SIGNS, SYMBOLS & SOC INT
SIGNS, SYMBOLS & SOC INT SCOM 245
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cyril Kling on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SCOM 245 at James Madison University taught by C. Mayfield in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/214072/scom-245-james-madison-university in Communication Studies at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Test 3 Review SCOM 245 Almost all emblematic gestures do one of three things express a desire to control another persons convey one39s mental or physical condition or make an evaluative comment about another person Gestures may benefit the speaker as much as the listener Research suggests that gestures create spatial images that facilitate a speaker39s shortterm memory According to Danesi throughout our lives there is a negotiation within each person between our individually structured meanings and our culturally structured meanings The capacity for creating tools to make other tools distinguishes human technology from that of all animals Researchers believe that gesticulating is an inherent part of thinking and speaking What evidence do they provide for this finding Advancing age typically brings on a slower rate of speech more dysfluencies a reduced pitch range and greater momenttomoment pitch variability trembling Second only to physical appearance our voice communicates a great deal about who we are both as an individual and as a member of a speech community Gesture allows us to communicate if we are separated by distance in a noisy environment in an area where speech is not permitted when we want to be secretive to add efficiency or drama AN D to communicate with individuals who do not speak our language Making gesture the DEFAULT form of communication The fact that people around the world use emblematic gesture to communicate particular emotions implies that some gestures may be symptomatic intrinsic rather than merely symbolic Conceptual metaphors are common in both verbal and nonverbal codes Proxemic codes govern distances between communicants The need for sensual touch is universal We are typically 90 accurate in our ability to match names to voices of people we know Malls meet our social and psychic needs More than likely the first art form visual The right hemisphere of the brain appears to be responsible for interpreting metaphor appropriately Danesi claims that in our current mythology our primary heroes are our rock39n roll artists Danesi claims that because the performing arts have a socially defined situation objects codes and a structure they constitute a system Metaphors which link activities emotions and ideas TO entities and substances are referred to as ontological Of the six primary emotions anger is usually most accurately detected through the voice alone Danesi claims that advertisers are not innovators they are reinforcers Adherence to gender dress codes is most obvious at puberty The biggest step forward in the history of technology was control of fire Plot is considered the grammar of narrative Danesi says that both poets and scientists use metaphor to extrapolate suspected inner connections The making of art is unique to the human species Technology and artifacts shape cultural evolution The male sex tends to make more expansive and relaxed postures and gestures The most radically changed way information and knowledge are being coded is through technology Voice and gesture behaviors provide markers that emphasize or clarify what we are saying Rituals are explicit enactments of myths Tactile Codes govern the use of touch Art provides pleasure delight but most importantly a prospective Art combines the practical and aesthetic The act of eating is intrinsic while the manner and type of food ingested is symbolic The ability to use metaphor is an innate ability Voice and gesture serve PRIMARILY to facilitate and replace speech Danesi considers pop culture the culture of the youth Metaphors allow people to link something concrete with something abstract Accent arbitrarily coded vocal cue often associated with a particular region or group Acoustic Signals vocal qualities related to sound production loudness pitch distinctiveness etc Adaptor self or objecttouching actions we use to satisfy our physical or psychological needs than GENERALLY assist us in managing stress Animism the view that objects have an inner life a spirit a 39soul39 Anisogamous the label given to the fact that human beings have sex cells of unequal size Archetypes the first original model of which all other similar persons objects or concepts are merely derivative copied patterned or emulated Articulatory signals speech behaviors related to pronunciation speech rate tempo hesitations etc Articulation the manipulation of the tongue lips teeth palate and jaw which shapes the sounds we utter enabling clear enunciation and correct pronunciation Barrier Signals gestures or postures that construct a kind of temporary obstruction between others and us Batonic gestures used for emphasis or to simply mark a rhythm or break in thought Catharsis art39s ability to make an audience more psychologically healthy and thus happier Culture humanity s greatest invention Culture Hero a character responsible for the discovery of a particular artifact or technological process for a community Deceptive signals that are deliberately designed to fool the listener into believe the signal is real Deictic gestures used for pointing Dhat a cultural code which permitsallowsencouragesacknowledges quotsemenloss syndromequot characterized by severe anxiety and hypochondriacal concerns with the discharge of semen whitish discoloration of the urine and feelings of weakness and exhaustion Displacement activities patterns of behavior that seem to be irrelevant to the situation in which they appear scratching selfgrooming yawning etc Dress Code clothing text through which we can present an acceptable persona Emblems nonverbal behaviors that replace or substitute for verbal behaviors Evolutionary Psychology the discipline that believes that culture is a product of biology Exhalation the air we breathe out which we manipulate for loudness or volume Fashion clothing style related to social success Filled pauses vocal segregates or vocalizations that are nonsemantic meaningless examples um uh er ah etc Folk Wisdom Our proverbs aphorisms and sayings make up Gender A social status usually based on the convincing performance of femininity or masculinity Graphic gestures which attempt to visualize the content of our speech these gestures cannot typically stand alone and function like illustrators lconographic gestures that mimic concrete referents ldeographic gestures that represent or visualize concrete or abstract referents Illustrators gestures that can serve a variety of functions accenting repeating complimenting etc but cannot standalone Information packaging hypothesis gestures may be instrumental in helping speakers conceptualize spoken messages that convey spatial information Inhalation the air we breathe in Intention movements gestures that mimic part of some anticipated action lnteractional synchrony a phenomenon which suggests that we move to the beat of each other39s speech greatly enhancing or affecting our ability to bond with others individuals lntersexed A social status assigned to persons having sex characteristics of both females and males lntertextuality the parts of a text that are understandable in terms of other texts or codes the understandings BETWEEN texts Latah culturally coded behavior which recognizes hypersensitivity to sudden fright often with echopraxia echolalia command obedience and dissociative or trancelike behavior Lexical retrieval hypothesis gestures play a limited role in helping speakers access and utter words with spatial content Maps a signifying system which permits us to locate things in space and in relation to other things while influencing our perception about the elements represented Memes replicating patterns of information or behavior laws rites fashionsetc Meta A word Danesi identifies as meaning 39beyond39 Multimessage gesture a gesture that has more than one agreed upon meaning Mythic fantasia the part of the life cycle of a culture that created poetic images that give spiritual reasons for things Mythos a story spirit or tradition that has deep explanatory or symbolic resonance for a culture Myths stories which concern how the world came into being who the gods were how animals were created etc Narrative something told written related or exposed Nasal vocal quality disliked by most listeners and associated with an unfavorable personality Neomania an obsession with the new Nudity a culturally defined code unique to human beings where lack of modesty is most frequently sanctioned Objets d art symbols standing not for themselves but for consumerist values Objectics items considered by McLuhan as extensions of the human species that evolve to influence us uniquely Palm Display around the world people open their hands and display them horizontally for helplessness and vertically for honesty Pantomime gestures for 39acting things out39 the actions performed by a mime Paradigmatic selectional differences Parentese intrinsic vocalizations used when speaking with infants and young children Persona the identity of an individual created through social interaction and adherence to particular behavioral codes Phonation exhaled air which we influence by tightening our vocal cords producing sound and determining pitch Phonemic clauses those vocal and gestural behaviors that we use to mark the STRUCTURE of our discourse typically 5 words with a primary stress and slight intonation change at the end Protoculture Refers to a contract or construction like food which can demonstrate the existence of coded understandings about a community Protogesture Intrinsic drive to use gesture to communicate even if rudimentarily Puton the mimicking of vocal characteristics with no attempt to deceive Rational history The part of the life cycle of a culture that dates treaties social movements and political ideologies Resonation the amplification and modification of sound by our throat mouth and nose This process determines the distinctive quality of our voice Second Age The part of the life cycle of a culture that documents the deeds and accomplishments of real human beings heroes Selfintimacies behaviors that unconsciously give us the comfort we would like to receive from others Selfsynchrony movements that follow the beat of one39s own speech Semiotics Danesi39s label for quotan exercise of knowing oneselfquot Sex A social status usually based on genital appearance Sexual Orientation the predominant pattern of sexualromantic fantasies desires or behaviors at particular period of a person39s life Signifying system any structure or system of organization that creates meaning out of cultural signs Social context determines whether objects and sounds are regarded as art and music Social text an authoritative point of reference television movies for evaluating reallife action behavior and events Sound Humanities39 first metaphor Spectogram voice print not nearly as accurate as fingerprints and easy to disguise Speech accommodation the theory that explains why we may pick up a speaker39s accent rate pause and utterance duration vocal volume and pitch pattern Speech convergence a phenomenon that takes place when one person adopts the speaking patterns of another Speech Diversion behaviors that seek to distance us from others by the adoption of communication patterns that are distinctly different from theirs Territorial instinct the need to gain access to defend and control critical resources Transsexed Persons who were designated as one sex and gender at birth but who prefer to identify themselves and to live as another gender and as another sex Transsexual Persons who feel that they do not fit well as their biological sex and follow the social codes for their biologic opposite are labeled Turntaking behavior one of two vocal characteristics which influence our perceptions of a speaker39s personality this one related to perceptions of politeness Unique gesture gestures exclusive to a single location
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