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by: Maurice Zieme


Maurice Zieme
GPA 3.74

Steven Hoeltzel

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Steven Hoeltzel
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maurice Zieme on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GPHIL 150 at James Madison University taught by Steven Hoeltzel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/214088/gphil-150-james-madison-university in General Education at James Madison University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
Jack Phillips GPHIL Study Guide GPHIL Quiz Number 1 What are the two key questions to ask when examining any argument Are the argument s premises actually true Or if their truth is not known with certainty do we at least have good reasons for taking them to be true Supposing that all the argument s premises are true do they provide enough information to establish that the conclusion is definitely true or at least probably true Under what conditions is an argument deductively valid An argument is deductiver valid ifand only if on the assumption that all of its premises are true its conclusion absolutely must be true Under what conditions is an argument not deductively valid An argument is not deductively valid if even on the assumption that all of its premises are true the possibility remains open that its conclusion is false Can an argument that39s not deductively valid still be a good argument overall An argument that is not deductively valid may still be a good argument all things considered Under what conditions is an argument deductively valid and sound An argument is deductively valid and sound if and only if it is deductively valid and all of its premises are actually true Under what conditions is an argument deductively valid but unsound An argument is deductively valid but unsound if and only if i it is deductively valid and ii one or more of its premises is false Under what conditions is an argument inductively strong An inference is inductively strong only if on the assumption that all of its premises are true its conclusion probably is true What is the difference between something39s being morally permissible and it39s being morally obligatory Morally Permissible The behaviors the public tolerates like smoking and drinking Morally obligatory A belief thatthe act is one prescribed by their set of values Why should we distinguish between moral rules and legal rules Moral rules provide the baseline for ethics proscribing unacceptable behavior moral ideals inspire us to act in ways that improve the human condition Legal rules are a legal rule is a rule which determines whether some proposition holds say of an individual contingent on other propositions the premises What are quotreceivedquot In oral ru b8 Moral attitudes and traditions prevalent in this or that specific community Why should we not automatically equate the received moral rules with the real principles of morality The real true moral rules might or might not line up with our received moral rules Utilitarianism Classic utilitarianism is the moral theory according to which Classic utilitarianism is the moral theory according to which an act is morally right to the extent that it maximizes utility morally wrong to the extent that it fails to do so Jack Phillips GPHIL What is utility as understood by utilitarian s like Bentham and Mill Utilitypleasure happiness bene t not restricted to pleasure of mere sensation not xed on instant grati cation May include personal autonomygrati cation rich relationships challenging achievements What is the principle of utility Principle of utility an action is morally right to the extent that it maximizes utility morally wrong to the extent that it fails to do so What does it mean to maximize utility To maximize utilitypto produce the most pleasure and the least pain possible given your alternatives Utilitarian s think that inprinciple there are three rules we should follow in calculating utilities What are they In principlel Consider everyone that the action affects including animals 2 Count everyone interests equally friends aren t better 3 Measure pleasures and pains in terms of their intensity duration extent fecundity purity and so forth Utilitarian s think that inpmctice we can rely on relevant rules ofthumb What are these rules ofthumb What are they based on Is it ever permissible to violate them If so why If not why not In practicel Endeavor to apply the principles as thoroughly as conditions permit limitations time knowledge 2 Give thought to relevant rules of thumb defeasible general guidelines based on typical consequences Why does Bentham think we should base morality on utility Benthama way to thing objectively and systematically rather than morally Why does Mill think we should base morality on utility Mill the most rational way to determine what is truly desirable for all human beings is to consider what all human beings truly desire Experience teaches us that all people desire happiness as such and for its own sake In class we discussed some proposed counterexamples to utilitarianism How is each ofthese examples supposed to amount to an argument against utilitarianism Killing casedr can kill drunk to give organs to nice sick people to save them this would maximize utility but is not necessarily morally right Punishment example accuse former criminal to put public at easethe police chief would maximize utility if he accused the innocent but it is not necessarily morally right These arguments show that maximizing utility is not always the morally right decision How could a Kantian formulate the moral criticism of utilitarianism that s implicit in examples like these Kantian ethics Medical case killing someone to maximize utility is not morally right according to Kant Punishment case falsely accusing someone and giving them a horrible life in order to make the public happy for a little is not morally right Kantian ethics is the moral theory according to which Why would a Kantian say that we should not base morality on utility What is reason as de ned for purposes of Kantian ethics What is inclination as defined for purposes of Kantian ethics


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