U S HISTORY [C4AE]
U S HISTORY [C4AE] GHIST 225
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Date Created: 09/26/15
11 Political Minorities 1865192 1 A 0 5393 African Americans Most prominent After civil war they saw dramatic improvements Public schools social services freedom to move Some moved north where they saw discrimination left in exodus to the west so that they could farm Became sharecroppers or tenant farmers if they were fortunate Sharecropper is someone who works another mans land in exchange for the share of another mans crop If Sharecropper borrowed money from the owner he must pay that back from his crop Once in debt you cannot leave until you pay it back and ifyou don t pay back you would be put in prison and leased as a worker Racism increased in the north after reconstruction Cut funding for schools specifically black schools passed strict laws governing behavior increased prison population Made it legal to turn convicts into state revenue Most in south saw no increase in economic improvements Positions in states changed so that people were appointed instead of elected imposed literacy tests poll taxes which excluded blacks Civil Rights Act of 1875 made it a crime to discriminate on the basis of race Southern states passed laws separating blacks from whites 1896 Plessey kicked out of an all white train car was 18 black Plessey v Ferguson found legal segregation was acceptable as long as facilities were equal Extralegal lynching occurred in public areas illegal and continued well into the 20th century By 1900 blacks in south faced deplorable conditions and military was forced to begin the process of desegregation Immigrants Targeted at the end of the 19th century Mexicans and Chinese Chinese were especially targeted because they are not remotely like us quotYellow peril 1877 great railroad strike men who went on strike against the railroad found they all had a deep resentment to the Chinese 1882 focused moved from state laws to federal laws led to Chinese Exclusion Act Indians By 19th century Indians in east had been removed Faced laws that discriminated against them in public places Daw Severalty Act Indian families were forced to live on individual plots ofland they could farm which intently was made to destroy tribes as a whole Were forced to progress boarding schools sought to make people right Sitting Bull was one of the leaders of the Lacota gold was found in the plains 1876 Federal government ordered Indians into reservations Divided 7th cavalry to surround Sitting Bull and were defeated Late June 1876 centennial celebration reaction was to send in the army for real infantry guns cannons etc 1878 Su were defeated and sent to reservations Plain Indians were faced with a decision starvation accommodation or ight In an effort to destroy the Indians Americans gave them a sign to distinguish themselves 1907 Oklahoma became a state Indians in territory had been made citizens Herbert Hoover elected an Indian as his Vice President Indians who made it through boarding school became defenders of quotIndiannessquot 19 24 US extended full citizenship to all Indians Wounded Knee 150 Indians killed cavalry stood in circle and shot Indians and also their own people Women Has no specific starting point Gilman was a women s advocate wrote quotHer Land utopian As US became more urban so did women Women had greater freedom in the cities Women worked together because of gender discrimination Did not stop wanting to be mothers wives big in uences in the home Women had to enter a cash economy Most women were exhausted by having too many children which didn t allow them to have full freedom like men quotBirth control Sanger ran into federal law that prevented the mailing of pornographic material Published and distributed quotThe Women Rebel within 6 months she was arrested but ed to Britain and came back and got arrested again Regularly arrested for public indeceny Opened family planning clinic was quickly popular not a good thing for Catholic church NYPD arrested the staff and placed them in jail for refusing to stop selling contraceptives Founded a club that distributed contraceptives in person Sanger was ejected from the organization 1946 contraceptives could be legally obtained in the country with a doctor s prescription III Progressivism and the Constitution A AmendmentXVI Made US more democratic Ratified in 1913 Income Tax AmendmentXVII Direct election of Senators meaning people would be able to vote for Senator 18941912 amendment passed 4 times AmendmentXVIII Temperance Business owners supported it German words removed from our language WWI Ratified in less than 2 months Prohibition didn t work led to an increase in crime Created a new culture created new words and led to protests AmendmentXIX Gave women the right to vote 1869 Anthony and Stanton created the national women s suffrage association promoted an amendment for suffrage for women Stone and Howe American Women s Suffrage Association 1890 two groups merged into National American Women s Suffrage Association 18901896 women won the vote in 4 states Wyoming Colorado Utah Idaho 1917 New York became first state east of Mississippi to grant women suffrage Alice Pail Quaker went to England and worked with suffragettes NAWSA protested along with Alice Paul Paul s actions split the organization President Wilson supported the amendment and got it through the House of Representatives in 1918 and became a major campaign issue jun 4th 1919 19th amendment passed the Senate and was ratified August 1920 of the American Centurv Introduction quotAmerican Century coined by Henry Luce He was one of the leading publishers ofperiodic literature 1941 editorial in life magazine called on America to stop isolationism and make 20th century America s century Cultural economic effort to better America and we did it By end of 20th century US had become dominant political and economic power in the world American Foreign Policy 18441929 A American Expansion in the Pacific 1844 trade agreement with China made China Americans number one foreign destination for missionaries 1850 led eet through japan got Iapanese to let shipwrecked Americans return home 1867 Iohnson as President has William H Seward buy land from Russia for 725m Alaska Was seen as a very poor choice to use government revenue Iohnson believed it would secure American claims in Pacific northwest and bring in trading efforts ejected Russia Hawaii one of most important objects in middle 19th century 1875 Hawaiian kingdom signed trading treaty with US which led to sugar boom 1887 Americans forced king in Hawaii to accept a government 1893 Queen Lillikalani tried to rescind control 1898 US annexed Hawaii with Hawaii came Pearl Harbor engaged in first major international war with Spain Cuba 1895 revolt was raised in Cuba and Americans called for support brokered a peace and didn t get fully involved started sending battle ships to keep the peace B The Spanish American War 1898 Mahan wrote a book showed rise of great empires of the world Britain were based on big powerful blue water Navies US was in uenced with Mahan s book built large blue water navy 5393 1 When US built navy they built ships that had big turrets that could fire on each side of the boat USS Maine was in Havana harbor Feb 1898 exploded and sank Hurst and Pulitzer idea of huge holistic stories on front page comics etc Yellow Press Hurst and Pulitzer said sinking of Main was an act of war Forced McKinley to get a declaration ofwar which he got US forces were far superior to Spanish and US swept them from the sea By Aug in 4 months US defeated one of the great imperial powers of Europe Spain in Caribbean and Pacific gave US an instant empire Theodore Roosevelt Took a different view in America s foreign policy Saw the US as the worlds policemen Declared it was the role of the United States to police the hemisphere and to help the nations establish themselves properly and use foreign government to help societies progress Panama would become it s own nation and America would recognize them Roosevelt sent navy down to ensure they were protected US bought out French company who were intermediaries in building the canal Canal was not completed until August 1914 beginning ofWWI William Howard Taft Didn t demilitarize or withdraw but he believed that the way to progress was through a cooperative process through government and business quotDollar diplomacy primary objective was keeping markets open to US Used funds to prop up friend regimes Based on assumption that what was good for American business was good for America E Woodrow Wilson and World War Tried his best to encourage development in the western world Latin American did not go well Was a fundamental Protestant believed it was God s will for the United States to raise the rest of world Most important foreign policy he had to deal with was WWI the breaking point for Europe Constantly shifting series of alliances quotCentral powers alliance Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated by Serbian started WWI Austrians threatened the Serbians Russia began to mobilize AustriaHungary mobilized Germany started to mobilize on the border of France France started to mobilize Britain started to mobilize millions of men Germany figured they should attack France then move on to Russians stormed through Belgium and then storm down through Paris French realized what was happening and got taXi cabs to drive soldiers to front German s lost Trenches were built mustard gas Shattered the notion that war was heroic spent millions of their men fighting war Armistice of 1918 was signed Peace treaty that followed was endorsed heavily by Wilson 14 points supposed to prevent war again Last of points was League of Nations representative body that represented all great powers of the World US did not join Senate refused to ratify it Congress wrote up own peace deal and Wilson vetoed it No peace treaty until Oct 1921 1920s US slipped into period of isolationism WWI was devastating for Europe but much less so for the US US suffered tens of thousands of casualties but not millions like Europe US supplied munitions food ships led to boom in US and US was dramatically expanding By 19161917 Russia was an unstable nation Germany sent Lenin back to Russia in which Lenin started a revolution in Moscow 1917 Russia withdrew from the war At end of the war socialist revolution in Russia was seen as a threat which prompted US and allies to send soldiers into Russia War ended with Treaty of Versed blamed Germans for the war Germans lost Saar region had to pay retribution for starting war to tune of Trillions F1 Isolatiom39sm in the 1920s Tired of fighting in Europe tired of dealing with all other nations Reaction against the League of Nations quotNo entangling foreign alliances Washington s farewell address 111 The Conservative Turn of the 1920 s A 0 5393 1 The First Red Scare 1 919 Army was demobilized all tanks guns artillery pieces were cancelled business owners counting on that revenue were left with nothing Workers went on strike New York Harbor Strike 1919 and also ship workers in Seattle 1919 Strikes were viewed as spreading socialism Strikes were accompanied by a bombing campaign Sept 1920 wagon bomb on Wall Street killed over 30 people and injured over 200 Car bomb detonated in front ofUS attorney general Palmer created a special division in the justice department general intelligence division named 1 Edgar Hoover job was to gather information on potential terrorist threats Series of rages were carried out on Palmer s say arresting 5000 without warrants Jan 1920 NY legislature expelled 5 social workers Middle Jun 1920 scare run its course and a socialist revolution was not going to exist Warren G Harding Chosen by Republican party because he quotlooked Presidential First did business didn t do well then went to politics and attracted people and was tremendously popular Conservative Presidency was run by his cabinet and did what his secretaries told him Hoover Served boot leg liquor in parties at white house impregnated his secretary died of food poisoning in Alaska After his death news starting breaking that military supplies were being sold under the table Silent Calvin Coolidge Religious fundamentalist President should be a moderating force not like the progressive Presidents His election was based on a large middleclass movement Cultural Conservatism Period ofdeep social and cultural conservatism Period of reaction against hippies produced Nixon Reagan P1 F1 Reaction in Protestant community against what they saw as laX morals One of the major threats to this order was science evolution 1925 TN passed a law banning the teaching in public schools of evolution John T Scopes accepted invitation to be a guinea pig took out banned evolutionary book and was arrested Lawyer they chose was the leading defense attorney in the US trial became an argument between creationists and evolutionists Scopes was found guilty and fined 100 TN supreme court upheld conviction but removed the fine case died Revival of the KKK first iteration disappeared in 1880s was revived at Stone Mountain GA in 1915 at a meeting because ofa movie quotThe Birth ofa Nation Clan began as a 100 Americanist clan stood for drinking protection ofwhite womanhood etc Got new leaders who recognized power of advertising to be in Republican politics you had to be a clan member 1924 passage ofimmigration law series of murders by the KKK that were not considered crimes clan lost its reputation because of these scandals Hoover one of the most important political figures in 1920s Was secretary of commerce changing power in executive branch before president got people to cooperate Herbert Hoover and the Business Decade 1928 Hoover became President picked Charles Curtis Caw Indian as Vice President Every state but 5 voted Republican because of original south states that seceded Beginning ofthe Great Depression High tariff by US and inability for Germany to repay it s reparations due to WWI caused everyone to lose money Foreign problems hurt US banks in which the banks were investing on margin in stock company End of 1928 investors saw a dying economy When car sales dropped people started taking money out Oct 24 1929 Black Thursday 13mil shares changed hands Monday morning 9mil sell orders Stock market dropped 50 ofit s value and crash was at its worst in 193 2 People stopped buying things which dampened consumer production First year 5000 banks went under Fed Government passed Smoot tariff Hoover insisted on keeping the gold standards worked to establish voluntary cooperation to solve the problem Created the reconstruction finance corporation let companies borrow money 13mil workers were out ofwork Milo Reno stopped shipping food to cities until the price went up 1932 quotBonus Army organized group ofWWI veterans marched on DC demanding bonus early set up a Hoover Ville on island as a demonstration and a demand for bonus to be paid Hoover ordered national army to clear the streets and then to move people off Roosevelt Island Patton McArthur were in charge drove veterans out of the island and burned places as they went 25 unemployment 1000s of banks went under The Roosevelt Era 111 Introduction Begins around 193 21933 to 1945 FDR election 1932 3 years into worst economic crisis 1 in 4 people were unemployed Ecological disaster on the plains drought huge storms The Election of 1932 One of the biggest landslides in election history Roosevelt The New Deal 19331942 A Introduction EU quotStarting over offering everyone a new chance A new role for government correct the problems of the previous 3 years First New Deal focused on immediate relief and a movement to national recovery Second New Deal fundamental reform of the American economy quotAll we have to fear is fear itself not WWII but towards American feeling First New Deal 1 9331 934 1 The Hundred Days E 9 SD H Emergency Banking Act March 9th discussed debated and passed in 1 day 4 day bank holidy all banks closed for 4 days Forbid the hoarding of gold March 12th fireside chat GlassSteagall Act and FDIC Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation FDIC Personal deposits guaranteed by government if bank went under if bank was part of FDIC group Covered 5000 deposit well paying job was 15000 a year Forced banks to sever relationships with investment corporations National Industrial Recovery Act NRA PWA Created national recovery administration acted as a broker between large companies set standards for output pricing etc quotBlue eagle would attract people to those businesses Became unpopular within a year was clear that it was dominated by larger businesses Public Works Administration PWA things built by the federal government Harold Ickes mandate was to spend as much money as possible PWA engaged in huge building projects Agricultural Adjustment Act AAA Meant to raise farm prices Government promised to buy surplus farm products until prices rose Paid farmers to slaughter animals and burn them Beer and Wine Revenue Act and Amendment XXI 21st amendment undid the 18th abolition Federal Emergency ReliefAct Cooperative program between federal and state governments Gave money to people without having them work Civilian Conservation Corps CCC 02 Put over 3million men to work preserving ecology Between ages 1825 worked on federal conservation built parks restored grazing and crop lands Earned 30 a month fed and given housing Ended in 1941 done a great deal to stop erosion on Great Plains and improved farm land h Tennessee Valley Authority TVA One oflargest government projects in American history Roots lay in progressive era Series of dams on the Tennessee River provided ood control irrigation improved river commerce recreational areas 2 New Regulatory Agencies a Federal HousingAuthority Effect ofpumping money into banks which could be loaned to businesses producing goods for people b Federal Communications Commission Regulates radio transmission fair dealings by telephone companies c Securities and Exchange Commission Oversee the bond markets to make sure they were operating transparently and fairly C Second New Deal 19351938 1 Rural Electrification Agency Provide electricity to rural areas 2 Works Progress Administration D P1 Headed by Henry Hopkins employed white color workers doctors and dentists Created federal theater project Created federal music project Created federal writers project led to the oral history of slavery 3 Wagner Act 4 1935 gave workers the right to negotiate with labor organizations Fair Labor Standards Act minimum wage standard work week Created Social Security Act Social Security Act All your working life you pay into a pension plan which helped pay retirees Works spectacularly well in US Intended to prevent poverty among elderly people Also an economic stimulus 5 Fair Labor Standards Act SSA and FLA are among the most important acts 8 hour day 40 hours a week anyone working more than 40 hours a week would get overtime pay Minimum wage prevent competition that was seen as undermining economy Outlawed child labor in interstate commerce Article 1 Section 7 of Constitution Election 0f1936 Roosevelt trounced Landon 5238 electoral vote 77 19 majority in the senate 328 107 majority in the House of Representatives Democrats Court Packing Scheme 1937 Supreme court was appointed by conservative presidents Balance was 4 conservative justices 4 horsemen to 3 liberal justices Conservative justices resisted the New Deal as much as they could Article II of Constitution F1 Executive branch was designed to be a weak branch in government 1935 Supreme court started hearing test cases against the New Deal Roosevelt asked Congress to allow quothelperquot judges for the older Supreme Court judges allowing them to overrule the quot4 horsemen Democratic party shattered over this idea saw it as a serious threat to the American system FDR did not get the law Conservative democrats starting aligning themselves against the expansion of government End ofthe New Deal It ended IV World War II A Storm Clouds on the Horizon Iapanese brought in British naval consultants to build Navy and German consultants to build army Success in Manchuria strengthened the idea ofImperialism Europe fascist movement began in Italy 1922 promised a quotnew order a more efficient government make the trains run on time Fascism was a focus on the state not the individual highly militaristic promised national glory Mussolini promised to do this movement quot Was tremendously popular same as Hitler 1934 Iapan renounced the 5 power naval treaty British France US did nothing 1936 Germany remilitarized the Rhine land violation of treaty Britain and France said quotStopquot and that s it Civil war in France 1939 Franco succeeded in his rebellion 1937 full blown war between Japan and China Japan Germany Italy signed the Axis alliance rest ofwest did nothing 1938 Hitler s Germany absorbed Austria Sept Germany occupied border area in Czechoslovakia 1939 Hitler thought Czechs were German and sent troops into Czechoslovakia and occupied it Hitler Stalin made secret agreement and invaded Poland Britain and France declared war In US Americans were worried about the depression D Nye commission Ierold P Nye created to figure out why US went to war in WW1 concluded that they went to war because bankers were losing money in Europe and they wanted to profit by going to war Neutrality act of 1945 forbid the sale of arms to any state when war eXisted according to the President 1936 extended law to loans FDR asked for the act to cover civil wars Poll found 94 of people wanted to stay out ofwar 1937 outlawed travel of Americans on belligerent ships forbid arming of merchant ships empowered President to require cash FDR never declared ChinaJapan in war and therefore was able to support Chinese believed Europe could take care ofitself 1939 FDR declared the US would no longer abide by trade treaty in Japan Iapan desperately short on oil Roosevelt s Responses Roosevelt was elected to 4 terms 1940 FDR promised not to go to war to win election After Germany invaded Poland FDR asked for a revision of the neutrality act Raised war departments funding to 17billion to 17billion 1940 first ever peacetime draft April 1941 FDR extended naval patrols almost as far as Iceland June 1941 Hitler attacked USSR FDR extended lendlease to them Sept 1941 US ships were involved with shooting incidents with German subs FDR met with Churchill and established war aims Pearl Harbor December 7th 1941 Ships but not aircraft carriers were in the harbor Yamamoto quotPerhaps but I fear that we have awaken a sleeping giant European War Winter was so cold that cavalry overtook tanks oil froze etc Battle of Kirsksp 5000 tanks in one battle Russians lost some 20mil people US became involved in 1943 in north Africa and Italy June 1944 DDay single largest amphibious operation in history almost failed luneApril 19441945 allies went across France and into Germany Soviets lost 100000 soldiers capturing Berlin US lost 250000 total E Pacific War US caught japan carriers in Pacific and destroyed them all US began an island hopping campaign working there way up to japan US started establishing bases containing the B29 superfortress Strategic bombing fire storms storms that created over 100mph winds Fire bombing killed hundreds of thousands ofpeople Fire bombings in japan killed 400000 people in a weekend Okinawa first home base attacked F America During the War War revitalized the economy and puts factory workers as soldiers draft Over 1m black workers moved to west coast to work in factories Women moved into the workforce Demand for labor brought in a lot of Mexicans War transformed American cities FDR outlawed racial discrimination in war industries Smith v Alwright founded that if democrats were going to have a primary they could not discriminate on race V The end of the War 1945 A Franklin D Roosevelt s Death Truman took over didn t know America had an atomic bomb project Truman was not experienced enough to think ofwhat had to be done Got Stalin to declare war on japan in 1945 B The Atomic Bum hs Manhattan project began in 1940 Iews ed to US and Britain warning them that Germany was working on nuclear chain reactions Project consumed 2billion July 16 1945 atomic bomb was proven to work detonated and shattered windows 125miles away Hiroshima 400000 people Truman said this is a military weapon and to not attack women and children 80000 people dead in a ash August 9th Nagasaki annihilated by a bomb PostWar America 111 Introduction Talking about the years after August 1945 Japan surrendered in August Germany in April Formed the modern US US was the dominant economic military cultural power and leading nation in the world Conservative Resurgence Opposition to the New Deal and growing sense ofequality shown by lower class workers African Americans 1946 midterm elections went badly for Democrats Truman promised to eXtend the New Deal By end of 1945 the annual in ation rate was running at 15 extremely high Workers believed they were losing ground because ofin ation Auto steel mine etc all went on strike Truman asked Congress to nationalize the railroads and have all workers put in army Taft Heartly act of 1947 vetoed by Truman but was overridden 1947 passage of National Security Act Department ofWar with Department of Defense central organization also created national security council Discrimination in primary elections in Texas were deemed illegal Government positions were desegregated US fought WWII with separate Iapanese white and black departments Truman was so unpopular that they indicated Dewey as leader before all votes were in PostWar American Society A GI Bill of Rights US quickly demilitarized after WWII Laid foundations ofUS expansion 8mil veterans used funds to go to school Changed educational structure by opening schools up to everyone Gave 5mil veterans money to buy homes B Baby Boom 19461964 1930s total increase in the number ofAmericans of9mil 1940s 19million 19451964 huge increase in Americans C Consumer Culture Following WWII consumerism dramatically expanded Televisions 7000 in 1946 50 million in 1960 Broadcast networks programming etc Expansion of TV showed people more things around the world Expansion of cars 1946 2million cars 1960 8million 1950 US was 50 ofworlds economy Cars lead to gas stations malls etc D Suburbs William Levit build temporary houses used assembly line logic for building houses made it easy to build simple houses 1947 Levit built a 600 house development cost 5000 to buy Eisenhower made a commission to figure out transportation problems decided to build roads to connect suburbs to cities Gave Americans better access to their home more than ever before 1947 no interstate system One problem was defactolegal segregation Redlining realtors would not show black families houses in white developments 1970 95 of suburbs were white IV The Early Cold War A PostWar World After WWII the idea was to reform Europe Russia won most of the war in Europe Stalin wanted a buffer between Soviet Union and Europe threats Churchill Iron curtain B George Kennan and Containment Counselor at American Embassy in Moscow MarxistLeninisttheory C Stalin killed 30million of his people Warned that the US must contain Soviet communism Published essence of telegram in foreign affairs under the pen name X In uenced President Truman GreeceTurkey looked like they would fail economically so Truman asked Congress to help the states out Congress refused March 12 1947 Truman delivered a speech Truman Doctrine called for 400million for GreeceTurkey and claimed for the US to protect all the world from communism Truman working with George Marshall Secretary of State made Marshall Plan directed 13b to Europe to help its infrastructure Tensions grew with Soviet Union and Stalin imposed a full blockade on the city trying to stop the unification ofwest Germany Iune 19481949 cold winter hit Berlin Truman gathered transport planes to transport foodsupplies into Berlin Berlin Airlift Led to NATO Apr 1949 bounded US Britain France etc together into a mutual defense pact Soviets created Warsaw Pact alliance of eastern European states NSC68 1950 China fell to communist revolution Truman s containment of communism appeared to have failed Soviets obtained atomic bomb only way they could have this technology is ifAmericans helped them US decided to build hydrogen bomb NSC68 was 68th advisory paper Foundation ofAmerica s Cold War policy D The Korean War 19501953 Soviets created a communist community in North Korea June 1950 Soviets invaded South Korea Truman called for a resolution by the UN against the North Korean invasion Stalin refused to attend the UN so US got the resolution US sent 50000 others sent 150000 and South Korea had 300000 Truman was Commander in Chief of 500000 men without declaring war President is able to wage war without a formal declaration Chinese sent 700000 troops across river and drove Allied forces south Peace negotiations still continue in Korea Truman relieved McArthur from duty because he wanted to use atomic bombs on North Korea War caused 33000 dead and over 100000 dead South Korea suffered 1m casualties and North Korea China suffered 15m E Second Red Scare Instituted a loyalty program where no one who was communist socialist could work in the government 1 Edgar Hoover head of FBI worked enthusiastically to find communist socialists etc In Congress HUAC became very active sought to root out communistic particularly in Hollywood Senator Joseph McCarthy most sensational advocate in West Virginia he held up a list saying he knew communists in government Republican party tolerated McCarthy and swept the government Finally Senate reprimanded McCarthy F The Dwight D Eisenhower Administration 19531961 Won handily over Stevenson Was a much more conservative President did not eXtend New Deal programs Dynamic conservatism fiscal conservatism Deep cuts in spending particularly the defense budget Not averse for the government to do things for the country as a whole Formed commission to study the transportation ofAmericans Congress in 1956 passed federal highway act authorized government to construct interstates paid back by gasoline taxes and states promised to maintain roads Was reluctant to engage in civil rights movement in 1950s but he was eventually drawn into it V The Early Civil Rights Movement A Introduction African Americans began to press for equality Exec Orders 9980 9981 integrated military 1948 Truman NAACP formed strategy to break segregation B Brown v Board of Education ofTopeka KS Thurgood Marshall C D E F 1952 series of cases were heard together under Supreme Court Brown V Board ofEducation Kansas Delaware South Carolina Virginia DC Decision not released until 1954 Earl Warren opinion written by the Chief Justice unanimously Opinion declared that the doctrine of separate but equal has not case made school segregation illegal prompt and reasonable start between compliance Did not dictate a pace for desegregation Montgomery Bus Boycott 19551956 NAACP said a test case was in need Rosa Parks was arrested for not giving up her seat to a white man NAACP argued that it was an unconstitutional taking of property DeXter Avenue Baptist Church NAACP and blacks from Montgomery met gave blacks social cultural Martin Luther King r Brought a focal point for the bus boycott Black folks in Montgomery walked and commercial interest began to complain Got a PhD in philosophy read the bible closely studied Gandhi and philosophy of passive resistance Brought national attention to Montgomery Separate but equal was unconstitutional in all spheres Southern Christian Leadership Conference SCLC King was first leader 195 7 Pushed for a civil rights act Civil Rights Act of 1957 Eisenhower was a strong supporter for the right to vote but not so much for the intermingling of races Created civil rights commission laid foundation for future civil rights acts Linden B Johnson responsible for pushing this through G Central High School in Little Rock Opened in 1957 supposed to be created in line with decision of Brown v Board but was segregated Was named unconstitutional and 9 black students who met requirements were admitted Orville Favus governor refused and called national guard to enforce segregation Eisenhower appealed directly to Favus to withdraw national guard and Favus agreed When national guard left a mob entered Eisenhower ordered 1000 members of the 101st airborne division Nationalized the national guard they were now under military orders Soldiers escorted the 9 children to school Got through one year then Favus closed the schools Massive resistance was used to prevent segregation all around America
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