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by: Oliver D'Amore


Marketplace > James Madison University > OTHER > GHIST 101 > WORLD HISTORY TO 1500 C2HQC
Oliver D'Amore
GPA 3.63

Thomas Ward

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Thomas Ward
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Oliver D'Amore on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GHIST 101 at James Madison University taught by Thomas Ward in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/214076/ghist-101-james-madison-university in OTHER at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 09/26/15
Classical India Classical Age Dissent 600 300 BC 0 Critique of Brahmanism and Vedic religion 0 Critique of caste system 0 Philosophical and scienti c questioning o Atomism and materialism o Atheism 0 Religious dissent o Asceticism extreme personal discipline 0 Jainism founder Mahavira I Radical ahimsa nonviolence o Biddhism founder Siddartha Gautama o Other Cultural Innovations o Alphabet I Brahmi script from Aramaic Theravada Buddhism 0 Partial rejection Partial elaboration of late Vedic religion 0 Caste Brahmanism Vedas Meditation Karma Reincarnation Moksha release salvation enlightenment Nirvana extinction of self much like late Vedic union of atman soul and brahman soul 0 Partial rejection partial elaboration of dissident innovations 0 Extreme individualistic asceticism self mortification 0 Moderate group asceticism moasticism o Ahimsa non violence o Sel essness compassion 0 Little emphasis on divinity theology 0 Salvation not a divine gift but a natural process 000 Main Buddhistic Tenets 0 Four Noble Truths 0 Link between suffering and desire o The way to salvation Eightfold Path 0 Sel essness contemplation compassion o The Middle Way 0 Nirvana Social Appeal of Buddhism 0 Towns o Rising towns were centers of classical age dissent and Buddhism 0 Lower Castes o Vernacular preaching o All could be like priests learn 0 Cheaper worship no expensive sacrifices 0 Women Nuns VedicBrahmanic Response Early Hinduism after 500 BC 0 Metaphysical literary owering Bhagavad Gita 0 Adoption of dissident trends 0 Ascetism amp sel essness Bhagavad Gita 0 Religious Differentiation all things to all people 0 Vedic brahmanic and caste core maintained 0 Multiple paths to salvation 0 Multiple theisms I MonotheismTrinitarianism I Pantheism I Polytheism Later Buddhist Trends 0 Mahayana Buddhism Return to polytheism I Competition with Hinduism for popular appeal Dei cation of Buddha Bodhisattva saints Return of thisworldliness Easier modes of salvation I Devotion rather than discipline I Competition with Hinduism for popular appeal 0 More emphasis of Heaven happiness and pleasure instead of Nirvana extinction 11 I39 II I39 II 39 O 0000 I J I Competition with Hinduism for elite adherents Context of Dissent Civilizational Renaissance 700 300 BC 0 Geographic shifts o Gangescentric 0 Social change 0 Return of cities and commerce 0 Political change 0 Return of large states I Republics assemblies I Monarchies Magadha 0 Birth of Literacy o Alphabet I Brahmi script derived from Aramaic Mauryan Empire 322 185 BC 0 Expansion from Maghada kingdom o PostAlexandrian vacuum in NW 0 Chandragupta Maurya 0 First Indian megastate I Government involvement in economy Uni ed currency weights and measures Police state I Heavy taxes I Rich commerce and trade I Religious tolerance o Panta I Grandiose capital city 0 Ashoka o Buddhism 0 Humane ideals and institutions Dharma I Public hospitals etc o Nonviolence I Ahimsa as state policy Gupta Empire 330 550 AD 0 NeoMauryan in many ways 0 Monarch names 0 Capital at Patna 0 Similar public institutions 0 Scienti c golden age 0 Astronomy I Aryabhata o Eclipses o Earths circumference o Addressed old Vedic controversies 0 Mathematics I Arabic numerals I Zero I Decimal system place value I Addressed old Vedic controversies 0 Medicine I Vaccination o Huns amp Collapse SE Asia 0 Austronesian Malaysian maritime states beginning c 100 BC 0 Sea link between India and Asia 0 Malay Peninsula Sumatra Java S Vietnamese Coast champa 0 SE Asian agriculturalmaritime states 0 River valleys I Mekong Khmer states from 100 AD I Red Vietnam from 200 BC 0 Irrigation 0 Rice 0 Trade o Indianization 0 Cultural in uence of Indian traders and priests Brahmans I Hinduism I Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism I Literacy Sanskrit Brahmi script 0 Sumatra Java Mekong Delta Khmer and Cham states 0 Sinicization o Conquest by Han China I Confucianism and Daoism I Mahayana Buddhism I Literacy Chinese Chinese script 0 Vietnam Classical China Late Zhou Dynasty 700 230 BC 0 Decline of feudalism o Feudal vassals become kings o Centralized states I Bureaucracy uniformity I State monopolies I Emergence of statesponsored irrigation and canals 0 Cities and trade I Money I Merchants I More productive agriculture irrigation iron tools and plows o Nonaristocrats gain social political and military importance I Bureaucrats scholars and wealthy farmers 0 Increased warefare 0 Sun Tzu s Art ofWar o Walring States Period 450220 BC I Very bloddy and chaotic 0 Great toll on aristocracy I Large armies peasant conscripts push out aristocratic knights I Iron age weapons I Cavalry push out chariots 0 Intellectual golden age Hundred Schools 0 Confucianism o Daoism o Legalism 0 Others materialism logic 0 Common goal return to social and political peace Confucianism o Confucius c 500 BC 0 Scholarofficial 0 Return to but transformation of early Chou traditions o Hierarchical Recti cation of names 0 Decorum and rites rather than punishment and law I Old traditions new interpretations o Gentlemen I Aristocracy of ethics and culture rather than birth illustrates move away from feudalism o Humanistic optimistic thisworldly activist 0 Neither individualistic nor collectivist but relationistic o Duties toward certain other individuals stressed I Filial piety and ve cardinal relationships I Compassion and politeness toward strangers and inferiors o Mencius c 300 BC 0 Popular sovereignty radical twist on Mandate of Heaven 0 Duty of revolution recti cation of names 7 ouster of bad ruler 0 Human nature essentially good Later Confucian Canon 0 Collection of Early Zhou lore records and practices with later elaborations o The Five Classics I Ching 0 Compiled by Confucianists o Confucian Dialogues o The Analects o The M encius later addition to canon less dialogues than pronouncements Daoism o LaoTzuc500BC o AnantiConfucianism o Nonsocial o Escapist o Nonconformist 0 Religious o Mystical I The sensual material world illusory I Pantheistic for elite o The Dao I Polytheistic for masses 0 Wu wei o Nonaction o Unselfconsciousness o Spontaneity instinct 0 Doing without striving Legalism o HsunTsu o Arenegade confucianist State Power 0 Centralized govemement 0 Royal will as law 0 Impersonal law and punishment as key to public morality o Impersonal bureaucracy o Meritocratic govemement to best serve prince Rejection of traditional rituals and ethics 0 Hardnosed unromantic realism Antinobility Rh imi P J quot quot 39 r free market in land regulation of people public works forced labor The First Empire Qin 225 205 BC 0 First Le galist state 0 Tyrannical o Intolerant o Massacre of intellectuals 0 Book burnings o Militaristic o Overthrows all other states 0 Centralizing 0 Central appointees rather than local aristocrats rule provinces o Standardizing o Roads 0 Weights and measures 0 Currency 0 Chinese script 0 Shortlived Han Empire 200 BC 200 AD Kinder gentler imperialism o Compromise with both aristocrats and people MiX of legalist and Confucianist ideals 0 Examination system 0 Confucianism as of cial philosophy 0 Some legalist practices maintained Founded by peasantbom generalissimo Subject duties 0 Taxed o Forced labor I Roads canals palaces 0 Military service Central state control of most provinces Local autonomy at bottom 0 Village selfgovemement 0 Innovation 0 Paper Porcelain Compass Spinning wheel water mill 0 Mathematics amp Astronomy 0 Negative numbers Abacus Solar Eclipses fractions Decline and Fall of Han o Refeudalization successfully combated c 1 AD not later 0 Growth of landed estates aristocracy I Reward through land grants 0 Peasant ight to taXfree estates I Vicious cycle I Avoid taxes and forced service labor military I Weakening of central government I Tenants to serfs 0 Economic Downturn I Crops failures and famine 0 Public iurrigation and canals increasingly fail I Trade dries up money use declines I Cities shrink o Religioius uprisings o Daoist sects proliferate I Organized popular religion 0 Rise of aristocratic warlords 0 Private armies to combat uprisings etc 0 New regional powers 0 Warlords take control 0 Overthrow of Han 0 Three Kingdoms from 220 AD Post Han Disunity 200 580 AD 0 Entry of Buddhism 0 Silk Road 0 Mahayana I Bodhisatvas I Pure Land sect faith in Amhitabha Buddha Western Paradise 0 Barbarian nomadic invasions from 300 AD 0 Former military vassals o Barbarian successor states in north I Huns Mongols Tibetans 0 Han successor states in south 0 Sui and Tang Reunification from 580 AD 0 A Wei barbarian successor states unifies China new vigor from nothh and west Classical Persia and Greece Persians and Medes o Aryan origin 0 Mountains and plateaus of Iran 0 Adoption of farming pastoral farming mix 0 Zoroastrianism o Ahura Mazda Magi priests Dualism not complementary Legacies Assyrian Chief God Ashur Iconographic similarities Persian Empires 0 Cyrus the Great c 550 BC 0 Largest Near East Empire 0 Government 0 Centralized control of regions I Satrapies roving inspectors military garrisons post system Local self administration I Citystates Anatolian Greece Levant etc o Multiethnic 7 Aramaic o Standardization o Toleration 0 Religious and cultural 0 Infrastructure 0 Road building road police and Suez canal 0 Greece 0 End of dark ages c 800 Bc 0 Homer and Hesiod Alphabet o Citystates Polis 0 Rise of trade Aegean crossroads Still mainly agricultural Politically diverse But some commonalities I Polis amp Citizen soldier hoplite phalanx o Colonization I Black sea and Italy amp Sicily 0 Religion 0 Greek Pantheon Zeus Hera Poseidon etc I Personal Gods I Distant af nities with IndoAryan Pantheon o Patron Deities 0 Household Shrines 000 0 Athens 0 Democracy Opulence Culture Individualism Commerce Slavery 0 Sparta 0 Mixed System Severity Militarism Autarky Helotry Collectivist Greek Culture Drama 0 Suripised and Sophocles tragedy o Aristophanes comedy History Philosophy Science Architecture 7 Acropolis Sculpture Greek Philosophy 0 Early philosophers 600450 BC 0 Metaphysics physics atomism materialsm Pythagorianism ultimate reality as numeric and geometric o Socrates o Socratic method Idealism Rationalism Humanism Moralisty and Ethics Truth vs Phetoric battle against sophists o Plato o Continuation of Socratic project 0 Moral and political philosophy 0 Aristotle o Materialism Empiricism somewhat Rationalism Wideranging Golden Age Greece 0 Persian War 490480 BC 0 Greeks vs Persians I Hellenic League I Freedom vs Tyranny o Thermopylae Hot Gates 0 Peloponnesian War 440400 BC 0 Athens vs Sparta I Naval Vs Land Power 0 Macedonian Conquest amp Hegemony 35040 BC 0 King Philip I Siege techniques amp Longpike phalanz o Polis no longer central I Internal autonomy external subordination 0 Alexander the Great 0 Conquest of Persian empire I Greek unity Persian overstretch Alexandrian strategy 0 Greek colonies Hellenistic Period 0 Alexandrian successor states 0 Territorial monarchies I Seleucids Persia Mesopotamia I Ptolemies Egypt amp Levant o Polis federations I Greek mainland I Decline of democracy 0 Gender 0 Women more culturally visible 0 Culture ideals less militaristic and heroic more civilian and realistically human 0 MulticulturalMultiethnic 0 Many peoples united in single kingdoms o Universalism Polis no longer sole center of devotion and identity 0 Greek art and language Greek culture rather than Greek birth as mark of civility 0 Eastern religion political practices Hellenistic monarchies o Stoicism and Epicureanism Hellenistic lifephilosophies o Parthians Persia amp Mesopotamia and Romans Greece Anatolia Levant Egypt 0 Conquests from 15030 BC 0 Greek culture retains hold in cities and among elites I Until lSt century AD in Parthia I Until Muslim conquest in Romania Classical Era 450 330 BC Hellenistic Era Rome Origins o Etruscan Hegemony o Citystate 0 Trading center Citizensoldiers Mixed constitution o Patricians vs Plebeians o Consuls Senators Civil Priesthood o Centuriate Assembly Plebeian Assembly Tribunes Slow conquest o Latium Italian peninsula 0 Full naturalization semicitizenship colonies allies socii Mediterranean Conquest 0 Italian resource base 0 Flourishing agriculture and trade 0 Soldiers 0 Taxes 0 New Provinces 0 Mediterranean expansion I North Africa Spain Sardinia o Carthaginian Empire Punic Wars Sea eet 0 Greece and Anatolia 0 Celtic Gaul and Ptolemaic Egypt 0 Imperial infrastructure 0 Longdistance roads 0 Methods 0 Military garrisons Local autonomy 0 Stick Military force brutality Carthage 0 Carrot I Peace protection from piracy etc I Prosperity trade facilitation I Liberty Justice and Civilization mere propaganda Lifestyle 0 Urbanity o Polis central administration culture 0 Italy 40 urban 0 Public amenities I Theaters aqueducts sanitation baths arenas libraries 0 Culture 0 Hellenistic I Art amp Stoicism and Epicurianism o Humanitas I Greek roots I Culture benevolence Virtue civilization 0 Eastern cults I Mithra Persia I Magna Mater Anatolia Pompeii Fall of Republic 60 30 BC 0 Rise of professional army 0 Transfer of loyalty to consulgenerals Rise of Roman proletariat Populist politics Army factions Julius Caesar o Populist noble general 0 Octavian o Caesar s heir o Principate Imperial Trends I Pax Romana I Rome City parasitism o Proletariat 0 Bread and Circuses I Further Expansion 0 Mesopotamia Britain Germania I Spread of GrecoRoman culture 0 Pushpull process I Latin West Greek East I Multiethnicity 0 Arab Spanish African Illyrian emperors and senators 0 Culture rather than ethnicity as key to membership Decline and Fall of Rome Third Century Crisis 235 85 AD I Trouble in the East 0 Sassanian Empire I NeoAcheamenid NeoPersian I Trouble in the West 0 Germanic incursions I Civil Wars amp Army Coups I Empire almost falls Germania I PreRoman Society lst Century BC 0 Small tribes o Subsistence agriculture 0 Little trade 0 Relatively egalitarian I PostRoman Developments by 3rd Century AD 0 Periodic roman interference in tribal politics 0 Large tribal confederations 0 Trade owering economic growth I Roman coinage I Trade with empire I Paid military service to Rome I Largerscale industrial pursuits 0 Greater social complexity I WarriorKings I More serfs and slaves Imperial Response 285 325 AD I From Principate to Dominate o Diocletian and Constantine o Overt absolutism 0 Oriental pomp o Deification of living emperors I Imperial division temporary 0 Dual emperors East and West 0 New provincial divisions 0 Multiple capitals Economic Regulation 0 Hereditary professions o Peasant mobility curtailed Bureaucratic growth 0 Greater taxation 0 Increase state officials o Closer control from centers Cooptation of barbarianled forces barbarian generals New Crisis 370 410 AD East 0 New Sassanian threats Center 370s o Huns 0 Panic in eastern Germania o Goths eastern German confederacy beg for sanctuary I Battle of HAdrianople 0 Civil War West 410s 0 Civil War 0 Huns 0 Western German breach the Rhine I December 31 406 o Sack of Rome 410 I Goths 0 Britain secedes 410 Fall of Rome 410 476 AD German confederacies push deeper into West 0 Massive plunder 0 German kingdoms I Iberia Spain Gaul France ampNorth Africa Huns arrive o Invade Italy c 450 threaten Rome 0 Disintegrate in 455 Saxons invade Britain Vicious Circle of Decline in West East survives Later Developments Kingdom of Italy 0 Theodoric I Romanized Goth


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