INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY [C2HQC]
INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY [C2HQC] GPHIL 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maurice Zieme on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GPHIL 101 at James Madison University taught by Frank Debrot in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/214089/gphil-101-james-madison-university in General Education at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Philosophy Study Guide for Test 1 Class Notes 1112110 TRUTH What we say and what is Just because we don t have knowledge on a subject doesn t mean there is no truth to the matter The biggest obstacle on its way to truth is wisdom And not all people that have knowledge are wise False assumptions are the greatest fault on way to seeking truth Philosophy involves sacrifice commitment and wisdom Objective truth is the correspondence between what we say and think and what is EX A desk is a desk however someone may say it is a table or a surface Philosophy is not about being clever with words it s more about understanding the conceptwanting something to be has nothing to do with what is most times Science and philosophy are the same in many respects more so in the past they were affiliated with each other especially in the 11hundreds and 12 hundreds in Universities and Western civilization and at the time they both sought objective truth But in more current times they are studied and mentioned in different respects Science required careful control of experimentation where some theorists and scientists were accepted due to technology discoveries and knowledge Philosophy is not this way It is more of an art in a sense Philosophy is natural on different levels that can be done with out training however training helps with credibility Side Note The example mentioned in class about the shape of someone s skill was once believed to predict the types of decisions they will make years later in their lives Called phrenology This caused a lot of controversy and harm This way of thinking was adopted in Europe not only by national socialists Class Notes 111412010 Justice is merely what men invent Ignorance The worst type of ignorance is saying something that you think you know but you really don t know The problem is not what people don t know the problem is what people know that is not so Sigmund Freud Socrates would agree with this quote Culture contains ideas that aren t always mentioned but expressed thorough cultural practices such as music dressing etc An unexamined life is not worth liVing Socrates EX An eagle is a turkey with out his wings same with man A man can soar not by wings but with his mind The different branches of philosophy mentioned Metaphysics The study of the ultimate nature of things and asks what is Socrates speaks of us as rational animals and no man can be with out rationality distorted or not Epistemology Theory of knowledge What do you mean when you say you know something Maybe they are the measurements of being and scientific knowledge Moral Phil Justice principal right wrong Political Phil Ancient also moral Social Phil More modern Phil Of Science Categories of thought with science Aesthetics what is beauty It all depends on how you look at things Beauty is in the eye of the holder Class notes 111 9110 Ignorance Knowing false knowledge NOT absence of knowledge Socrates is wise because he knows he doesn t know He said Everyone knows all they need to know but we don t know that we know He speaks of forgetting what we know and that the truth can be that we may not want to know what we know or else we must face our selves and this causes humiliation as seen in The Apology There is a difference between training and educating Educating is to bring forth and the truth is within us The midwife of the soul Socrates He tries to get people to see what they don t know or don t want to see EX A Gadfly is also a term he refers to These ies sting horses and cows Socrates speaks of the gad y with in the city of Athens at the time to relate to how he pesters and pokes by asking stimulating questions in his city Socrates works towards having us to work cooperatively to discover the truth with in us We are all human and have similar understandings He wants us to bring forth our own truths he s not trying to tell us how or to show us L The Apology Plato 9 Did he believe in the gods Greeks took belief in gods very seriously Many people were against Socrates he was very wise and discovered people s reasoning for beliefs and why This would reveal many powerful people s beliefs for being ignorant causing them to turn against him A system of thinking accepted by a culture could be false but these people weren t necessarily bad Wrong ideas base don unexamined premises can be dangerously wrong Main ideas from The Apology Socrates repetitively states I am not wise On page 13 he claims the reason the bystanders are now his enemies is because he proved to them that they were unwise as well Socrates knows he has no knowledge while his enemies believe they do The court in a way seems to find Socrates deviant in the way that he is standing outside of the norm and accusing the system of teaching as ignorant How do you tell basically everything and everyone as unwise and eXpect people to cooperate This is very hard to do Movie Seminar 1126110 Piety honoring what you should honor and love Eleni is courageous even though she had to perform mutilation to her own daughter to save her family s fate Courage vs Perseverance EX Hitler was perseverant but do we find him virtuosic Justice usually equals virtue No By examining Nick he showed patience while interrogating especially wisdom as well He may have chosen to be a journalist on purpose Vice NOT absence of virtue but an attribute of character that believes in performing evil EX Cateese was an evil communist in the movie and manipulated for evil intentions Justice in regards to the movie When contrasting with revenge it s spoken in a narrow sense aka and repayment for a crime of some sort Pound of esh Shakespeare Example of the story about two brothers one king and one prince One seduces other s wife and that brother seeks revenge but fails to kill brother s family only servants The seducing brother went to the king after this to seek revenge not peace He kills his children had the servant butcher the bodies and cook them and feeds flesh to king After banquet the brother informs him what he had jus eaten THIS is revenge Plato never separates harmony of the soul and community revenge What does this story tell us It causes greater con ictmoves towards struggle and desire to more revenge This story calls more for justice It s not proportional The prince quenched desire for great revenge Eye for an eye tooth for a tooth 9 In relation to the movie Nick was a man seeking justice after seeking revenge If he had been seeking solely revenge through out he would have killed Cateese In relation to the movie Based on what we saw Cateese didn t healhe just got angrier when Nick confronted him He s too arrogant to actually realize what he did He doesn t acknowledge what he did yet he knows This is a deep character flaw Punishment The man who has committed an injustice is better off knowing what they had done wrong than admitting it Plato Punishment concentrates the mind A man that goes unpunished is worse off than one that goes punished Ring of Gyges This story was based upon what Sophists believed in as justice One man just and the other not just The unjust man would kill steal and ease drop while being invisible with no penalty The just man would do exactly the same thing Socrates would do the same Another story when there are two business partners One just one not The un just tries to swindle and cut people off of their money He would be very clever and would put all the blame on the just man The un just man would continue to get away with his conniving ways while the just man would get the blame for all of his wrongdoings The just man can t defend himself and is blind sighted by all of this and is punished for the crimes He is eventually put to death The gods didn t want him because he didn t pray Spoken about in the Allegory of the Cave There are three parts to the soul one corresponds with the reality of person one corresponds with the body and spirit when man gives into lower selfdisharmony of soul corresponds to community where those who obey community Disharmony occurs when ignorance is vice Ignorance is dynamic and multi layered Just as knowledge isignorance is false knowledge Allegory of the Cave main pointslsummaryj The cave represents the life we lead in space and time Also represent the corrupt time in the city of Athens This is basically ignorance We can t completely emerge from the cavebut we can get close Can we know everything In the story when the men does step out of the cave he becomes inarticulate We can get close to knowing and this is the example of the asymptote on a graph Plato wants us to know what if we could step out of the cave which we can t we can see everything in the truest form You would have to act virtuously and once you have full knowledge you ARE virtuous Metaphors in Allegory of the Cave Shadow is the absence of light in a literal sense It is a mere image of nothing These men think the shadows are somethingfalse belief But these are false goods Good something we want to posses The men are fascinated by the shadows and are foolish by making bets and playing games with them They don t know anything better but to them that wasn t foolish But why quot9 Symbolically he speaks of US We are on the bottom of the cave in a sense we don t know anything else just as they cavemen did When we think we posses shadows it s the GREATEST of goods But when we realize it its foolish Can you blame these men Can you blame us The answer is two fold Yes and No No because you can t blame us to know any better Particularly when someone grows up in a corrupt society Its very hard to say no but impossible however This whole idea of the shadows and the story mirrors Socrates Socrates Challenged assumptions he went on a journey to seek the truth In a real sense they are not really reallike shadows A shadow is evidence of something in its self and a shadow is nothing It points to something other than its self that is more real Light Once out of the cavewhat does the man see He sees what is The caveman now sees justice temperance etc YOU SEE WHAT LIGHT ILLUMINATES It allows us to see what we see while seeing is just a metaphor for being Absolute good divine principle The man turns back to the cave because that s justice He is shunned by the other cavemen when back however Once again the idea of being the midwife of the soulthe man is going to try to encourage the men in the cave to do the same They are blind sighted Euthyphro In this story his son accusing him of murder of their servant brings a father to court The idea of being obligated to show respect towards one s own father is shown This is the difference between piety and Justice
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