FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN COMMUNICATION GROUP PRESENTATIONS [C1HC]
FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN COMMUNICATION GROUP PRESENTATIONS [C1HC] GCOM 123
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Study Guide for GCOM 123 Final Exam Fundamentals of Communication Chapter 1 Competent Communication 1 What are the most common myths about communication The rst myth communication is cureall relationships can t always be xed by better communication Myth 2 communicating is just common sense I knew that already called hindsight bias Myth 3 communication quantityquality more communication isn t always better communication Explain the differences between the three models of communication linear interactive and transactional Linearlimited due to the absence of feedback verbal and nonverbal responses highlighting channel and noise This communication involves a sender encodes who sends a message through a channel to a receiver decodes makes sense in an atmosphere of noise Example President giving a speech reading a book Interactive pingpong View feedback for frame of reference elds of experience cultural background ethnicity geographic location extent of travel and general personal experiences accumulated over the course of a lifetime Example phone conversation texting emailing Transactionalsenderreceiver connected through communication recognizes each of us as a senderreceiver not merely a sender or a receiver recognizes that communication affects all parties involved Example face to face conversation interactive lecture in the classroom N 3 Define the basic communication elements contained in the communication models channel sender receiver message encode decode context elds of experience noise and feedback The sender is the initiator and encoder who sends a message stimulus that produces meaning through a channel which is a medium through which a message travels such as oral or written to a receiver which then decodes the message in an atmosphere of noise interference with effective transmission and reception of a message The receiver can give feedback to the sender like in the interactive model and the transactional model which means that it is the receiver s verbal and nonverbal responses to a message Fields of experience have to do with cultural background ethnicity geographic location extent of travel and general personal experiences accumulated over the course of a lifetime The more experiences we have in common the more misunderstandings can be avoided Context is the environment in which communication occurs who communicates what to whom why a message is sent where it is sent and when and how it is transmitted 4 Explain the two aspects of every message Content and relationship The content dimension refers to what is actually said and done The relationship dimension refers to how that message de nes or rede nes the association between individuals 5 Understand the communication competence model How could you enhance your communication competence Communication competence is engaging in communication with others that is perceived to be both effective and appropriate in a given context Communication is an ongoing process and each new experience in uences future transactions The effectiveness of our communication is the degree to which we have progressed toward the achievement of our goals Our appropriateness is viewed as legitimate for or fitting to the context and can only be determined only within a specific context 6 What differentiates a constructive communication climate from a destructive communication climate A constructive communication climate has two general elements 1 Pattern of openness and 2 pattern of supportiveness help other to be successful A destructive communication climate has the pattern of closeness and the pattern of defensiveness reaction to attack Chapter 2 Perception of Self and Others 1 De ne the perceptual process The perceptual process is the process of selecting organizing and interpreting data from our senses This is an active process 2 What is a perceptual schema prototype stereotype and script Perceptual schernas are mental frameworks that create meaningful patterns from stimuli A Prototh is the most representative or best example of something Prototypes of boss from hell best friend ideal relationship great movie perfect date Stereoth is a generalization about a group or category of people organize individuals according to categories such as ethnic origin socioeconomic status age gender sexual orientation religious affiliation and even body type They attribute common traits to all individuals in that group A Mt is a predictable sequence of events that indicates what we are expected to do in a given situation 3 How is self concept developed reflected appraisal signi cant others and society Self concept is the sum total of everything that encompasses the selfreferential tern me This is basically your identity It is a social construction a product of interpersonal communication It is also a central point of reference for your communication with others Re ected appraisal refers to messages you receive from others that assess your selfconcept Signi cant others are the people whose opinion we especially value most In regards to society that is when we basically evaluate ourselves by comparing ourselves to others and this is a major in uence on perception 4 What are some of the influences on perception gender culture past experiences mood and context There are so many in uences that can affect ones perception Gender perception can relate to when something is said or done that would normally be said or done to a male yet it happens to a women and she is completely taken aback by it Think of a sporting even The slapping of the butt is usually a norm for a male yet for a women you would normally not see it as a norm and may even be offended if you were a women Culture U Pquot gt1 0 comes into play when something is done or said in a situation that would never normally happen in your own personal culture Past experiences would be for example if you were to get attacked two years ago when you were walking from the mall to your car when it is dark Now whenever it is dark outside and you are walking to your car you become scared that you will in fact be attacked again Mood is also very in uential on perception due to the fact that if you were having a bad day and got home and starting talking to your brother and for some reason he says sometime very minuscule but it offends you you are then inclined to blow what he said completely out of proportion due to the fact that you were already in a horrible mood Many people take things out of context when they are talking to someone This could be someone saying that you look very skinny and you take it as though they thought you were fat before What is self disclosure Selfdisclosure is the process of purposely revealing to others personal information about yourself that is signi cant and that others would not know unless you told them It is purposeful not accidental communication For example if you were to tell a friend that you are afraid to give public speeches and they did not know that about you until you told them that would be an example of selfdisclosure Yet demonstrating that you are clumsy when it comes to sports is not selfdisclosure De ne the concepts of depth and breadth in terms of self disclosure Depth refers to how personal you become when discussing a particular subject Intimate relationships usually have both breadth and depth whereas impersonal casual relationships usually have little of neither Breadth refers to the range of subjects discussed There may be several topics that you do not discuss with an acquaintance but almost any topic is open for discussion with loved ones These are critical factors in connecting with others What are the guidelines for offering and receiving self disclosure Trust is a major guideline due to the fact that you need to make sure the other person honors your feelings and refrains from divulging the disclosure to anyone else Reciprocating demonstrates trust and risktaking If one person discloses but the other person does not you should be wary of further disclosure until reasons for the oneway selfdisclosure become apparent Appropriate selfdisclosure in one culture may not be appropriate in another culture think northern Americans and Japanese Make sure you are in the proper situational 39 for If 439 Public settings and private information are a poor t Apublic speech before a large audience is an awkward uncomfortable setting for selfdisclosure The classroom also doesn t usually lend itself well to intimate selfdisclosure This is called situational appropriateness Make sure you always consider who you are speaking to before deciding on a topic of discussion Incremental disclosure is another guideline for selfdisclosure This basically when you blurt out your whole life story in one sitting and it may overwhelm your listener and send them running to the nearest exit You should gradually disclose personal information to another person and see whether it is reciprocated There is no urgency required Self disclosure is important especially during initial stages of a relationship but it isn t the principal focus of people s lives Why is reciprocal sharing important Reciprocal sharing is important because this then demonstrates that trust and risktaking are shared If one person discloses but the other person does not you should be wary of further disclosure until reasons for the oneway selfdisclosure become apparent One way self disclosure leaves you vulnerable and the other person protected That asymmetry can spell trouble Yet therapy is one exception whereas the counselor done need to self disclose in return De ne the term self serving bias The selfserving bias is the tendency to attribute our successful behavior to ourselves personal traits but to assign external 39 sitIatinns to our behavior This is how we protect our selfconcept and our selfesteem Athletes for example blame the losses on the referee or the weather yet when they win they attribute their victories to personal prowess 10 What is the self ful lling prophecy What does it in uence This is closely related to stereotype vulnerability when there is acting on an erroneous expectation that produces the expected behavior and confirms the original impression Expect individuals to be unfriendly act according to that expectation by not smiling backing away and seeming to desire conversing with anyone else and making little effort to engage in conversation and watch them ful ll the prophecy by becoming unfriendly even though that may not have been their inclination Those individuals who expect to be rejected by others behave in ways that ful ll the prophecy they ultimately get rejected This prophecy makes inaccurate stereotypes appear valid Those individuals who most expect to be negatively stereotypes tend to avoid opportunities that could counter prejudicial stereotypes Women behaving more critically towards men who they expect to be sexist ll De ne the process of attribution Attribution is assigning causes to behavior We attribute two primary causes to behavior The rst one is the personal characteristics or traits of the individual dispositional causes and the second is the environment situational causes We make sense of our own behavior and our transactions with others by making attributions This is a highly subjective process Some individuals assign personal reasons for their failures I m not smart enoug and other attribute situational causes quotThere wasn t enough time to do my best on the exam Accurately attributing causes to the behavior of others is particularly dif cult because we usually do not have enough information to make valid conclusions 12 How does the fundamental attribution error impact competent communication The fundamental attribution error is overemphasiZing personal traits an underemphasizing situations as causes of other people s behavior Even when we know a person is required to communicate in a certain way we still tend to perceive personal characteristics as the cause of behavior rather than situational forces A study showed that when students were told that a speaker was told to be unfriendly and when he spoke to them he was either friendly or unfriendly they still professed that he was unfriendly just because they were told that he was told to act unfriendly 13 What is empathy Empathy is how open we are to understanding someone else s position and being able to understand their point of view Chapter 3 Culture and Gender 1 De ne what culture is Culture is a learner sit of enduring values beliefs and practices that are shared by an identi able large group of people with a common history Within different cultures come different utensils used for eating and forms of greetings for example 2 Explain how culture influences communication Culture directly shapes the way that you communicate Humans aren t born with the knowledge of how when or to whom to speak just as we are not born with attitudes about races religions sexual orientations or other aspects of identity We learn these attitudes W 5 U 9 and actions as we interact with others and later re ect those cultural teachings in our personal communication De ne ethnocentrism cultural relativism and multiculturalism Ethnocentrism is the notion that one s own culture is superior to any other It is the idea that other cultures should be measured by the degree to which they live up to our cultural standards Cultural Relativism is when someone views cultures as merely different not de cient They must respect all cultures and their inherent right to engage in practices rituals and communication behaviors that may appear strange even repugnant Multiculturalism is a socialintellectual movement that promotes the value of diversity as a core principle and insists that all cultural groups be treated with respect and as equals Here they assume universal human rights Explain the major differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures Individualistic cultures have a me 39 Y quot 39 39 39 s quot as loosely linked to each other and largely independent of group identi cation They are chie y motivated by their own preferences needs and goals Personal achievement and initiative are stressed Emphasis is placed on self which is for example selfhelp suf ciency actualization and person growth Collectivist cultures have a we consciousness Individuals see themselves as being closely linked to one or more groups Commitment to valued groups family organization is paramount Individuals often downplay personal goals in favor of advancing goals of a valued group Explain the major differences between low power distance and high power distance cultures Lowpower distance cultures horizontal culture values relatively equal power sharing and discourages attention to status differences and ranking in society Challenging authority attening organizational hierarchies to reduce status differences between management and employees and using power legitimately are encouraged They do not expect power disparities to be 39 39 1 Hi hpower distance cultures vertical culture lay a strong emphasis on maintaining power differences Authorities are rarely challenged the most powerful are thought to have a legitimate right to exercise their power and organizational and social hierarchies are nurtured Explain the major differences between feminine and masculine cultures Feminine cultures exhibit stereotypic feminine traits such as affection nurturance sensitivity compassion and emotional expressiveness Gender roles are less rigid and more overlapping Equality between the sexes is more typical and individual achievement and competitiveness are deemphasized for both men and women Masculine cultures exhibit stereotypic masculine traits such as male dominance ambitiousness assertiveness competitiveness and drive for achievement Gender roles here are rigid and distinct How does culture influence nonverbal communication Culture can in uence nonverbal communication for example when the foreigner threw a shoe and President Bush That might be funny to some Americans who do not know that persons personal culture but when investigated within that culture throwing a shoe is the most disrespectful thing you can do We need to be careful when using nonverbal communication especially in a different culture other than our own so we do not contradict ourselves Thumbs up and thumbs down might not mean the same thing in a different culture We always need to be careful Nonverbal communication is different in every culture Chapter 4 Language 14 Explain the nature of phonemes morphemes syntax and semantics and their relationship to languages Individual units of sound that compose a speci c spoken language are called phonemes Phonology is a part of grammar that describes the patterns of sound in a language Mopphemes are the smallest unit of meaning in language suffndprefrx Morphology is the part of grammar that describes how morphemes are constructed meaningfully from phonemes Syntax is rules that govern combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences Semantics is the set of rules that governs the meaning of words and sentences Define the four essential elements of all languages structure productivity A I and self 1 quot39 Structure is the pattern or organization of a language as a whole or as arrangements of linguistic units as phonemes morphemes within larger units Productivity is the capacity of language to transform a small number of phonemes into whatever words phrases and sentences that you require to communicate your abundance of thoughts and feelings Displacement is your ability to use language to talk about objects ideas events and relations that don t just exist in the physical here Selfre exiveness is the ability to use language to talk about language Explain the abstracting process sense experience description inference and judgment Sense experience is basically taking something in looking at somethingsomeone An example would be looking at a clown walking down the street The sense experience would be your description of the clownbig shoes colorful Your inference of this clown would be that he is going to a party Your judgment of this clown would be that he looks funny Descriptions are verbal reports that sketch what we perceive from our senses Inferences are conclusions about the unknown based on the known Judgments are subjective evolutions of objects events or ideas Explain the two versions of the Sapir Whorf hypothesis There are two versions of this perspective one that claims we are the prisoners of our native language unable to think certain thoughts or perceive in certain ways because of grammatical structure and lexicon of our language linguistic determinism the other version claims that the grammar and lexicon of our native language powerfully in uences but does not imprison our thinking and perception linguistic relativity Explain how connotative meaning differs from denotative meaning The source of most signal reactions is connotative meaning Connotation is personal meaning Connotations have three dimensions evaluation goodbad potency strongweak and activity passive active This changes from individual to individual Denotation is shared meaning It is the objective meaning of words commonly agreed to by member of a speech community and usually found in the dictionary 19 What is the difference between a fact and an inference A fact is something known and an inference is what you are assuming For example your professor brings in a white board marker into class It is physically there in his hand so that is a fact Yet one can inference that your professor with write on the white board with this particular marker because he brought it in and it is in his hand 20 What are jargon and euphemisms Every profession trade or group has its specialized language called jargon Jargon is not inherently a poor use of language One study basically found that medical jargon allowed doctors and surgeons to communicate important factual information brie y and clearly Jargon is a kind of verbal shorthand Euphemism is a form of linguistic Novocain whereby word choices numb us to or camou age unpleasant or offensive realities Not all euphemisms are inappropriate like saying passed away instead or dead usually doesn t do any harm Chapter 5 Nonverbal Communication 21 What are the differences between verbal and nonverbal channels of communication Nonverbal 39 im is more r is I 39 39 39 quoty based and has to be consistent in more than one channel it seems more believable genuine even though it may not be Meaning is not embedded in the nonverbal A cue is whatever triggers meaning and we have to interpret nonverbal cues and with interpretation comes ambiguity Verbal communication is singlechanneled and nonverbal is multichanneled Verbal communication has a beginning and an end and nonverbal has no discrete beginning or end Nonverbal communication is sharing meaning with others nonlinguistic ally Nonverbal and verbal communication are interconnected 22 What are the functions of nonverbal communication repetition substitution regulation contradiction accentuation Repetition is basically the same message coming out of different channels For example saying the word yes and then nodding your head up and down Repetition diminishes ambiguity and enhances accuracy of message perception 39 J of ver39 39 39ual 39 im increases the clarity and credibility of the message Accentuation is the intensifying of verbal messages Please basically emphasis on where it is desired Don t you ever say that again This enhances the power and seriousness of verbal messages Substitution is basically when no words are necessary Waving which means goodbye or hello Yawning meaning I m bored or I m tired Shaking ofthe head for no and yes Regulation is basically when a conversation is regulated by nonverbal cues An example would be a teacher can recognize a students desire to speak by pointing to the person This means your turn Contradiction mixed messages is the inconsistencies between verbal and nonverbal messages When words say one thing but gestures and facial expressions say another this produces tension and anxiety 23 Explain the major types of nonverbal communication kinesics paralanguage territoriality proxemics and haptics Kinesics is the study of both facial communication gesturesfacial expressions by social scientists and this regulates conversational turn talking communicates involvement and interest manifests warmth and establishes connection with others Haptics is the study of touch like professional doctors touch socialpolite touch friendshipwarm touch love intimacy touch Paralangpage is the vocal cues This is usually divided into three classifications l vocal characteristics laughing yelling moaning 2 vocal qualifiers tone pitch rhythm 3 vocal segregates uhhum uh Proxemics is space communication distance and territoriality There are the intimate space personal social and public Territoriality is defending your space and this is a predisposition to defend a fixed geographic area or territory as one s exclusive domain An example would be signs that say keep out walls locked doors saving your seat in a classroom Chapter 6 Listening to Others 24 Define listening by its basic elements comprehending retaining and responding Listening is the Process of receiving constructingreconstructing meaning from and responding to spoken andor nonverbal messages There are three elements Comprehending which is hearing vs listening Retaining which is attachment and usage and Responding which can be verbal and nonverbal 25 What are the types of listening informational critical and empathic Informational listening is comprehension and understanding critical listening is evaluating claims and seeing them as fact or fiction and empathic listening is perspective talking with others needs and wants 26 What are the most common problems that thwart competent informational listening conversational narcissism competitive interrupting glazing over pseudo listening and ambushing Conversational narcissism is basically when someone only wants to talk about themselves all the time Competitive interrupting is conversational control Pseudolistening is basically pretending to listen when really you are not glazing m is daydreaming not listening and not faking like you are listening and ambushing is basically jumping on weakness Ambushing occurs when we listen for weaknesses and ignore strengths or a speakers message 27 What are the most common listener response styles used in empathic listening An evaluative response makes a judgment about the persons conduct It assumes a standard of evaluation has or has not been met When reading this type of response one could say to themselves I would not respond in that way An advising response tells people how they should act An inteppreting response is when we express what we think is the underlying meaning of a situation presented to us Basically like giving constructive feedback to someone who doesn t understand why someone did something or said something Contentm response comprehends the literal meaning of messages from others but doesn t recognize the feelings that ride piggyback Chapter 7 Power 28 Define power Power is the ability to in uence the attainment of goals sought by you or others 29 Explain the difference between assertiveness and aggressiveness AggIession is any physical or verbal communication that is intended to in ict harm There are two types of aggression and these are direct and indirect Direct would be like pushing or shoving and indirect would be like gossiping or spreading rumors about someone Assertiveness is the ability to communicate to full range of your thoughts and emotions with confidence and skill and this requires con dent and skillful expression of thoughts and emotions and this considers both your needs and needs for others 30 What are the major power resources expertise legitimate authority reward punishment personal qualities Expertise is when someone knows how to use information wisely and skillfully and this is basically having the requisite skills abilities knowledge and background Legitimate authority is someone who is perceives to have a right to direct others behaviors because of his or her own position title role experiences or knowledge Rewards and Punishments salaries money freedom privacy is the power of potential or punishment depends on the degree of certainty that the punishment will be administered Punishment is a source of power if it can be and likely will be exercised Reward as a power resource tends to induce rewarding behavior Personal gualities is basically having charismalike Obama this is personal attributes that people find very attractive REMEMBER a person doesn t possess power but is granted power by others 31 How is power indicated in communication verbally and nonverbally People mainly partners abuse each other verbally and nonverbally by tearing apart each other s selfesteem and selfworth There is the example of sexual harassment quid pro quo harassment hostile environment harassment and on the other extreme t here is defiance which is refusal to give in to those in greater power over you and resistance Chapter 9 Interpersonal Con ict Management 1 De ne conflict Con ict is the expressed struggle of interconnected parties who perceive incompatible goals and interference from one or more parties in attaining those goals The expression of struggle could be obvious or more subtle like nonverbal looks The behavior of one party must have consequences for the other party which is the part of con ict that involves interconnected parties Perceived incompatible goals must be present for con ict to occur Also perceived interference from parties who pursue incompatible goals is necessary for con ict to occur For two people to have a con ict either one or both must interfere with the other s goal attainment 2 Differentiate between destructive and constructive conflict Destructive con ict is characterized by escalation retaliation domination competition defensiveness and inflexibility Typical communication tactics employed during this include threats intimidation condescension dishonesty and personal assaults Constructive con ict is characterized by communication that is cooperative supportive and exible The focus is on achieving a solution that is mutually satisfactory to all parties in the con ict Participants work together exibly to deal effectively with their W con icts by controlling and deescalating them Partners in a happy marriage for example approach each other in gentle positive ways when con ict arises They listen respectfully and they work to nd solutions that bene t both partners Reducing the severity of con ict episodes by learning con ictmanagement techniques is a key to constructive con ict Supportive communication patterns are employed participants are assertive not aggressive or passive and there is an overriding commitment to cooperating not competing De ne the ve most common con ict negotiation strategies accommodating avoiding controlling compromising and collaborating Accommodating is when we yield to the needs and desires of others during a con ict Less powerful individuals such as employees are expected to accommodate more often and to a greater degree than more powerful individuals such as bosses Enhances relationship with the other person Compromising is when we give up something to get something The compromising style of con ict management occurs most often between parties of relatively equal power More powerful individuals do not usually consider compromising as necessary They can dominate and they do Tradeoff and exchanges are required to reach agreement Avoiding is when we sidestep or turn our back on con ict When avoid con ict when we ignore it or deny it exists even though it does When we shift topics so we don t have to address a con ict we avoid Form of avoiding is called stonewalling and this occurs when one partner refuses to discuss problems or physically leaves when the other partner is complaining disagreeing or attacking Controlling is meoriented and is has the greatest potential for destructive con ict It has a winlose situation and it is similar to bullying Collaborating is working together to maximize the attainment of goals for all parties involved It is a cooperative style of con ict management Confronting is recognizing con ict and the effort to nd ways to satisfy all Integration meets the goals of all the people in the party in a particular con ict and smoothing is the act of claiming the agitating feelings of others during a con ict episode Group Communication Ch apt l N er 10 The Anatomy of Small Groups De ne what a small group is A small group typically is set to the upper limit of about 12 people which is the basic size of a jury Yet there is no clear or absolute number that clearly dernarcates small from large groups It seems more appropriate to de ne group size in terms of process not number of individuals Groups are small as long as each individual in the group can recognize and interact with every other group member Group size largely determines group structure All small groups are not created equal As the size of the group increases complexity of group transactions and decision making increases enormously affecting its structure The possible number of interpersonal relationships between group members grows exponentially as group size increases What are the advantages and disadvantages of small groups The number of nonparticipants in group discussions increases when groups grow much beyond six members Larger groups easily become factionalized which means members of like mind may splinter into smaller competing subgroups to withstand the pressure from other members to conform to the majority opinion on an issue Larger groups may take much more time to make decisions than smaller groups With more members there are potentially more voices to be heard on issues being discussed Even scheduling a W 5 U gt1 meeting at a time when all members are available can be a daunting task when groups grow large Schedule con icts are almost inevitable with groups of more than eight Smaller groups avoid the disadvantages of larger groups They are less complex and factionalized and more ef cient than larger groups Yet they can be too small to be effective Too few members may provide too few resources to make decisions and solve problems effectively A larger group of for example 7 people can provide more input and has a potentially greater knowledge pool to assist in decision making Smaller groups are normally faster 3 or 4 members but somewhat larger groups often produce higher quality decisions because their knowledge base is larger A group with about ve people is a nice compromise when speed and quality are equally important Keep groups relatively small to reap the greatest advantages As small groups evolve into larger groups the structure typically becomes more formal to cope with the increased complexity What is cohesion How is it developed Cohesiveness is the goal of the social dimension The extent of a groups cohesiveness depends on the degree to which members identify with the group and wish to remain in the group It is developed primarily by encouraging compatible membership when possible developing shared goals that members nd challenging and exciting to achieve actually accomplishing important tasks that meet these shared goals developing positive group history of cooperation and promoting acceptance of all group members by making each feel valued and welcomed in the group What in uence does cohesion have on task and social dimensions of small groups High cohesiveness alone doesn t guarantee group success but it seems to be a necessary condition for successful task accomplishment When groups lack cohesiveness their productivity typically suffers Small groups of exceedingly talented individuals will not accomplish tasks well if interpersonal relations among members are immersed in disharmony anger resentments hostilities and rivalries Low cohesiveness almost always dooms a group to poor performance and low productivity Group members can be so cohesive however that they become too concerned with maintaining harmony When disagreement is avoided because members fear disrupting group cohesiveness error correction may be sacri ced part of groupthink chll Too much focus on productivity can strain interpersonal relationships within a group Too much focus on cohesiveness can lead to anemic effort on the task Strong cohesiveness combined with a strong group work ethic is an effective combination Both task and social dimensions should be addressed What are group norms Norms are rules that indicate what group members have to do obligation should do preference or may not do prohibition if they want to accomplish specific goals Explicit norms specifically and overtly identify acceptable and unacceptable behavior They are typical of lowcontext communication style Telling members explicitly NO SMOKING Implicit norms are observable patterns of behavior exhibited by group members that identify acceptable and unacceptable conduct These norms are normally in small group setting Sitting in the same seat every meeting no one eats or drinks during meetings What is a small group role Roles and norms are interconnected Small group roles are patterns of expected behavior associated with parts that you play in groups Norms are broad rules that stipulate expected behavior for every group member while roles stipulate speci c behaviors expected of individual group members not the entire group What is the difference between formal and informal roles 9 0 O Formal Roles assign a position They are a standard part of the structure of organizations Titles such as President or chair or secretary usually accompany formal roles They do not emerge naturally from group transactions they are assigned Normally an explicit description of expected behaviors corresponds to each formal role Informal Roles are mostly in small groups They identify functions not positions They usually emerge naturally from group transactions If a member often initiates group discussion the member is playing the role of initiatorcontributor Groups do not explicitly tell a member how to play an informal role but they do indicate degrees of approval or disapproval when a member assumes an informal role Explain the difference between the three types ofinformal group roles maintenance task and disruptive Maintenance roles address the social dimension of small groups The central communicative function of maintenance roles is to gain and maintain group cohesiveness Disruptive roles are meoriented They serve individual needs at the expense of the group needs and goals Group members who often play these roles often deserve the label difficult groups member The central communicative function of disruptive roles is to focus attention on the individual Mroles advance the attainment of group goals The central communicative function of task roles is to extract the optimum productivity from the group What is leadership lVIany agree that leadership is primarily a social in uence process Leaders in uence followers but followers also in uence leaders by making demands on them to meet expectations and by evaluating their performance in light of these expectations All leadership is transformational because all leadership involves change or innovation either promoting it or adapting to its inevitability Leadership is de ned as a leader follower in uence process with the goal of producing change that is largely accomplished through competent communication What are the different approaches to leadership traits styles and situational Traits are relatively enduring characteristics of a person that highlight differences between people and that are displayed in most situations There are physical traits such as height weight physical shape physique and beauty or attractiveness There are personality traits such as being outgoing or sociable There are traits associated with inherent capabilities such as intelligence and quickwittedness There are traits associated with consistent behaviors such as integrity trustworthiness and con dence Effectiveness of leadership style depends on the situation They are discussed in the next question Situational perspective is basically how leader the traits and styles must operate within a context The context is the situation a leader confronts Role of followers towards leader is viewed as indirect in this perspective Define the major leadership styles directive or autocratic participative or democratic laissez faire and situational Directive style originally called autocratic puts heavy emphasis on the task dimension with slight attention to the social dimension of groups Member participation is not encouraged imbalance of power Directive leaders assume that they have greater power than other group members Such leaders tell members what to do and they expect obedience The participative s le originally called democratic places emphasis on both the task and social dimensions of groups Task accomplishment is important but social relationships must also be maintained Unlike the directive style which uses dominance as a form of power this style is empowering Group members are encouraged to participate meaningfully in discussions and decision making Participative leaders work to improve the skills and abilities of all group members LaisseZ faire style is a siton yourderriere approach to leadership which is to say no leadership at all is exercised There is theoretical consensus that leadership is a social in uence process This style makes no attempt to in uence anyone thus it provides no insight into effective leadership in groups Chapter 11 Effective Groups 1 Explain the distinctions between a team and a group Every team is a group but not every group is a team Teams commonly exhibit a higher level of cooperation and cohesiveness than standard groups Teams are inherently well oriented Each member develops skills for the good of the team Teams may function within a competitive intergroup environment but to be successful they depend on intragroup cooperation Teams normally consist of individuals with more diverse skills A team requires complementary not identical skills Teams usually have a stronger group identity Teams see themselves as an identi able unity with a common mission A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are equally committed to a common purpose goals and working approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable Board of directors standing committees student and faculty senates and similar groups are not usually teams These groups often lack cohesiveness and cooperation and group members may have similar rather than diverse skills They might not even have to work together they might just vote and go to meetings Most groups can pro t from acting more teamlike but sometime they even pit each other against one another 2 What is brainstorming What is critical to its success Brainstorming is a creative problemsolving method characterized by encouragement of even zany ideas freedom from initial evaluation of potential solutions and energetic participation from all group members All members should have prepared initial ideas Don t criticize any idea during the brainstorming process encourage freewheeling idea generation more ideas the better don t clarify or discuss ideas during the idea generation phase piggyback in the ideas of others record all ideas for future reference encourage participation from all team members wait to evaluate ideas generated until the brainstorming session is completed 3 Explain the steps in the Standard Agenda The standard agenda provides one such highly effective structured method of decision making and problem solving it is based on the re ective thinking model 1 Identify the goal 2 Analyze the problem 3 Establish criteria 4 Generate solutions 5 Evaluate solutions and make the nal decision positive and negative aspects of each choice and 7 Implement the decision 4 Explain the differences between the major forms of decision making majority rule minority rule and consensus lVIajority rule is the most popular in the United States American idol dancing with the stars it is ef cient and can provide rapid closure on relatively unimportant issues In large groups it may be the only reasonable way to make a decision Once a majority emerges a decision can be made Consensus is a state of mutual agreement among members of a group where all legitimate concerns of individuals have been addressed to satisfaction of the group Juries are one example of a consensus group Minority rule is basically when the decision is made by an expert or authority that can either listen to the group or completely ignore it 5 What are the advantages and disadvantages ofthe major forms of decision making majority rule minority rule and consensus In regard to consensus the advantages requires full discussion of the issues which improves the chances that a quality decision will be made produces group satisfaction 0quot and team members are likely to be committed to the nal decision and will defend the decision when challenged by outsiders Disadvantages is that it is very difficult to achieve the process is time consuming and sometimes contentious frustrated members ority rule is ef cient and can provide rapid closure on relatively unimportant issues yet majorities sometimes support preposterous unethical positions racism sexism groups using majority rule may encourage a dominance power dynamic within the group Those with the most power the majority can impose their will on the less powerful minority which could easily lead to a competitive power struggle within a group And lastly the majority might be tempted to decide too quickly before proper discussion has taken place Minority hurts when the advisor simply ignores the group s thoughts What is groupthink How might groupthink be avoided Groupthink is a process of group members stressing cohesiveness and agreement instead of skepticism and optimum decision making Too much emphasis is placed on members being team players and too little emphasis is placed on the group making quality decisions Disagreement is discouraged during group discussions because it is viewed as disruptive to group cohesiveness There is a strong pressure to conform so there is at least the appearance of group unity The group lacks a structured decisionmaking process that encourages consideration of divergent options and opinions There is also an ingroup outgroup mentality of competitiveness Prevention the group could consult an impartial outsider with expertise on the problem discussed This would reduce the danger from excessive cohesiveness leading to poor group decisions That is why sometimes people are hired outside of the organization in order to consult and give advice Second to reduce pressure on group members to conform the group leader could withhold his or her point of view during early discussions In this way the appearance of dominance in power relationships between a more powerful group leader and less powerful members can be avoided and all members will be more inclined to express honest opinions Third assign devil s advocate role to a speci c member for the sake of the argument this person challenges a prevailing group viewpoint which tests the strength of the validity of group ideas to prevent poor decision making Public Speaking Chapter 12 Preparing Speeches 32 What are the components of audience analysis demographics values beliefs LA amp attitudes An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably towards some attitude object A Wis what a person thinks is true or probable and a value is the most deeply felt generally shared view of what is deemed good right or worthwhile thinking or behavior The strength of an audience s attitudes beliefs and values determine interest level Often though you must make educated guesses about an audience based on demographics which are characteristics such as age gender culture and ethnicity and group affiliations What elements of speech making are in uenced by audience analysis preparation and presentation The topic in which you choose to talk about for your speech is greatly in uences by your audience The attitude you have towards your topic is also very in uential LA LA LA LA LA 00 by who your audience is going to be Also any side remarks or funny comments that you might say during your speech should be thought about how the audience is going to react to it before you say it in front of them Also does your topic fit in the event you will be speaking at De ne the general purpose specific purpose and central idea in public speaking The general purpose identi es the overall goal of your speech it tells the audience why you are giving the speech to inform describe explain demonstrate persuade celebrate memorialize entertain eulogize The central idea identifies the main concept point issue or conclusion that you want the audience to understand believe or feel The central idea becomes the one concise though separate from all the details provided in the speech that the audience members are likely to remember The specific purpose statement is a concise precise in nitive phrase composed of simple clear language that encompasses both the general purpose and the central idea and indicates what the speaker hopes to accomplish with the speech What should be considered when choosing a topic speaker subject and person addressed The topic should be appropriate for you the event and the intended audience that will be listening to your speech How does one avoid plagiarism You should always cite your sources in order to avoid the crime of plagiarism What are the types of supporting materials used in speeches Difference types of examples the hypothetical example describes an imaginary situation one that is concocted to make a point illustrate an idea or identify a general principle These types of examples help listeners envision what a situation might be like or they call up similar experiences listeners have had without having to cite a historical factual illustration that may not be readily available Hypothetical examples can help an audience visualize what might occurimagine what it would be like to experience what is happening A real example is simply actual occurrences An extended example is a detailed story or illustration sometimes a story is so profound so moving that it requires a detailed narration to do it justice Statistics are measure of what is true or factual and it expressed in numbers they can provide magnitude and allow comparisons Testimony of authorities is basically just quoting experts What are the criteria for evaluating supporting material Credibility of evidence used to support claims is determined by its reliability and validity Reliability means consistency and validity means accuracy A source of information should not be quoted as support for claims if that source has been inconsistent in citing facts and interpreting data or guilty or bending or breaking the truth even occasionally Evidence used to support claims must have relevance it must relate directly to those claims or the claims are unwarranted Several fallacies fail the relevance test Non sequitur which means it does not follow A conclusion that does not follow from its premises is a non sequitur fallacy An hominem fallacy is a personal attack on the messenger to avoid the message Ad populum is basing a claim on popular opinion Sufficiency the person who makes a claim has the burden to prove the claim 39 What are the basic elements of a competent outline symbols coherence completeness balance and division Your outline should have roman numerals for main points capital letters for primary sub points standard numbers for secondary points and lowercase letters for tertiary points Your coherence is the logical consistency and clarity then adds to an effective outline Your outline should ow from your purpose statement Begin with your topic narrow the topic to your speci c purpose statement and from that statement develop main points that break down further into sub points Work from the most general to the most speci c You should always use full sentences which is the completeness because that makes it more successful basically what you are proving Complete sentences communicate complete thoughts Balanceeach main point deserves substantial developmentyou want a balanced presentation within each main point almost equal time for each main point Division main points divide into sub pointsyou will divide into more than two pieces you divide main points into two or more sub points 40 Identify the organizational pattern used in speeches topical spatial causal chronological problem solution and Monroe s Motivated Sequence Topical pattern shapes information according to types classifications or parts or a whole A topical pattern doesn t suggest a particular order of presentation for each main point can reverse the order and it would not matter Spatial pattern may be front to back left to right north to south bottom to top etc Explaining directions to a particular place requires a spatial order a visualization of where things are spatially how a bridge was built Causal pattern basically describes why things happen and then discusses the consequences cause and effect of yearly u virus Chronological pattern suggests a specific sequence of events When speeches provide a biographical sketch a stepbystep process or recount a historical even chronological order is appropriate exrenovation plan of a city Problemsolution pattern explores the nature of a problem and proposes a solution or possible solutions Monroe s Motivated Sequence is an organizational pattern with five steps Attention create interest use attention strategies Need present a problem to be solved and relate it to your audience Satisfaction provide a solution to the problem that will satisfy your audience Visualization provide an image for your audience of what the world will look like if your solution was implemented and Action make a call to action get the audience involved and committed Chapter 13 Presenting Speeches 41 What is speech anxiety Speech anxiety is basically nervousness before giving a speech There are two types of speech anxiety there is the dysfunctional speech anxiety which occurs when the intensity of the fightor ight response prevents a person from giving a speech effectively and the functional speech anxiety occurs when the fightor ight response is managed and stimulates an optimum presentation 42 What are some guidelines for managing speech anxiety 4 4 1 There are many strategies for managing speech anxiety Preparepractice which is when you have necessary research organization and outline of your speech which is basically transforming novelty into familiarity You should gain a proper perspective which is rational not irrational thinking There are four phases to speech anxiety symptoms and they are anticipation confrontation adaptation and release You should also adopt a noncompetitive communication orientation which is when you should do some reframing which is making your message clear and interesting to your listeners Coping statements are also a good strategy which is negative to positive selftalk You should always have positive thinking which can lead to imagining and visualization relaxation is a great technique like relaxing muscles and breathing deeply in and out and also making a list just writing things down is also a good technique What are the critical elements of a speech introduction The introduction should have an attention getting relevance to the audience speaker credibility purpose statement and previewing of the main points What are the critical elements of a speech conclusion The conclusion should summarize the main points reinforce the purpose and have a memorable closing statement with impact upon the audience What is the difference between oral and written styles of speech making When we speak we usually use simpler sentences than when we write Oral style is much more interactive than the written style and the oral style is usually less formal than the written style What impact do various delivery considerations have on an audience eye contact vocal variety verbal uency poise dynamism First of all delivery should match the context of your speech When there is weak eye contact that is basically like the speaker is avoiding their audience like they are not even talking to them Your vocal variety is very important because the tone of your voice can in uence the mood of your audience like speaking softly can induce interest of your audience Speed speaking is also a very bad idea Having a good amount of energy throughout your speech with help in the interest and enthusiasm of your audience and not moving around a lot and keeping good posture is always a good idea when delivering a speech Explain the differences between the major delivery styles manuscript memorized extemporaneous and impromptu Manuscript is basically when it is all there in black and white There is a distinct sound and rhythm spoken essays only good in specific situation in which you need to use precise phrasing for fear of causing offense think Obama speeches Memorized is nothing more than a manuscript speech delivered without the manuscript in front of the speaker There could be a problem with this because the speaker may forget the speech Impromptu speech is delivered without preparation or so it seems You should anticipate impromptu speaking draw on your life experiences and knowledge for the substance of your remarks and also formulate a simple outline for an impromptu speech An extemporaneous speech is delivered from a prepared outline or notes Even though fully prepared in advance this type of speech sounds spontaneous because the speaker does not read from a manuscript but instead glances at an outline or notes and then puts his or her own thoughts into words on the spot This makes it sound like impromptu yet it also has in depth detail and substance of manuscript speech without being either This permits greater eye contact with the audience and allows the speaker to respond to audience feedback as it occurs Chapter 14 Informative Speaking 48 What distinguishes informative speaking from persuasive speaking An informative speech focuses on teaching an audience something new interesting and useful wants the audience to learn A persuasive speech focuses on convincing listeners to change their viewpoint and behavior want audience to act 49 What is a transition Transitions connect what was said with what will be said They are the bridges between points 50 What is necessary for an appropriate or effective oral citation The citation needs to have credibility and strength and should be interesting and supportive material in order to be appropriate for the speech s specific topic The initial citation of a source should be complete but subsequent references to the same source can be abbreviated to avoid tedious repetition unless the abbreviation might cause confusion 51 What are the types of visual aids that can be used during a speech Objects models human mouth model for dental hygene speech graphs maps tables photographs drawing are all good Visual aids to use during a speech Inthe classroom speech a poster board handouts video clips projection equipment and a power point are also very good aids 52 What are guidelines for the competent usage of visual aids They should not be a distraction for the audience so you should keep your aids simple make them visible neat attractive don t block the audiences View keep aids close to you put aid out of sight when not in use practice with your aids before using them in your speech do not circulate aids and always anticipate any problems you might have with your aids before using them Chapter 15 Persuasive Speaking 1 De ne persuasion Persuasion is a communication process of converting modifying or maintaining the attitudes or behaviors of others 2 What are the primary dimensions of credibility competence trustworthiness dynamism and composure Competence refers to the audience s perception of the speaker s knowledge and experience on a topic Does the speaker know what heshe is talking about Trustworthiness refers to how truthful or honest we perceive the speaker to be CanI believe what the speaker says Dynamism refers to the enthusiasm and energy exhibited by the speaker sleepy lackluster presentations by the speaker lower credibility Composure is basically the fact that audiences tend to be in uenced by speakers who are composed meaning they are emotionally stable appear con dent and in control of themselves and remain calm even when problems arise during a speech 3 De ne the three Aristotelian modes of proof ethos logos and pathos e Logos is building arguments based on logic and evidence and reasoning Pathos is the emotional appeals and m is the ingredients of credibility good sense good moral character and good will Identify propositions of fact value and policy Fact alleges a truth inadequate sex education is a primary cause of high teen pregnancy Policy calls for a significant change from how problems are currently handled smoking should be banned from all public places Value calls for a judgment that assesses the worth or merit of an idea object or practices capital punishment is immoral
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