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by: Janet Williamson


Marketplace > James Madison University > General Education > GCOM 123 > FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN COMMUNICATION GROUP PRESENTATIONS C1HC
Janet Williamson
GPA 3.65

Elizabeth Armstrong

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Elizabeth Armstrong
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This 53 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janet Williamson on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GCOM 123 at James Madison University taught by Elizabeth Armstrong in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/214097/gcom-123-james-madison-university in General Education at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 09/26/15
GCOM Final Exam Study Guide iiiii Ll39rtithe 5113 iii 1 if l iiiiifii i1iiiiiii l ill ii m 1 Myths of Communication Myth 1 Communication is a cureall Many sources endorse communication as the elixir that will solve all relationship problems Sometimes communicating clearly actually reveals how far apart people have grown Improving interviewing skills may not be sufficient enough to land a job Research shows that some problems between individuals are not solvable While communication is an important tool it is not an end unto itself It is not the basis of all human problems and so even perfect communication cannot solve problems Myth 2 Communicating is just common sense Hindsight bias quotIknewthatalready tendency People can be told two opposite things are common sense and they will believe it sometimes what we know isn t so The proof for if we really know something is if we can provide accurate information before we are told what is actually true If communication consists of mostly common sense with no requirement for studying or training then why do so many people exhibit inadequate communication knowledge and skills Myth 3 Communication Quantity Equals Quality More communication isn t always better communication quotthe more relationships the better Persistent communication about a negative situation won t necessarily improve it it may actually intensify or worsen it Occasionally agreeing to disagree and not discussing the issue at all may be the best choice 2 Models of Communication Linear the straight arrow view Oneway phenomenon Sender encodes and send message through a channel to a receiver who decodes the message in an atmosphere of noise The linear model provides insight into the communication process especially by highlighting the concepts of channel and noise The linear model is also important because it broadens the definition of noise to include interference that goes beyond mere loud or irritating sounds ts biggest weakness and limitation is the absence of feedback Interactive the pingpong view The interactive model adds in the element of feedback as well as fields of experience Communication is not a oneway but now a two way process Fields of experience include out cultural background ethnicity geographic location extent of travel and general personal experiences So our fields of experience contribute to our message we send as an encoding sender through a channel to the receiver who decodes the message in an atmosphere of noise according to their fields of experience The receiver then becomes the sender and the original sender becomes the receiver Transactional Model the senderreceiver impact view This model assumes that people are connected through communication It provides two main insights First it recognizes that each of us is a senderreceiver not merely a sender or a receiver Second this perspective recognizes that communication affects all parties involved The content dimension refers to what is actually said and done The relationship dimension refers to how that message defines or redefines the association between individuals Message content can differ while relationship dimension stays the same Parties are affected by what is said content but also by how it is presented relationship 3 Communication elements 0 Sender initiator and encoder Message stimulus that produces meaning 0 Channel medium through which a message travels o Receiver decoder of a message 0 Noise interference with effective transmission and reception of a message gt Physical noise external gt Physiological noise biological influences ex Sweaty hands gt Psychological noise preconceptions biases and assumptions gt Semantic noise word choice that is confusing or distracting 4 Aspects of every message 0 Content dimension refers to what is actually said and done 0 Relationship dimension how the message defines or redefines the association between individuals 5 Communication climates 0 Communication climate the emotional atmosphere the pervading or enveloping tone we create by the way we communicate with others gt Constructive communication climate composed of two elements openness or a willingness to communicate and supportiveness or a confirmation of the worth and value of others and a willingness to help others and be successful gt Destructive communication climate composed of two elements closeness or an unwillingness to communicate with others and defensiveness or a protective reaction to a perceived attack on our selfesteem and self concept Other definitions 0 Meaning the conscious pattern human create out of their interpretation of experience 0 Communication competence engaging in communication with others that is perceived to be both effective and appropriate in a given context 0 Effectiveness the degree to which we have progressed toward the achievement of our goals 0 Appropriateness behavior that is viewed as legitimate for or fitting to the context Context the environment in which communication occurs who senderreceiver what message to whom senderreceiver why purpose where setting when time how channel 0 Rule a follow able prescription that indicates what behavior is obligated preferred or prohibited in certain contexts 0 Communication skill the successful performance of a communication behavior and the ability to repeat such a behavior 0 Sensitivity receptive accuracy whereby we can detect decode and comprehend signals in our social environment 0 Mindful thinking about our communication and continually work at challenging what we do in order to become effective o Mindless not being cognizant of our communication with others and we put little or not effort into improving it 0 Commitment a passion for excellence accepting nothing less than the best that you can be and dedicating yourself to achieving that excellence 0 Ethics a set of standards forjudging the moral correctness of communication behavior gt Respect honesty fairness choice and responsibility 0 Competition a process of mutually exclusive goal attainment winnertakeall Cooperation process of mutually inclusive goal attainment winnersall 0 Individual achievement the realization of personal goals without having to defeat an opponent Hyper competitiveness the excessive emphasis on beating others to achieve one s goals winningiseverything attitude Constructive competition competing against others produces a positive enjoyable experience and promotes increased efforts to achieve victory without jeopardizing positive interpersonal relationships and wellbeing gt Deemphasis on winning competing against relative equals competing fairly o Empathy thinking and feeling what you perceive another to be thinking and feeling Cohesiveness degree of liking we have for members of a group and the level of commitment to the group that this liking produces H r 1 13 J39 r gilt L Ll i any 1 Perception is the process of selecting organizing and interpreting data from our senses 0 Selecting determined by sensory limitations and selective attention gt Sensory acuity level of sensitivity of our senses gt Selective attention focusing on specific stimuli and screening out other data 0 Organizing we organize selected stimuli to create meaning Schemas organize perceptual stimuli o Interpreting making sense of the stimuli that we ve organized gt We make sense of things through attributions assigning causes to behavior 2 A perceptual schema is a mental framework that creates meaningful patterns from stimuli Threes types of schemas 0 Prototype most representative or quotbestquot example of something 0 Stereotype generalization about a group or category of people 0 Script predictable sequence of events that indicates what we are expected to do in a given situation 3 Selfconcept the sum total of everything that encompasses the selfreferential terms quotmequot It is your identity or selfschemas developed through c Reflected appraisal messages you receive from others that asses your selfconcept 0 Significant others develop comments and relationships 0 Society at large as a whole 4 Influences on perception Gender malefemale 0 Culture where you come from 0 Past experiences things that have happened in the past Mood atmosphere 0 Context the situation you are in 5 Selfdisclosure the process of purposely revealing to others personal information about yourself that is significant and that others would not know unless you told them purposeful not accidental communication 6 Depth how personal you become when discussing a particular subject 0 Breadth range of subjects being discussed 7 Guidelines for offering and receiving self disclosure 0 Trust 0 Reciprocity 0 Cultural appropriateness Situational appropriateness o Incremental disclosure 8 Reciprocal selfdisclosure demonstrates that trust and risktaking are shared If one person discloses but the other person does not you should be wary of further disclosures until reasons for the oneway selfdisclosure become apparent 9 Selfserving bias the tendency to attribute our successful behavior to ourselves personal traits and but to assign external circumstances situations to our unsuccessful behavior 10 Selffulfilling prophecy acting on an erroneous expectation that produces the expected behavior and confirms the original impression influences our behavior 11 Attribution assigning causes to a behavior 0 Individual dispositional causes 0 Environment situational causes 12 Fundamental attribution error overemphasizing personal traits and underemphasizing situations as causes of other people s behavior 13 Empathy thinking and feeling what you perceive another to be thinking and feeling 0 Perspective taking 0 Emotional understanding Concern for others Other definitions 0 Pitch how high or low a sound is 0 Muscle dysmorphia a preoccupation with one s body size and a perception that though one is very muscular one actually looks puny Selfesteem the evaluative element of self perception selfappraisal the sum of all your self schemas your perception of selfworth attractiveness and social competence 0 Social comparison evaluating yourself by comparing yourself to other people 0 Contingencies of selfworth what is perceived as most important to you feeling good about yourself 0 Primacy effect the tendency to be more influenced by initial information about a person than by information gathered later 0 Negativity bias strong tendency to be influenced more heavily by negative than positive information Prejudice negative feelings about members of a group 0 Discrimination any behavior that manifests negative feelings towards a group 0 Hostile sexism antipathy towards women who are viewed as usurping men s power o Selective memory bias we tend to remember information that supports our stereotypes but forget information that contradicts them Stereotype vulnerability a perceived threat from apprehension that a person will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Contact theory predicts that interacting and becoming more familiar with members of a stereotyped group can diminish prejudice resulting from stereotyping 0 Super ordinate goal one that requires mutual effort by both groups to achieve a desired end u 39 1 Culture a learne set of nduring values beliefs and practices that are shared by an identifiable large group of people with a common history 2 Culture is learned Cultural values and beliefs are expressed in language and social interaction These differ from culture to culture Therefore culture effects communication in many different ways Communication must be appropriate to the cultural context 3 Ethnocentrism the notion that one s own culture is superior to any other quotour nation is the center of al things 0 Cultural relativism view that cultures are merely different not deficient all phenomena can be assesses only from the perspective of the culture in which they exist 0 Multiculturalism a socialintellectual movement that promotes the value of diversity as a core principle and insists that all cultural groups be treated with respect and as equals 4 Individualistic culture quotmequot consciousness loosely linked to each other and largely independent of group identification motivated by own preferences needs and goals personal achievement and initiative emphasis on selfhelp selfsufficiency selfactualization and personal growth words like quotindependencequot quotselfquot quotprivacyquot quotrightsquot rational assessment of benefits and drawbacks of relationships 0 Collectivist culture quotwequot consciousness closely linked to one or more groups commitment to valued groups is paramount hierarchy downplay of personal goals in favor or group II II goals words like quotloyalty responsibility and quotcommunityquot 5 Powerdistance dimension variations in the acceptability of unequal distributions of power in relationships institutions and organizations 0 LowPD culture horizontal culture values relatively equal power sharing and discourages attention to status differences and ranking in society gt Ex US Great Britain Sweden Denmark Austria Israel New Zealand 0 HighPD culture vertical cultures relatively strong emphasis on maintaining power differences gt Ex Malaysia Guatemala Philippines Mexico India Hong Kong 6 Masculinefeminine dimension the intersection of gender role stereotypes Masculine culture stereotypic male traits such as male dominance ambitiousness assertiveness competitiveness and drive for achievement gender roles are rigid and distinct in masculine cultures o Feminine culture stereotypic female traits such as affection nurturance sensitivity compassion and emotional expressiveness gender roles are less rigid and more overlapping 7 Culture influences nonverbal communication through behavior Certain learned characteristics are different in different cultures and nonverbal cues may mean different things as well Other definitions 0 Virtual groups small groups whose members rarely interact facetoface and who mostly communicate by using electronic technologies 0 Beliefs what a person thinks are true or probable o Coculture groups of people who live in a dominant culture yet remain connected to another cultural heritage that typically exhibits significant differences in values beliefs and practices from the dominant culture 0 Value dimensions varying degrees of importance placed on those deeply felt view of what is right good and worthwhile deep structural reasons why many cultural differences that provoke serious miscommunication and intense conflict exist 0 Socialization the communication of shared cultural practices beliefs and values from generation to generation 0 Lowcontent communication style verbally precise direct and explicit o Highcontext communication style indirect verbal expression quotread between the lines o Acculturation the process of adapting to a culture different from one s own gt Assimilation separation integration marginalization Uncertainty reduction theory when strangers first meet their principal goal is to reduce uncertainty and to increase predictability Accultu rative stress the anxiety that comes from the unfamiliarity of new cultural surroundings rules norms and practices and the attempt to adapt to these new circumstances 0 Divergence differences that separate people 0 Convergence similarities that connect us to others 0 Gender role stereotypes the set of expectations defined by each culture that specifies what is appropriate behavior for men and women 0 Sex biological genes gonads and hormones 0 Gender social role behavior learned from communicating with others 0 Gender differences hypothesis men and women communicate in vastly divergent ways Compliant sex having sexual intercourse when you don t want to but your partner does in circumstances where no duress or coercion is involved 0 Emotionally restrictive having difficulty and fears about expressing one s feelings and difficulty finding words to express basic emotions 0 Gender similarities hypothesis thinking that gender differences in communication are insignificant 11 31 lL lliig 1 Phonemes individual units of sound that compose a specific spoken language correspond to consonants vowels and consonant combinations o Morphemes smallest unit of meaning in a spoken language standalone words free morpheme or a bound morpheme prefixes and suffixes o Syntax rules that govern combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences sentence structure SVO o Semantics set of rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences 2 Essential elements of all languages 0 Structu re grammar the set of rules that specify how the units of language can be meaningfully combined 0 Productivity the capacity of language to transform a small number of phonemes into whatever words phrases and sentences that you require communicating the abundance of thoughts and feelings Displacement ability to use language to talk about objects ideas events and relations that don t just exist in the physical here and now 0 Selfreflexive the ability to use language to talk about language 3 Abstracting process whereby we formulate increasingly vague conceptions of our world by leaving out details associated with objects events and ideas 0 Sense experience inherently selective and limited 0 Descriptions verbal reports that sketch what we perceive from our senses Inferences conclusions about the unknown based on the known guesses educated or otherwise Judgments subjective evaluations of objects events or ideas attach a positive or negative value 4 Two versions of SapirWhorf hypothesis 0 Linguistic determinism we are the prisoners of our native language language shapes culture 0 Linguistic relativity grammar and lexicon of our native language powerfully influences but does not imprison our thinking and perception culture shapes language 5 Connotation personal meaning subjective o Denotation shared meaning objective 6 Fact actual known happenings o Inference interpretations of varying accuracy made by individuals 7 Jargon specialized language not inherently a poor use of language 0 Euphemism substitutes quotkinder gentler terms for words that hurt create offense or cause problems form of linguistic Novocain whereby word choices numb us to or camouflage unpleasant or offensive realities Other Definitions 0 Language structured system of symbols for communicating meaning 0 Phonology part of grammar that describes the patterns of sound in a language 0 Morphology part of grammar that describes how morphemes are constructed meaningfully from phonemes 0 Symbols arbitrary representations of objects events ideas or relationships 0 Referents objects events ideas or relationships referred to by the words 0 Lexicon total vocabulary o Masculinegeneric differences reveals an easily understood instance of support for the linguistic relativity perspective 0 Signal reaction automatic emotional response to a symbol 0 Semantic reaction delayed thoughtful response that seeks to decipher the user s intended meaning of a word 0 Framing the influence wording has on our perception of choices 0 False dichotomy using eitheror language to frame a choice as though only two opposing possibilities exist when at least a third option is clearly available 0 Label name or a descriptive word or phrase 0 Operational definition specifies which measurable behaviors or experiences are subsumed under the label and which are ruled out o Deadlevel abstracting the practice of remaining stuck at one level of abstraction o Bypassing assuming that everyone assigns the same meaning to a word without checking to see if it is true 0 Slang the highly informal words not in standard usage that are used by a group with a common interest a i iii l l TU GCI39 will all iiii39iu at 1 Nonverbal communication sharing meaning with others nonlinguistically o Verbal communication is singlechanneled while nonverbal communication is multi channeled o Nonverbal communication is at least as ambiguous as language probably more so we have to interpret nonverbal cues and this brings about ambiguity o Verbal communication has discrete beginnings and endings We begin it when we start talking and end it when we stop talking Nonverbal communication has no discrete beginning and ending We continuously send messages for others to perceive even when we may wish not to do so 2 Functions of nonverbal communication 0 Repetition nonverbal cues repeating the verbal message o Accentuation vocal emphasis where desired to accent the message enhances power and seriousness Substitution substituting verbal messages for nonverbal cues 0 Regulation conversation is regulated by nonverbal cues ex Turn taking and interruptions o Contradiction the words say one thing but gestures facial expressions eye contact posture tone of voice and physical proximity says another gt Mixed messages inconsistencies between verbal and nonverbal messages 3 Types of nonverbal communication 0 Kinesics study of facial communication and gestures body language 0 Paralanguage vocal cues o Territoriality personal space 0 Proxemics study of space distance 0 Haptics touch Other definitions 0 Bilateral symmetry the right and left sides of the body match each other o Waisttohip ratio the smaller the waist is compared to the hips the greater perception of attractiveness Wedge shape relatively broad shoulders and narrow waist and hips o Oculesics study of eye contact Facial feedback hypothesis emotions influence facial expressions but facial expressions can also influence emotions 0 Display rules culturespecific prescriptions that dictate the appropriateness of behaviors Manipulators gestures made by one part of the body usually the hands that rub pick squeeze clean or groom another part of the body 0 Emblems gestures that have precise meanings separate from verbal communication 0 Functionalprofessional touch least intense form of touching instrumental communication Socialpolite touch occurs during initial introductions Business relationships and formal occasions handshake o Friendshipwarmth touch most ambiguous type of touches leads to most misunderstandings 0 Love and intimacy touch very few special individuals like close friends family members spouses etc 0 Sexual touch most personal and intimate touches most restricted quotwill a lli igiliig ling 1 Listening the process of receiving constructing and reconstructing meaning from and responding to spoken andor nonverbal messages 0 Comprehension shared meaning between or among parties in a transaction The listening process begins with comprehension o Retention what we remember from what we listen to 0 Response verbal and nonverbal cues that information is being received 2 Types of listening 0 Informational attempts to comprehend the message of a speaker goal is to understand what the speaker has said 0 Critical process of evaluating the merits of claims as they are heard gt Claim generalization that remains to be proven o Empathetic requires us to take the perspective of he other person to listen for what that person needs and wants 3 Common problems that thwart informational listening 0 Conversational narcissism the tendency of listeners to turn the topics of ordinary conversation to themselves without showing sustained interest in the others topics 0 Competitive interrupting occurs when we dominate the conversation by seizing the floor from others who are speaking o Glazing over listeners attention wanders and daydreaming occurs Pseudo listening pretend listening attempt to disguise inattention to the message 0 Ambushing occurs when we listen for weaknesses and ignore strengths of a speaker s message 4 Empathetic listener response styles 0 Probing response seeks more information from others by asking questions 0 Supporting response expressions of care concern affection and interest especially during times of stress or upset Understanding response requires a listener to check his or her perceptions for comprehension of the speaker s message or to paraphrase the message to check accuracy Other definitions 0 Speech segmentation the process of discerning breaks between recognizable words 0 Hearing the physiological process of registering sounds waves as they hit the eardrum 0 Information bulimia binging on information and then purging it from your mind 0 Shift response a competitive vying for attention and focus on self by shifting topics me oriented 0 Support response cooperative effort to focus attention on the other person weoriented o nterru pting when one person stops speaking when another person starts speaking Skepticism process of listening to claims evaluating evidence and reasoning supporting those claims and drawing conclusions based on probabilities 0 True belief a willingness to accept claims without solid reasoning or valid evidence and to hold these beliefs tenaciously even if contradictory evidence disputes them 0 Cynicism nay saying faultfinding and ridiculing Confirmation bias tendency to seek information that supports one s beliefs and to ignore information that contradicts those beliefs Rationalization of disconfirmation inventing superficial even glib alternative explanations for contradictory evidence 0 Burden of proof the obligation of the person making the claim to present compelling evidence and reasoning to support it o Shifting the burden of proof inappropriately assuming the validity of a claim unless it is proven false by another person who never made the original claim 0 Law of Very Large Numbers with large enough numbers almost anything is likely to happen to somebody o Principle of parsimony when competing explanations or theories fit the facts the simplest is preferred 0 Response styles types of initial verbal reactions we make when another person comes to us with a problem reveals a frustrating event or is experiencing an emotional crisis gt Evaluative response makes a judgment about the person s conduct gt Advising response tell people how they should act gt Interpreting response expressing what we think the underlying meaning of a situation is gt Contentonly response comprehends the literal meaning of messages from others but doesn t recognize the feelings that ride piggyback i i f E 179135 l 1 Power the a ility to influence the attainment of goals sought by you or others 2 Assertiveness the ability to communicate the full range of your thoughts and emotions with confidence and skill Aggressiveness any physical or verbal communication that is intended to harm so there are two kinds gt Direct aggression hostile communication that targets the victim openly gt Indirect aggression hostile communication that intends to harm a targeted personal while avoiding identification as an aggressor 3 Power resource anything that enables individuals to achieve their goals assists others to achieve their goals or interferes with the goal attainment of others 0 Expertise information plus knowhow Legitimate authority someone who is perceived to have the right to direct others behavior because of his or her position title role experience or knowledge 0 Reward tends to induce rewarding behavior Punishment can be used to positively change behavior 0 Personal qualities charisma constellation of personal attributes that people find attractive 4 Power communication 0 Verbal Power is indicated by the way we speak and by how listeners evaluate those speech patterns Ex hedges hesitations tag questions and disclaimers o Nonverbal clothing touch eye contact space Other definitions 0 Dominance exercise of power over others 0 Prevention power used to thwart the influence of others 0 Empowerment power derived from enhancing the capabilities and influence of individuals and groups 0 Principle of least interest the person who cares least about the relationship is typically recognized as having more power 0 Sexual harassment verbal or nonverbal communication of a sexual nature that is unwelcome by the recipient and is likely to interfere with the victim s work 0 Quid pro quo harassment the morepowerful person requires sexual favors from the less powerful person in exchange for keeping a job getting a high grade in a class or landing an employment position 0 Hostile environment harassment employees have a right to work in situations free from discriminatory insult ridicule or intimidation Coalition temporary alliance o Defiance unambiguous purposeful noncompliance 0 Resistance covert ambiguous noncompliance o Cooperative argumentation engaging in a process of deliberation with understanding and problem solving as ultimate goals i it 7 1 4 x lglll it 7 1 Intimacy a type of personal relationship that is characterized by strong emotional bonding closeness and interdependence in which individuals meaningfully influences each other 2 Women establishes intimacy through talking about personal matters and discussing experiences 0 Men talks less about personal matters and share fewer feelings achieve closeness by sharing meaningful activities and helping each other 3 Interpersonaldevelopment o Initiating physical attraction networking offering approaching sustaining KSS keep it straightforward and simple 0 Experimenting auditioning for the part of boyfriend or girlfriend o Intensifying relationships deepen increased contact relationship negotiation social support and assistance increased rewards direct definitional bid tokens of affection personalized communication verbal expressions of affection suggestive actions nonverbal expressions of affection 0 Integrating fuses and merges a relationship 0 Bonding publicritual phase that institutionalizes the relationship gt Turning point any event or occurrence that is associated with change in a relationship 0 Differentiating what we thought to be similarities turn out to be differences assertions of individuality conflict occurs quotsome space o Circumscribing establishing limits and restrictions on communication with our partner 0 Stagnating relationship is not growing or changing communication becomes more restricted narrow hesitant and awkward o Avoiding partners keep a distance from each other hoping not to interact 0 Termination final pullingapart phase of a relationship 4 Relational climate the emotional atmosphere the pervading or enveloping tone we create by the way we communicate with others 5 Supportive messages composed of two elements openness or a willingness to communicate and supportiveness or a confirmation of the worth and value of others and a willingness to help others and be successful 0 Nonsupportive messagescomposed of two elements closeness or an unwillingness to communicate with others and defensiveness or a protective reaction to a perceived attack on our selfesteem and selfconcept Other definitions o Triangular theory of love intimacy passion commitment 0 Connecting bid any attempt to engage another person in a positive transaction sometimes at a deep and enduring level and other times at a superficial and fleeting level 0 Tu rningtowa rd response positive reaction to the connecting bid 0 Turningaway response occurs when we ignore a bid or act preoccupied when a bid is offered 0 Turningagainst response overtly negative rejection of a connecting bid 0 Rebid to try again after an initial bid has been ignored or rejected 0 Evaluations value judgments made about individuals and about their actions Selfjustification the creation of excuses that absolves us of blame Description firstperson report of how we feel what behaviors we observe or what we perceive to be true in specific situations 0 Control communication that seeks to regulate or direct a person s behavior o Psychological reactance the more someone tries to control our behaviors and restrict our choices the more we are inclined to resist such efforts especially if we feel entitled to choose 0 Manipulative communication an attempt by one person to maneuver another toward the manipulator s goal 0 Provisionalism qualifying your statements by avoiding absolutes o Emoticons graphic notations that indicate emotional information 0 Flaming cyber term for an abusive attacking written message sent electronically 1 lint aquotel39rrggtffall x2omfll ri 32 1 Conflict the expressed struggle of interconnected parties who perceive incompatible goals and interference from one or more parties in attaining those goals 2 Destructive conflict characterized by escalation retaliation domination competition defensiveness and inflexibility o Constructive conflict characterized by communication that is cooperative supportive and flexible 3 Connectionautonomy dialect the desire to come together with another person yet remain independent and in control of one s own life Predictabilitynovelty dialect desire for both stability and change in interpersonal relationships 0 Opennesscloseness dialect tension between accessibility and privacy 4 Amalgamating contradictory forces are addressed without compromising on either impulse 0 Selecting giving attention to one contradictory impulse while ignoring the other 0 Segmenting when partners divide certain parts of their relationship into domains or categories Collaborating working together to maximize the attainment of goals for all parties in a conflict Confrontation the overt recognition of conflict and the direct effort to manage disagreements effectively o Smoothing the act of calming the agitated feelings of others during a conflict episode 5 Accommodating when we yield to the needs and desires of others during a conflict 0 Compromising when we give up something to get something 0 Avoiding when we sidestep or turn our back on conflict Controlling competing for power Other definitions 0 Flooding when you can no longer think clearly because conflict trigger emotional reactions that clog the brain s ability to reason 0 Dialectics the tensions that arise from contradictory needs that push and pull us in opposite directions simultaneously in our relationships with others 0 Inclusionseclusion dialectic when you want to spend time with your partner but you also want them to spend time with outsiders Conventionalityuniqueness dialectic when we are torn between wanting our relationships to be the same yet different o Revelationconcealment dialectic how much we reveal to outsiders about our relationship and how much we keep secret Stonewalling occurs when one partner refuses to discuss problems or physically leaves when the other is complaining disagreeing or attacking 0 Norm of reciprocity you give back what you get from others 0 Forgiveness letting go of feelings of revenge and desires to retaliate gig ii mg flrlii39lyal ll ii ll39ljll39li i quotfilljijiii ipll i5iljgwfwiiiillENE 1 Small group composed of three or more individuals interacting for the achievement of some common purpose who influence and are influenced by one another Groups are small as long as each individual can interact with every other 2 Advantages Group members working together can complete complex tasks more effectively than any one individual Synergy synergy together ergon work occurs when the work of group members yields a greater total effect than the sum of the individual member39s efforts could have produced 0 Disadvantages Several disadvantages emerge as groups increase in size and complexity 0 Negative synergy is the product ofjoint action of group members that produces a result worse than that expected based on perceived individual abilities and skills of members Salazar 1995 0 Social loafing is the tendency of individuals to reduce their work effort when they join groups 0 Social loafing increases with group size 3 Cohesiveness is the correct term for what people mean when they talk about having quotchemistryquot or quotwe just clicked 4 It s the main function to gain and maintain success for the group 5 Norms are rules that indicate what group members have to do obligation should do preference or cannot do prohibition if they want to accomplish specific goals 6 Roles are patterns of behavior enacted by members that they become expected to exhibit 7 Task Roles specific to the successful completion or achievement of the task or the group goals 0 Maintenance Roles specific to the social or emotional relational dimension of the group The main function is to gain and maintain the group cohesion or cohesiveness o Disruptive Disruptive roles put the interests of the individual above the interests and success of the group 8 Leadership a transactional influence process whose principal purpose is group goal achievement and satisfaction produced by competent communication 9 Traits traits are thought to be the quotbornquot or relatively enduring quotcharacteristicsquot of a person that are displayed in most situations and were thought to make them quota natural leader 0 Styles directive or autocratic participative or democratic Laissezfaire and situational o Situational effective leadership is contingent on adapting the appropriate style for each situation 10 Directive or Autocratic puts heavy emphasis on the task dimension with slight attention to the social dimension of groups Participative or Democratic places emphasis on both the task and the social dimensions of groups The leader maintains satisfying relations amongst the members and strong focus on the task achievement LaissezFaire or quothands off the members are allowed more responsibility for task and relationship while the leader monitors or overseas their activity with perhaps gentle guidance and open encouragement is i i is i39i39ifl l lquot quotI j 1 Team a small number of people with complementary skills who are equally committed to a common purpose goals and working approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable 0 Three or more individuals interacting for the achievement of some common purpose who influence each other 2 Brainstorming a creative problemsolving method characterized by the encouragement of wild or even bizarre ideas freedom from initial evaluation of potential solutions and the energetic participation from all group members 3 1dentify the goals Clear Specific Challenging 2Analyze the problem Break it down itemize 3Establish criteria Define standards of judgment 4Generate solutions Use Creative Problem solving 5Evaluate solutions and make the final decision Employ Decisionmaking rules 6mplement the decision Action plan 4 Consensus quota state of mutual agreement among members of a group where all legitimate concerns of individuals have been addressed to the satisfaction of the group usually produces the highest group cohesiveness but it can be time consuming o Majority rule efficient and can provide rapid closure on relatively unimportant issues o Minority rule Sometimes a group merely advises a leader but doesn39t actually make the decisions the leader does Sometimes a small number of experts in the group are allowed to make the decision 5Socia or poorly managed task groups make decisions through some sort of behavior that may or may not be successful or liked members argue push avoid accept or somehow cooperate or collaborate If you want your group to succeed with the greatest satisfaction USE DECISIONMAKING RULES 6 Groupthink a concept that was identified by Irving Janis that refers to faulty decisionmaking in a group Groups experiencing groupthink do not consider all alternatives and they desire unanimity at the expense of quality decisions 0 Avoided By Assign a devils advocate to argue against ideas or opinions encourage debate Listen to the quality of the speaker s idea rather than be inhibited by their title or status Seek and welcome critique from outsiders Allow for blind voting by secret ballot 1 Demographics characteristics such as gender culture and ethnicity and group affiliations Attitude a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorany toward some attitude object o Belief what a person thinks is true or probable 0 Value the most deeply felt generally shared view of what is deemed right good or worthwhile thinking or behavior 2 Your preparation and presentation or lack there of will have a huge effect on audience analysis You must prepare and present according to how you have analyzed your audience related to audience appropriateness 3General Purpose information persuasion entertainment 0 Specific Purpose a concise precise definitive phrase composed of simple clear language that encompasses both the general purpose to inform or entertain or persuade and the central idea 0 Central Idea identifies the main concept point issue or conclusion that identifies exactly what l1 ll you want the audience to understand to believe to feel or to do 4 Speaker Appropriateness Is it appropriate for you to say this 0 Audience Appropriateness Is it appropriate to this audience Appropriateness is largely audience centered o Occasion Appropriateness Is it appropriate to quothere and now 5 Some people think that they are supposed to seem clever and original and show that they know stuff So they think that by not citing they come across as quotknowing lots of stuff But anyone listening to them knows that the ideas are not the original ideas of the speaker so in fact the speaker simply sounds idiotic 6 Hypothetical examples real examples extended examples statistics testimonies 7 Credibility relevance sufficiency 8 Coherence the specific purpose statement is the distilled version of the flow of ideas that make logical coherent sense and follow pointbypoint in the body 0 Symbols standard outlining form uses a specific set of alphanumeric symbols not bullets each successive set of sub points is indented 0 Division main points must divide into two or more subpoints IF A then B if 1 then 2 if a then b if i then ii 0 Balance each Section deserves even development each main point deserves substantial even development the number of subpoints is equally developed 0 Completeness all points and sub points must be written in complete concise grammatical sentences they are NOT written out like a script in the way that you will say them in the speech 9 Topical Relating information according to types classifications or parts of a whole 0 Chronological Relating by Time or Sequence 0 Spatial Organized by its spatial location 0 Causal Organizing information by causeeffect or effectcause o ProblemSolution ProblemCauseSolution 1 Speech anxiety a significant problem at some time for most people However even in the worst cases of speech anxiety there are effective and relatively simple remedies 2 Control your SelfDefeating Thoughts listen to your own selftalk reinforce the positive thoughts fear of catastrophic failure can be controlled 0 PracticeControl AnxietyProvoking Situations when we do not know exactly what to expect because the situation is new to us we feel anxious being conspicuous or the center of attention increases most people39s anxiety We all know that so work through your goal is to manage the anxiety so you experience and use it WORK THROUGH IT DON T FIGHT IT 0 Prepare and Practice preparation and practice build selfconfidence that s a fact 0 Gain a Proper Perspective you can exaggerate your anxiety by concentrating on your symptoms and thinking your anxiety is severe so relax and be realistic Adopt a Communication Orientation the communication orientation means focus on your message make it clear and interesting to your listeners use Positive Imaging visualization prepare by RUNNING A MENTAL VIDEO OF EVERY STEP OF YOUR SPEECH with positive images of success 3 Gain attention use questions tell a relevant story and refer to marks of introduction 4 Summarize the main points refer to the introduction and make a memorable finish 5 First when we speak we usually use simpler sentences than when we write 0 Second oral style is highly interactive written style is not 0 Third oral style is usually less formal than written style 6 Eye Contact maintain eye contact with your audience A good rule is to look at every member of the audience at least once like a friend 0 Facial expression Your facial expression should fit your topic When in doubt look friendly and approachable SMILE 0 Your appearance dress slightly better than your audience This will enhance your credibility 0 Your posture stand erect Slouching makes you look tired or bored 0 Your movement move decisively with energy Try to avoid distracting behaviors like facial touching hair flipping or playing with personal objects Make every movement count 0 Vocal delivery dimensions are called quotparalinguistic squot they are the parts of your aural message that audiences use to create meaning but are not actual speechlanguage content 7 Manuscript speech is used when the precise wording is vitally important and accuracy is paramount Memorized takes a great deal of practice and acting skill to make a memorized speech sound natural and not mechanical o Impromptu if you can do this well you will be in great demand only have a few moments to gather your thoughts fit a topic to an organization pattern and your life experience amp then you give a speech 0 Extemporaneous the presentation of a carefully planned speech that is NOT written out word for word NOR memorized the extemporaneous speaker knows their main points and quotdiscussesquot them 1 Persuasive making the audience believeprovoke your argument 0 Informative to deliver the information or message clearly to the audience 2 Introducing a new topic to the audience 3 Citations have three parts who said it where they said it and when they said it 0 Use intext citations in the outline 0 Refer to a works cited page or a bibliography Use the appropriate style manual for your topic recommended 4 Computer Projections Handouts or objects 0 Posters Charts Graphs Overhead Transparency 0 35mm Slides 0 Video amp Movie clips 5 Visuals MUST supply information not decoration must not be timefillers keep the visuals clear and simple make sure that your visuals can be seen don t stand in the beam neatness and size counts you stay in control if things go wrong switch and move on keep the audience focused on your message lj u 1 Persuasion a communication process of converting modifying or maintaining the attitudes beliefs or behavior of others 2 Conversion asking an audience to completely change views on topic unrealistic in a short speech 0 Modification the more realistic goal ask audience to change ideas a little bit in the direction preferred by speaker floss your teeth twice a day donate blood once a month license all handguns 0 Maintenance quotkeep on doing what you ve been doing drive on the right worship the God of your choice don t smoke don t take drugs 3 Ethos the PERCEIVED trustworthiness of the speaker as it is given by THE AUDIENCE Logos reason and logic 0 Pathos emotions and feelings


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