INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY [C2HQC]
INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY [C2HQC] GPHIL 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maurice Zieme on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GPHIL 101 at James Madison University taught by Mark Piper in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/214087/gphil-101-james-madison-university in General Education at James Madison University.
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Introduction to Philosophy Dr Mark Piper Final exam study guide Students In order to be prepared for the nal exam be able to answer all of the following questions But NOTE where it asks you to know a philosopher s view on some matter make sure that you know the I vs I details behind the 39 quot t N W 5 not inst the 39 What is the story of the Allegory of the Cave What is its moral Be open to new ideas Be able to accept the change of your beliefs try to nd the truth What is the translation of the word philosophy What is the de nition of philosophy Translation love of wisdom Philosophy is the discipline of rational inquiry into the truth of reasons for and meaning of our fundamental beliefs undertaken to achieve theoretical and or practical wisdom What are the two major kinds of wisdom and philosophy Be able to describe them Practical concerns insight into the best values and way to live values Theoretical concerns possessing true justified understanding of the natural world facts What are the 4 main branches of theoretical philosophy and 2 main branches of practical philosophy Be able to give a brief description of each and to say what kinds of questions one would nd in each Metaphysics study of the ultimate nature of features of reality that cannot be investigated be the empirical sciences What is time Epistemology the study of the nature and scope of knowledge How do we measure knowledge Logic study of the forms of proper reasoning If a then b a therefore b Metaethics study of various issues that relate to ethics in some way but answers which are not actionguiding Are moral rules objective or relative Normative ethics ethical issues the answers which are actionguiding provides notions of what is good bad wrong Action guiding What is the good life the life of well being Normative politics philosophy theories and issues that are actionguiding in relation between government and individuals What is the best way for groups of persons to organize What is an argument in the critical sense What are its parts An attempt to establish a conclusion as true or probably true by providing broadly rationally compelling reasons to accept it Premises amp conclusion What is the difference between deductive and inductive arguments Deductive have premises that prove conclusion Inductive have premises that make a conclusion probable Know how to identify and think up examples of the various fallacies we studied Always taught it popular argument hasty generalization comfort discomfort What are the general characteristics of ancient Chinese philosophy more practical less theoretical or purely speculative less analytic more suggestive and poetic fewer essays more epigrams and wise sayings What are the core aspects of the path of the superior person from Ching Wisdom Modesty proactivity and adaptability LN 00 What did Aquinas think on the question of whether God s existence is selfevident On the basis of this what kind of argument do we need to make if we re going to try to establish God s existence Self evident in itself but not to us Effects to causes What are the two arguments against God s existence that Aquinas mentions Problem of evil in nitely good being can t exist God s existence is unnecessary we can explain everything in reality without appealing to god Know Aquinas ve ways to prove God s existence Attached sheets What is the difference between cosmological arguments for God s existence and design arguments for God s existence Cosmological try to show that reason suggests that we have to believe in god as the only being that could explain how the cosmos began first 3 of aquanis ways espically rst 2 Design inductive argument it eplains the how but not the why god would have to be more complex than the universe and everything in it39 where you have an in nite regress you never get to an answer last of aquanis ways What is the general version of the problem of evil thatI gave you in class Pl An all loving being by de nition would want to create a perfectly loving world P2 An all knowing being by definition would know how to do it P3 An all powerful being by de nition would be able to do it C Therefore such a god must not exist What is Hume s view on the problem of evil Problem 1 pain is unnecessary and we should be in a constant state of pleasure 2 ithere are in exible laws but god should be able to suspend those laws to produce better outcomes 3 there is too frugal a distribution of power We have powerful brains and should have more power for labor and not for laziness 4 nature has horrible disasters that cuase suffering and god should not have that happen What are moral relativism and moral objectivism Relativism benidict irej ection of the idea that there is one correct morality for all peoples and times the fact that a majority of people in a culture thinks that something is right makes it right or wrong Objectivism ethical absolutism 7 stace one true morality for all people and all times not following the true morality is certainly possible 7 people can be ignorant of it but does not mean it s any less true what is right can ddiffer from what people think is right What is Benedict s view on the question of the nature of moral rules She a moral relativist Different validities in different cultures more validity is relative to cultures ibut note there is validity in the culture What is Stace s view on the question of the nature of moral rules How does he argue against moral relativism Moral obj ectivism It leads to absurdities and arbitraries It implies that moral minorities are automatically morally wrong It s impossible to compare diff standards of morality to say one is better or worse than another O N 24 25 It becomes impossible to talk about meaningful moral progress in historylt no goal to move towards Practical dif culty of nding the moral value of culture if there is no clear majority View What is Singer s view on the question of whether animals deserve to be treated with moral concern They can feel pain then they have interests which means they deserve moral concern What is speciesism and how does Singer argue against it They fact that we belong to the same speices makes us special 7 defends racism Reduction as absurdum What is the second way to argue against the notion that animals deserve to be treated with moral concern and how does Singer respond to it We have special features that make us better What about the marginal cases What is the position called the egalitarian plateau e the boundaries so open it would have to include some animals What is John Locke s view on the question of how governmentscivil societies come to be Make sure in your answer to take into account the State of Nature and its inconveniences the law of nature and the mechanism by which civil society is created Formation of a civil society by social contract where persons by common concent give up their natural legislative excutive and judicial powers to establish a commoly accepted civil power that has these powers over a primary purpose of a civil society 7 to preserve the property of its members as far as this is possible other benefits order cooperation security freedom from irregularity State of nature all peoples are free and independent of each other describes the human condition before or without gov t in the SON all persons are equal free and independent everyone is hisher own legislative Executive and judicial power gov t is located in each one individually The law of nature is operative in the SONdoesn t require a gov t to be effective it is known by reason alone don t harm others or threaten their property it is acceptable to defend oneself against attacks on one s property 3 major inconveniences in the SON no established known law to decide disagreements no common legislature no known objective to judge to determine disputes no common judiciary no civil power to enforce decisions in disputes no common executive Why was Locke against absolute monarchy There is no power that holds over everyone equally rather everyone is subject to the arbitrary judgement of the king and queen its just like the SON but worse bc everyone is dominated by the ruler s arbitrary decisions According to Locke what makes political authority legitimate How does the will of the majority t in Democracy bc it involves the consent of the majori the freely given consent of the individuals that make up the society is what makes it legitimate the ultimate power results in the will of the majority ie the majority of consent by consenting to be in civil society one agrees to abide by the will of the majority w out which a unified civil society according to Locke wouldn t be possible