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by: Cyril Kling


Cyril Kling
GPA 3.62

C. Mayfield

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C. Mayfield
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cyril Kling on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SCOM 245 at James Madison University taught by C. Mayfield in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/214072/scom-245-james-madison-university in Communication Studies at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 09/26/15
Adaptors Body behaviors such as scratching or itching that people use unconsciously considered to be evolutionary adaptions to the biological environment Ambiguous the quality of a symbol which recognizes that symbols have multiple dennotative and connotative referents Analogic a code in which the signals represent a natural continuous and in nite range of values LIKE sound color movement touch Anthroponym a personal name Arbitrary the concept which recognizes that symbols have no direct relationship to their referent Arbitrary Symbolic A sign which has no direct relationship between itself and the referent This principle can be applied not only to the sign but to the whole signsystem Arbitrary Code a leamed signal system that is socially constructed and uses SYMBOLS to convey messages Artifacts Products articles and goods that humans create and used often serving to help interpret their behaviors values or beliefs Autonomic Nervous System The human nervous system that governs involuntary actions Back channeling The ways that people respond to others in conversations usually nonverbally to affirm or deny what others are saying for example by nodding their heads indicating agreement Bilateral a perspective which claims that communication is when a sender intends to send a message and a receiver intends to receive a message Biologically Based Communication is inherited rather than learned occurs spontaneously evolved for the sake of communication and cannot be proven false not posediconic Channel The means or medium by which we communicate Some scholars in nonverbal communication refer to the use of the various senses as channels nonverbal communication is multichanneled compared to verbal communication employing many channels at once Chronemics Refers to time as a nonverbal background factor in uencing human communication Classi cation organization by category utterly dependent upon culture Code systems of signs 7 gesture movements words glances 7 that human beings routinely enlist to make and send messages Code A rulegovemed system of signs whose rules and conventions are shared amongst members of a culture and which is used to generate and circulate meanings in and for a culture Codes Refers to the often hidden set of rules or symbols physical or social which when interpreted give meaning to an event body behavior or activity Cognition The process of perceiving and knowing becoming aware of phenomena Communication that 39thing39 that occurs whenever two or more individuals using a socially shared or biologically shared signal system send and receive a message Communication according to SCOM 245 The simultaneous and dynamic process or system of verbal andor nonverbal interaction between a sender and receiver that is inevitable irreversible unrepeatable symbolic and socially constructed that aims to satisfy our inter and intrapersonal needs Connotation the personal meaning of something that is observed perceived felt or thought Cultural Codes the customs traditions languages art works scientific practices etc that undergrid society Culture the container of meaningmaking strategies and forms of behavior that people employ to carry out their daily routine Denotative a conventional or shared sign that represents something observed perceived felt or thought Digital a code in which the signals represent a limited set of discrete and arbitrarily defined units LIKE words numbers emblems Discourse Styles The distinctive ways that various groups communicate verbally and nonverbally Display Rules Cultural and social expectations that in uence people to act appropriately guides to dress and other behavioral actions Doctrine a theoretical system of knowledge based on carefully worked out principles Dress Code the paradigmatic and syntagmatic system which governs attire within a culture Dyads Two person units involved in human interaction Emblem A nonverbal cue or act that can take the place of words Ethnicity Refers to the characteristics traits and behaviors of groups whose members share a common identity often minorities in a society Evolution The general theory that existing living things have their origins in preeXisting types and that modi cations have occurred over time Fetish a sign which evokes devotion or obsession to itself Genderlect The spoken language of a male or female speech community Gesture the default way of representing the world because of its iconicity Haptics The study of the ways that humans and other animals use touch or grasping behaviors Hardwired The idea that human behavior is the direct result of instinctive or biologically driven mechanisms Hierarchy A graded or ranked system that locates different species on different levels of importance Icon A signsignal of a person place emotion object etc which bears a physical resemblance to the referent Icon a sign which resembles its referent Iconic Code a signal system learned or inheritated in which semblances are used to communicate Iconicity the default way of representing the world tied to the world of our senses Index a sign which locates its referent in mental or physical space Intention Movements a nonverbal signal which includes a small segment of an anticipated communication action Interactive Oriented a perspective which claims that communication recognizes the give and take nature of interpersonal contexts when both participants act as senders and receivers Intrinsic Code a biologically shared innate signal system used to communicate Kinesics The study of body movements and actions in human nonverbal communication Message oriented only behaviors that are sent with intent are used with regularity among members of a social community are typically interpreted as intentional and have consensually recognizable interpretations Noiesis a way of knowing about something Nonverbal Communication without words Oculesics The study of body movements and actions in human nonverbal communication Olfactics The study of the smell and odor system in human nonverbal communication Paradigm An organized model or pattern used by researchers Paradigmatic Structure the characteristic of signs which assists us to differentiate one from another Paralanguage Vocalized patterns tones and emphases associated with spoken words that can convey special meanings separate from the meaning of the words in use Personae the concept of personhood Pheromones In many perhaps most species including humans the smells that are produced by the skin or other organ to attract others of the same species Primates Mammalian species that include humans higher order animals such as chimpanzees and other species Prototypical the perfect example Purpose the 39meaning of life Race A classi cation of humans according to physical characteristics such as shape of head color of skin hair patterns body structure and so on Rational the idea that some symbols attempt to imitate reality Reciever Oriented the perspective which claims that the act of responding to or interpreting a stimulus is the only requirement for communication Referent the 39thing39 to which a sign refers Remland definition Referent the thing referred to by a sign Representational the thing that 39stands for something else the basis of a symbol system Rituals Customized repeated acts found in events and in interpersonal situations such as in marriages funeralsand festivities Rituals may also exist within an individual Script a culture39s established ways of enacting events roles etc Semantic Differential the range of meanings that a particular sign may have for a culture Semantics Essentially the study of meanings that humans create in interaction with others Semiotics Scholarship which identi es what constitutes a sign and what its meanings are Scholarship which studies of the relationships among patterns of perception signs and their meanings Semiotics the theoretic framework which seeks to identify what constitutes a sign and its meanings Sender Oriented the perspective which claims that the act of communicating only requires the intent and attempt to send a message Shared Meaning a perspective which claims that communication is when an intended message is essentially the message that is received Sign anything that stands for or indicates something else Remland de nition Sign A pattern of data which when perceived brings to mind something other than itself 7 ANYTHING that stands for or indicates something else Signal signs that are designed for communication Remland de nition Signal an innate sign whose primary purpose is communication Signi er the sign Signifying Order a system of signs that give stability and continuity to group life because they learn it from one generation to the next Signifying Order a system of signs that give stability and continuity to group life because they LEARN it from ONE GENERATION to the next Social Script the roles and expectations that may accompany particular events or contexts like weddings funerals job interviews rst dates etc Speech Code a syntagmatic system which permits the combination of sounds and their resultant symbols to carry meaning Structuralist a view which holds that language narratives art etc are culturespeci c innate universal patterns in other words that all human cultures use the same kind of patterns patterns that we were born to use and recognize Symbol SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED signs which have an arbitrary relationship to the referent Affect display facial expressions for basic emotions Arbitrary clothing would be a prime example of this kind of code system for the human body a wink is an example of how facial expression can be Arousal Labeling Model the theory which explains how positive arousal is responded to with reciprocity and negative arousal is responded to with compensation Averageness the principle of averageness states that the most attractive faces are most typically familiar Aversion when one person deliberately looks away from another person Audience effects the belief that facial expression evolved to signal our intentions to others Automimicry The imitation by one sex or life stage of communication in another sex or life stage of the same species An example is the imitation by the males of some monkey species of female sexual signals which they appear to employ in appeasement rituals A phenomenon that involves the advantage gained by some members of a species from its resemblance to others of the same species Babyface overgeneralization effect A predisposition to view persons with babyish features as cute innocent nice naive and weak Basic emotions surprise fear disgust anger happiness and sadness Behavioral Ecology Theory the theory that claims that facial expression of emotion often doesn39t show up without an audience Blends facial expressions that exhibit more than a single emotion at the same time Body we transmit most of our messages through this Body Adornment Changes to the body that would be considered short lived or temporary Body Code the schema that govern cants and postures Body Endowment Features of the body that are naturally occurring and enduring Body Modification Changes in the body that would be considered semipermanent Body Orientation the physical angle at which individuals face one another Brains empathy communication between human beings and insects fish and reptiles is nearly is impossible because our brains are too different Code A rulegoverned system of signs which are used to generate meaning for the culture Compensatory reaction the striving to restore equilibrium in approach avoidance behaviors when violated Customs refers to ways of doing things and are deeply anchored in tradition and somewhat safeguarded by the culture Dancing bodily locomotion common to all cultures and important to the enactment of ritual Dilation the size of a person39s pupils that reflects interest or pleasure Discourse According to Danesi this constitutes the code which supplies the verbal resources regulative and constitutive for presenting an appropriate persona within a culture Dynamic Because we can create new words new categories by following linguistic rules languge is referred to as a malleable code it is dynamic Edward Hall theorist who developed the zones of interpersonal distance Ectomorph a physique which is tall thin and fragile generally regarded as belonging to someone tense nervous suspicious ambitious quiet and pessimistic Endomorphic a body type which is soft round and fat which tends to be seen as lazy weak sympathetic agreeable dependent and goodnatured Empathy the ability to sense mood and mental state Establishing relationships the primary function of approach avoidance signals Equilibrium Theory the comfortable balance in approach avoidance behaviors that matches behaviors to intimacy Expectancy violations model the theory which focuses on the favorable and unfavorable responses to approach avoidance behaviors Face the primary source for defining and presenting the self in social situations Facial Expression has the primary function of communicating emotion Facial Feedback Hypothesis the theory that explains that an individual39s facial expression can directly and immediately influence the individual39s experience of that emotion Folkways refers to the conventional or common person way of doing things Gaze a signal system used to send out messages that range from challenge to flirtation Gender the socially constructed signs that define feminine and masculine for a culture General Adaptation Syndrome our built in alarm system set off by space invasion Gestures the language of the body considered the default form of communication Grooming Codes are gender specific displays and behaviors associated with the presentation of an appropriate and socially acceptable self Halo effect the tendency to judge goodlooking people more positively than those who are less attractive lconic signs in the body would include displays that create a resemblance to another kind of sign lconic approachavoidance behaviors that are used to deceive are labeled a fake yawn is an example of how facial expression can be ldentity the primary function of body codes ldeograph a form of writing which combines several pictographs together lnterspecies communication the nonverbal code is the ONLY mode that permits this lmmediacy behaviors promote mutual sensory connection between participants lntrinsic signs in the body would include physical features race age sex etc the devastating consequences of touch deprivation indicate that our need to be touched is Laws refers to ways of doing things that are regulated by the society where violations are typically addressed in the legal system Lips physiologists believe that this area is one of the most sensitive parts of the body Manner rather than content renders language both verbal and nonverbal profane and blasphemous or clean and holy Mental Filter The language we learn in a cultural context constitutes a mental filter through which we come to perceive and understand the world Mesomorphic a physique which is muscular and athletic and generally considered to reflect a person who is masculine strong goodlooking adventurous and selfreliant Microexpression expressions that come and go in a fraction of a second and are especially difficult to control Mores refers to ways of doing things that carry moral connotations where violations are met with more than mild disapproval Mutual Gaze the single most important act of interpersonal communication Nonreciprocal gaze which demonstrates onesided interest Nonverbal which code system has less cross cultural variation verbal or nonverbal Nonverbal code a mode of message making involving gesture posture facial expression and other bodily based forms of signaling Nonreciprocal touch unreturned by the person who has been touched Oscular contact kissing Pheromones olfactory signals common throughout the animal kingdom that influence sexual behavior Pictograph a form of writing that uses pictures icons to represent the world Physiological changes body contributed to the development of oral communication capabilities within human beings Positioning the term used to indicate where one is located with respect to others in a given area Portraiture an important historical record of the view of persona within a culture and time period Propinquity interpersonal distance Proportionality the principle of proportionality states that attractiveness is based on the relative size of one segment of the body to another Publiect the unique speech of adolescents which may include uptalk tag questions and slang and allows them to set themselves apart from the rest of society Real Self the search for the real self has directed the development of religions philosophies and aesthetic works Reciprocity the responding in kind to another39s behavior Most common when we are interacting with people we like Representational the aspect of verbal language that allows symbols to operate Sebum psychologists believe that the transfer of during kissing bonds human beings chemically Self a sign standing for the human individual Semiosis the ability to produce and understand signs Simultaneously The development of nonverbal and verbal signs with individuals occurs Six How many basic emotions appear on the human face Slang nonstandard words and phrases which assist an in the presentation of a persona Somatotypes persistent stereotypes of people39s temperament or personality based on the general shape of their bodies Species Language is undoubtedly a species specific faculty Stare a threat display using gaze Status Reminders ritualized forms of behavior that come to symbolize status in a particular culture Straightness the principle of straightness states that attractiveness is somewhat based on the positive valuing of vertical alignment Sumptuary Laws legal codes which restricted a person39s dress to clothes that represented that person39s class rank or status and by doing so protected the identities of the privileged few Symbols Danesi claims that the large number of symbols that reference gaze indicates its culture importance Symmetry the principle of symmetry states that attractiveness is based on the aestic appeal of each half of the body or portion of the body being a mirror image of the other half Territorial markers nonverbals signs used to announce ownership of an area Territorial behavior the myriad ways we signal ownership and defense of an area Tie sign a public display of togetherness in mutual touch Tattoos a signal system that uses body modification to assert social rank affiliation and allegiance Universal a characteristic that indicates that emotional expression is intrinsic Virtuous what is abnormal and obscene in one system is often seen as virtuous in another Youthfulness the principle of youthfulness states that attractive faces contain a blend of mature and immature features Danesi claims that nonverbal codes reflect the constant interplay between biology and culture Danesi claims that any object we use on a daily basis extends our persona Abundant evidence shows that social class is tied to race and ethnicity It is widely known that a disproportionate number of those in the low socioeconomic strata of society are black Hispanic and Native American And even within these traditionally disadvantaged groups physical features can become markers of social class Danesi claims that one of the reasons we developed oral speech is that gestures became to cumbersome to represent the concepts important to early cultures


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