0 Objective good research provides descriptions of situations that are based on data rather than someone s intuition guesses blind luck or close mindedness o Controlled and Sytematic good research means carefully following a well designed plan for gathering as much of the relevant information as is necessary Why Thoroughly de ne problems Identify the audiences and segment publics To design strategies and plans To provide evaluation To provide a convincing justi cations for their proposals OOOOO Differences in research methods 0 Naturalistic I Qualitative I Softer data I Rich data I Nonrandom samples I Open ended questions I Low generalizability 0 Quantitative I Harder data I Reliable data I Random samples I Closed ended questions I Greater generalizability Types of Research 0 Applied Research I Strategic primarily used in program development to determine program objectives develop message strategies establish benchmarks I Evaluative determine whether a public relations program has accomplished its goals and objectives 0 Theoretical Research I Why people communicate how public opinion if formed and how a public is created 0 Secondary Research I Allows you to examine or read about and learn from someone else s primary research EX Library trade journals government published companies Methods of Research 0 Surveys designed to reveal attitudes and opinions 0 Communications audits reveal disparities between real and perceived communications between management and target audiences o Unobtrusive Measures fact nding content analysis and readability studies I Enables the study of a subject or object without involving the researcher or research as an intruder Describing Publics o Geographics I The where I Useful for identifying the media used in target areas I Not useful to identifying characteristics of those living in the area I So much ux in geographic areas it would NOT be good to start a campaign based on a geographical location I EX UNC Charlotte has 5 people from south in 140 home neighborhood 0 Demographics I Most familiar of the three I Provides information about population group characteristics I Age old people don t want to change younger adults have nothing to lose I Households Kids change everything I Gender biological apparatus huge difference in men and women and the way people utilize it EX Barnes and Noble having mens and womens sections of magazines 0 Pscyhographics I Emphasis is on psychological characteristics of the individuals that comprise a particular audience I Life style analysis Why people do what they do I EX Maslows hierarchy extrovertsintroverts Media choicesbehaviors lifestyle values VALS 2 Categories 0 People Oriented I Ful lled I Believers 0 Status Oriented I Actualizers I Achievers I Strivers I Strugglers 0 Action Oriented I EXperiencers I Makers Research techniques 0 Content Analysis Informal to formal categorizing of messages I Can include news and magazines articles letters to the editor broadcast news public speeches annual reports I Categories may be key words key concepts product or name mentions or measures of column inches or broadcast time Ch 9 Print Media Relations Despite growth of the intemet Print is still the number one medium of PR professionals Code of Objectivity o The reporter wants the story good or bad 0 The organization wants things to be presented in the best light Dealing with the Media 0 A reporter is never off duty anything you say can be reported You are the organization anybody from the organization can be quoted Treat journalists professionally Journalists aren t paid to ask nice questions don t sweat the skepticism Don t bribe or threaten journalists Become atrusted source Becoming a source means sharing information with journalists even when it has nothing to do with your company Don t have an attitude 0 Don t expect a news agreement There can be con icting ideas 000000 0 Publicity 0 Good for I Announcing a new product or service I Reenergizing an old product I Explaining a complicated product I Little or no budget I Enhancing organization s reputation I Crisis response Effects of Mass Media 0 High I Magic Bullet Theories 0 Effects are immediate direct and powerful 0 Effects are the same for everyone 0 Middle I Limited Effects Theories 0 Effects are greater on some people children 7 lesser on others 0 Lazerfield s twostep ow model 0 Source gt Message gt Mass media gt Opinion leaders gt general public 0 Low I Minimal Effect theories 0 Media is only a re ection of culture 0 Effects are limited as audiences are active information What are the effects of media depends on who you ask 0 Media industry no negative effects media only conveys news information and sought after entertainment 0 Media Critics The media are a detriment to culture providing to only the lowest common denominator 0 Media Researchers The media has some effects on some people under some conditions Post s Model of an Organization s response to criticism 0 Stonewalling includes cover ups and distortions o Avoidance say nothing do nothing wait for it to go away 0 Collaboration work with critics to find mutual satisfactory solution 0 Accommodation Accept criticisms and make changes What accounts for the increased willingness of organizations to confront the media 0 Relevant to changing perceptions of the media s credibility Ch 11 Community Relations 3 skills for an organization to exist peacefully in communication 0 Determining what the community knows and thinks about our org 0 Informing community of organization s point of view 0 Negotiating or mediating between the organization and the community if there is a discrepancy Tangible and Intangible Commodities of Organizations 0 Tangible wages employment taxes 0 Intangible Appearance Participation Stability Pride Media Advocacy public relations without resources EX Protests marches etc Non Pro t Public Relations 0 Serve the social educational religious and cultural needs of the community around them I Nonpro t sectors Hospitals schools trade associations labor unions chambers of commerce religious institutions cultural organizations I Developing the nonpro t marketing plan Plan De ne Issues Build strategies Frame issues Develop talking points Choose appropriate spokespersons Develop communications materials Target messages 0 Supporting successful fundraising I Identify campaign plans and objectives I Organize fact nding I Recruit leaders I Plan and implement strong communications activities I Periodically review and evaluate Ch 13 Consumer Relations Objectives of Consumer Relations 0 Keeping old customers 0 Attracting new customers 0 Marketing new items or services 24 hour customer service 0 EXpediting complaint handling 0 Reducing costs Consumer Generated Media Blogs message boards public discussions reviewfeedback sites Consumer Bill of Rights 0 The right to safety 0 The right to be informed o The right to choose 0 The right to be heard Federal Consumer Agencies 0 Justice Department 0 Federal Trade Commission 0 Food and Drug Administration Ch 14 International Relations All foreign companies must constantly reinforce the notion that they are responsible and concerned residents of local communities 0 Most lead with proper action then communicating it Canada 0 Rival of American PR practice in terms of its level of acceptance respect sophistication and maturity 0 Must be uent not only with English but French Europe 0 Emergence of more uni ed Europe by the formation of the European community has had major implications on the practice of PR Increased PR practices 0 With some ofthe biggest companies being in Europe PR will continue to be a bigger part of their communities Latin America 0 Expanding at a faster rate than virtually any other region of the world It is considered more chaotic then America Canada and Europe 0 Japan 0 Practice of PR has grown and by definition is contrary to the nation s cultural heritage 0 Mass media is extremely powerful in Japan 0 Japanese culture values modesty and promotes silence over eloquence therefore hasn t necessarily been valued in Japanese society China 0 PR business has only just begun and will enjoy a bright future in the 215t century Communications media around the world has increased with the satellite and intemet technology Ch 15 Public Relations Writing The sad fact is that public relations people by and large are horrible writers The ability to write well is a big fundamental skill Listener only gets one opportunity to hear and comprehend a message there is usually no second chance Fundamentals of Writing 0 The idea must precede the expression I Must relate to the reader I Must engage the reader s attention I Must concern the reader I Must be in the reader s interest 0 Don t be afraid of the draft 0 Simplify and Clarify 0 Must be aimed at a particular audience The Rhetorical contract 0 In exchange for an audience s attention speakers or writers are promising to provide something worthwhile to audience To make sure the audience will regard the message as worthwhile speakers must engage in a rhetorical shift I I must be able to see the point ofview ofmy audience I Use the same language that the audience knows I Use the same beliefs and values of the audience 0 O Cutlip Center and Broom offer the advice I Shoot squarely be honest and responsible when going after a story 0 Honesty is the best policy o Credibility and trust must be earned over time I Give service 0 Provide newsworthy interesting and timely stories while adhering to lead times being there first is the most important I Do not beg o Journalists will not take you seriously if you whine and complainbeg 0 Don t tell the journalist how to write the story I Do not ask for kills 0 Ifa story has leaked it can be insulting to the journalist if you ask for them to suppress the story 0 However in some narrow circumstances it is okay to ask for a delay if it is in the public s interest 0 Also if it may cause people hardship make sure you gure out whats going on May or may not be worth it though Journalistic vs Public Relations Writing Differences o 1 Goals I Journalistic Goals 0 Provide news 0 Attract audiences o Appear objective you cant ever see anything but from your point of view You can try to not be biased but you will always be subjective in every sense I PR Goals 0 Advocacy for client public support for or recommendation of a particular cause or policy 0 Attract Media gatekeepers editors people who control the news 0 2 Audiences I Journalistic o Audiences not carefully researched by journalists o Journalists only write for the medium in which they work 0 Audiences consumers I PR 0 Audiences carefully identified 0 Write for variety of audiences o Audiences are important to the clients needs 0 3 Channels I Journalistic 0 Write for one channel 0 Channel is chosen for them I PR 0 Write for a variety of channels 0 Often pick best channels for particular purposes Writing Press Releases 0 The best research is of no value if the practitioner is unable to communicate the client s message 0 In all channels newspapers magazines radio or television the press release is the essential format 0 Checklist I Is the lead direct and to the point 0 A busy journalist and editor decide whether the releases might be valuable in less than 30 seconds I Have the who what when where and how been answered I Has the local angle been emphasized I Sentences short and concise I Are quotations natural I Has the Associated Press style of press release been followed I Double check for accuracy I Release date and time indicated 0 The Don t Forgets of Press Releases I Write a news release from the perspective of a reporter writing for a paper I Identify the key message of the story and present it in the lead I Write it short and simple I Don t make any assumptions you know more about the subject then the editor I Build release around the lead I Include a quote written in conversational style Ch 16 Writing for Eye and Ear For The Eye News release meat and potatoes of PR writing Media kit calling card to introduce an organization to the media Consists of in addition to news release Biography straight factual and straightforward descending order of importance and narrative informal bios Backgrounder background info to complement news release Fact sheets most important facts about organization easy to read QampA s photos Pitch letter used to catch interest in a possible story interview or event Creative pitch creative but factbased Straight pitch just the facts Provocative question pitch quotH0 humquot question pitch not very interesting needs to tell quotwhyquot Any pitch must answer the questions quotwhat39s newquot and quotwho caresquot Key elements Open with a grabber interesting statement compels reader to listen Explain why story is relevant to editor s readership allude to scope and importance of story Personally written not addressed quotto the editorquot quotmedia advisoryquot more straightforward listing of facts uses 5 W39s who what where when why Roundup article summarize the experiences of several companies within an industry Case history used to tell about a customer s favorable use of a company39s product writer works for the company Present problem experienced by one company but applicable to many Indicate how problem dimensions were de ned by company Indicate the solution adopted Explain solution s advantages Detail user company39s experience after adopting the solution at its best case history is bene cial to company and interesting to readers Byliner story signed and ostensibly authored by an of cer of a particular rm often ghostwritten by a PR professional Op ed article editorial written by organizational executive submitted for publication to a leading newspaper of magazine Good opeds opposite of editorial page have grabber grab attention point hammers home article s thesis chain of evidence gives supporting facts summation of argument goodbye zinger leaves reader with something to think about Standby statement defensive statement organizations must have on hand in case of public disclosure of price increases losses layoffs discrimination etc White paper concern external dilemmas faced by an organization Organization of Background statement of challenge alternative solutions rst is always quotdo nothing recommended solution blueprint and key messages for action next steps to be taken and key messages that will help to achieve PR result For the Ear quotWrite like you speakquot Speech 0 Characteristics Designed to be heard not read Uses concrete language Demands a positive response Must have clearcut objectives Must be tailored to a speci c audience 0 Speechwriting process Preparing who speaker and audience what subject of talk object of speech desired outcome where setting when time Interviewing speechwriter gets to know speaker 3 goals Determine purpose of speech Determine speaker39s main points Capture speaker39s characteristics Researching Organizing and writing 4 essential parts of speech Introduction Thesis Body Conclusion Presentation attempt to sell something Guidelines Get organized To the point Be logical Write it out Anticipate negatives Speak don t read Be understandable Use graphics wisely Be convincing Stop Evaluating the writing is the message Appropriate Meaningful Memorable Understandable Believable Internal Communication Applying the skills of public relations practitioners to the organization s most important audience Employees 0 Management seeks to communicate its views and objectives to its employees 0 Management controls the formal internal communication process Communicating effectively I Respect I Honest feedback I Recognition I Voice employees want their ideas heard I Encouragement Employee trust comes with being 0 Strategic o Honest 0 Open 0 Consistent Functions of Internal Communication 0 Indoctrination and Orientation I Information about the organization as a whole philosophy structure policies I Information relative to specific duties channels and work procedures I O and I processes continue well past initial entry into the organization 0 Safety and Loss Prevention I Information helpful to protecting welfare of organizational membersorganizational resources 0 Compensation and bene ts I Employees often regard this type of information as the most important function 0 Organizational change and development I Information provided to keep members informed about new plans and changes in objectives and strategies 0 Morale and satisfaction I Messages which objectives are the improvement of member s selfconcepts interpersonal relationships and attitudes about the organization I Assumes happy employees are hardworking employees Internal Communication Channels 0 Employee newsletter I Provides information regarding organizational wide events major changes visions successes and interesting things about members 0 Also Brochures training manuals and videos bulletin boards email employee magazines Video and multimedia productions Ch 18 Public Relations and the Web Communication technologies have not made the work any easier for the professional communicator Problems with the WEB o The growing number of websites standing out in the crowd o No clear measures of web success 0 The nature of web development requires close working relationships among units not accustomed to working with each other computer geeks with marketing amp communication geniuses Website Planning 0 Shelboume recommends that the process begins by thinking through the purpose of the site I How should the client be perceived I Who is the intended audience I What is the site intended to provide 0 Better websites encourages users to return again and again I Interesting graphics I Fun things to do I Free stuff I Contests 0 Shelboume also recommends careful planning of the appearance I Keep graphics small and to a minimum I Avoid lengthy Java scripts and applets I Provide easy to use navigation buttons and a table of contents The Web Site life cycle Research goal definition and analyzing the competition Speci cation Define featues of web site determine technology requirements Design Determine visual identity implementation details who what when where Development implement design collaborate with all involved units Testing Make sure it works like it should Marketing and release Prepare for launch publicize and promote website Maintenance monitor traffic and answer emails publish regular site updates Renewal Evaluate the site OOOOOOOO Site Promotion 0 Include URL I As part of client s stationary I In all printed and broadcast advertisements I In contributions to discussion groups and chat rooms 0 Other techniques I Reciprocal Linking Contact owners of related web sites and offer link to their site if the same is done for you I Go green I Go Pink I People friendly Government and Public Relations PR activities in government are involved in 0 Environmental issues programs Political and issue advocacy campaigns Grassroots organizing and advocacy Letterwriting campaigns Advocacy Advertising 0000 PR practitioners 0 Monitor government activity 0 Research public opinion on political issues 0 Disseminate information about government actions and pending legislation 0 Plan and execute political strategies Trade association activities 0 Review pending legislation 0 Attend and report legislative actions 0 Maintain contact with regulatory agencies Researching Government issues 0 Monitoring of media s treatment of controversial political issues that may affect the client s present and future pro tability and growth 0 Sampling target publics o Arranging focus group of political constituents Lobbying o Lobbyist individual who is paid by athird party to in uence individuals in the executive and legislative branches of the federal government 0 Big Lobbyist groups I Oil companies I Antismoking groups I Tobacco companies I Pharmaceutical companies 0 Grass Roots Lobbying I Aimed at mobilizing constituents to contact and in uence their representatives I Tools include o Computerized direct mailings 0 Local group meetings 0 Phone banks
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'