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by: Janet Williamson


Marketplace > James Madison University > General Education > GCOM 122 > FUNDAMENTAL HUMAN COMMUNICATION INDIVIDUAL PRESENTATIONS C1HC
Janet Williamson
GPA 3.65

Kreg Owens

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Kreg Owens
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janet Williamson on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GCOM 122 at James Madison University taught by Kreg Owens in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/214102/gcom-122-james-madison-university in General Education at James Madison University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
Study Guide for GCOM 122 Final Exam Fall 2010 Fundamentals of Communication Chapter 1 Competent Communication What are the most common myths about communication a Communication is a cureall b Communication isjust common sense c Communication quantity equals quality cl Meaning is found in words e Communication is a VERBAL process f Telling iscommunicating 2 Explain the differences between the three models of communication linear interactive and transactional a Linear Model communication is a oneway process and all communication is intentional b Interactive Model communication is a two way process where senders can be receivers and vice versa c Transactional Model two dimensions content and relational and it shows that communication is fluid and an ongoing process 3 Define the basic communication elements contained in the communication models channel sender receiver message encode decode context fields of experience noise and feedback a Channel A medium through which a message travels such as oral or written Sender the initiator and encoder Receiver is the decoder of a message Message Stimulus that produces meaning Encode what the sender does Decode what the receiver does Fields of Experience include our cultural background ethnicity geographic location extent of travel and general personal experiences accumulated over a lifetime 4 Explain the two aspects of every message Content and relationship Content What is said and done Relationship How the message defines or redefines the association between individuals 5 What differentiates a constructive communication climate from a destructive communication climate A constructive communication climate is composed of two general elements a pattern ofopenness and a pattern of supportiveness or a confirmation ofthe worth and value of others and a willingness to help others be successful While the destructive communication climate is composed of a pattern of closedness or an unwillingness to communicate with others and a pattern of defensiveness or a protective reaction to a perceived attack on our selfesteem and selfconcept The protective reaction usually takes three forms anhrvpPv Chapter 2 Perception of Self and Others 6 Define the perceptual process a The process through which people make sense of the vast array of sensory inputs and involve the active processing of information 7 What is a perceptual schema prototype stereotype and script 39 Prototypemost representative or quotbestquot example of something Stereotype generalization about a group or category of people Script predictable sequence of events that indicates what we are expected to do in a given situation 8 How is selfconcept developed reflected appraisal significant others and society a SelfConcept the sum total of everything that encompasses the selfreferential term quotmequot i Selfconcept is a social construction a product of interpersonal communication Formed through the child years and meeting others who are or are not like you in some ways 9 What are some of the influences on perception gender culture past experiences mood and context a Men normally try to increase their status in society by showing their expertise in conversation and being competitive They perceive society as a competitive place where they must fight for higher status Women usually talk about emotion and try to increase their personal intimacies with friends and in relationships Women perceive society as a place to make close friends within their personal status 57 10 What is selfdisclosure a The process of purposefully revealing to others information about ourselves that they otherwise would not know 11 Define the concepts of depth and breadth in terms of selfdisclosure o Breadth refers to the range of subjects discussed within your relationship Depth refers to how personal you become when discussing a certain topic Intimate relationships usually have both breadth and depth but casual relationships have neither Breadth depth and selfdisclosure are critical factors in connecting with others communicatively 12 What are the guidelines for offering and receiving selfdisclosure 0 You mustM the other person to honor your feelings and to refrain from divulging the disclosure to anyone else 0 Reciprocity is also very important because the mutual selfdisclosure demonstrates that trust and risk taking are being shared 0 cultural appropriateness not all cultures value selfdisclosure Appropriate selfdisclosure in one culture may not be appropriate in another culture 0 Situational appropriateness is important because public settings are not appropriate for private information o ncremental disclosure gradually disclose personal information to another person and see whether it is reciprocated 13 Why is reciprocal sharing important a Reciprocity means the mutual selfdisclosure with others b It is important because if you disclose but the other does not you should be wary P Define the term llselfserving biasquot a Tendency to attribute our successful behavior to ourselvespersonal traits but to assign external circumstancessituations to our unsuccessful behavior What is the selffulfilling prophecy What does it influence a If you think so it will happen that way b Your way of thinking will change your future behavior Define the process of attribution a Assigning a cause to people39s behavior 17 How does the fundamental attribution error impact competent communication a Fundamental Attribution Error To overemphasize personal characteristics and underemphasize situation causes of other people s behavior 18 What is empathy a The act of taking what a person is saying and understanding how they feel and caring about their feelings U39I 0 Chapter 3 Culture and Gender 19 Define what culture is a lla system of knowledge beliefs values customs and artifacts that are acquired shared and used by its members during daily living 20 Explain how culture influences communication a Your culture directly shapes how you communicate 39 Humans aren t born with the knowledge of how when or to whom to speak just as we are not born with attitudes about races religions sexual orientations or other aspects of identity We learn these attitudes and actions as we interact with others and later reflect those cultural teachings in our personal communication 21 Define ethnocentrism cultural relativism and multiculturalism a Ethnocentrism llnotion that one s own culture is superior to any other b Cultural Relativism llviews cultures as merely different not deficient 22 Explain the major differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures a Individualist culture demonstrates an quotIquot consciousness i Members chiefly driven by personal goalsgains ii Heavy emphasis on self b Collectivist culture demonstrates a quotwequot consciousness i Members chiefly driven by group gains ii Self is downplayed cooperation emphasized c Cultures are NOT entirely individualistic or collectivist exist as a mixture with a predominate dimension 23 Explain the major differences between lowpower distance and high powerdistance cultures a Low power distance Collectivist equality no dictatorship b High power distance Individualistic hierarchy major gaps between groups 24 Explain the major differences between feminine and masculine cultures a Masculine cultures value competitiveness assertiveness ambition and the accumulation of wealth and material possessions whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life 25 How does culture influence nonverbal communication 0 Different cultures have different meanings for gestures and hand signals It is easy to confuse one this for another in different cultures Nonverbal communication in one culture depends on its beliefs and values Chapter 4 Language 1 Define language a Language is a structured system of symbols for communicating meaning Meaning is derived from interpreting symbols 2 Explain the symbolic nature of language abstract arbitrary ambiguous a Word origin is arbitrary and word usage is conventional b Words are often ambiguous this means that they have more than a single meaning c AbstractionIs the process of selective perception by which we form vague conceptions of our world 3 Explain the difference between connotative and denotative meaning a Denotation shared meaning the socially agreed upon meaning of words it is meaning shared by members ofa speech community i Ex dictionary definitions b Connotation personal meaning the volatile personal subjective meaning of words i Three dimensions 1 evaluationgoodbad 2 potencystrongwea k 3 activityactivepassive 4 What is a euphemism a The use of words to numb us of camouflage unpleasant realities i Ex passed away vs diedgood euphemismrapid oxidation vs major firebad euphemism 5 Explain the SapirWhorf hypothesis a Linguistic Determinism claims that we are unable to think certain thoughts or perceive in certain ways because of our language greatly affects a person s worldview Linguistic Relativism claims that we are highly influenced by our language but it does not affect the way we think or perceive 6 What is the difference between a fact and an inference a An inference is an assumption made depending on the descriptions of an event 7 What are jargon and euphemisms a Euphemisms form of linguistic Novocain whereby word choices numb us to or camou age unpleasant or offensive realities 57 Chapter 5 Nonverbal Communication 8 What are the differences between verbal and nonverbal channels of communication a verbal communication sharing meaning with others through talking b nonverba communica on sharing meaning with others nonlinguistically c verbal communication has discrete beginnings and endings nonverbal however has no discrete beginnings and endings we continuously send nonverbal messages to others even if we don39t mean to d Verbal communication is singlechanneled but nonverbal communication is multi channeled e nonverbal communication is at least as ambiguous if not more so than verbal communication 9 What are the functions of nonverbal communication repetition substitution regulation contradiction accentuation a repetition consistency of verbal and nonverbal communication increases the clarity and credibility of the message ie we say quotyesquot and then nod our head b substitution sometimes nonverbal cues substitute for verbal messages Le a yawn can substitute for the verbal Tm bored or quotCm tiredquot c regulation conversation is regulated by nonverbal cues Le a teacher can recognize a student39s desire to speak by pointing to the person This means quotyour turn39 d contradiction sometimes we contradict verbal messages with nonverbal messages ie saying quotI love youquot while looking off to the side and with a very flat vocalcentuation it enhances the power and seriousness of verbal messages ie pounding your st on the table as you express anger nonverbally 10 Explain the major types of nonverbal communication kinesics paralanguage territoriality proxemics and haptics a kinesics body movement Eralanguage changing meaning of vocalic communication without changing words chromatics use and structure of time territorialiy defense of a fixed place Qroxemics use of personal space ha ics touching others 511995 Chapter 6 Listening to Others 11 Define listening by its basic elements comprehending retaining and responding a Comprehending a shared meaning bt or among parties in a transaction b Retaining The act of remembering and memorizing information during the transactional process c Responding responding during the transactional process in an educated way 12 What are the types of listening informational critical and empathic a Informational listening for comprehension ofa speaker s message b Critical evaluating the merits of claims as they are heard c Empathic requires us to take the perspective of the other person to listen for what the person needs 13 What are the most common problems that thwart competent informational listening conversational narcissism competitive interrupting glazing over pseudolistening and ambushing a Conversational narcissism Turning the topic towards ourselves without showing interest in the others topic b Competitive interrupting We dominate the conversation by seizing the floor from others who are speaking c Glazing over Listeners attention wanders and daydreaming occurs d Pseudolistening Pretend listening e Ambushing We listen for weakness and ignore strengths of a speakers message 14 What is the most common listener response styles used in empathic listening a Probing and supporting Chapter 7 Power 15 Define power 9 l Power power is the ability to influence the attainment of goals sought by oneself or others Explain the difference between assertiveness and aggressiveness Assertiveness is the ability to communicate the full range of thoughts and emotions with confidence and skill while aggressiveness puts one s own needs first What are the major power resources expertise legitimate authority reward punishment personal qualities Expertise an expert knows how to use the information wisely and skillfully they are perceived to have the requisite skills abilities knowledge and background and are considered trustworthy Legitimate Authoritya legitimate authority is someone who is perceived to have a right to direct others behavior because of his or her position title or role experience or knowledge Rewardsz Punishments lnformation information has power potential when it is not easily or readily available information that is restricted and scarce can be a powerful resource Personal Qualitiesgood looks and attractive personality dynamism persuasive skills warmth and charm are some of the qualities that make a person charismatic none of these five resources have inherent power Power is granted by others 18 How is power indicated in communication verbally and nonverbally Verbally Power is indicated verbally by using abusive or obscene language that is often inappropriate and will offend others but works because it is shocking Sometimes deferential language is a sign of respect and not seen as weak Nonverbally Clothing such as uniforms are a strong indicator of power The more powerful person can usually touch the less powerful person more frequently and with fewer restrictions sexual harassment problems Eye contact indicates power more powerful people stare more freely Space is also an indicator of power more powerful people have more of it Chapter 9 Interpersonal Conflict Management 19 Define conflict a The expressed struggle of interconnected parties who perceive incompatible goals and interference from one or more parties attaining these goals 20 Differentiate between destructive and constructive conflict a Destructive conflict Escalation retaliation domination competition defensiveness and inflexibility b Constructive conflict Communication that is cooperative supportive and flexible 21 Define the five most common conflict negotiation strategies accommodating avoiding quot39 C r a d quot 39 39 U Accommodating Yield to the needs and desires of others during a conflict Avoiding We sidestep or turn our back on conflict Compromising Give up something to get something Collaborating Working together to maximize the attainment of goals for everyone involved e Controlling a b c d Public Speaking Chapter 12 Preparing Speeches 22 What are the components of audience analysis demographics values beliefs amp attitudes a Must infer about where your audiences background is and develop around this demographics values beliefs attitudes 23 What elements of speech making are influenced by audience analysis preparation and presentation a Audience analysis is the core of any public speech b You construct your speech with the audience always in mind N P Define the general purpose specific purpose and central idea in public speaking a General Purpose Identifies the overall goal of your speech b Speci c Purpose Concise precise infinitive phrase composed of simple clear language that encompasses both the general purpose and the central idea and indicates what the speaker hopes to accomplish with the speech c Central idea Main concept point issue or conclusion that you want the audience to understand believe or feel 25 What should be considered when choosing a topic speaker subject and person addressed a Appropriateness for the speaker audience and the occasion 26 How does one avoid plagiarism or Cite your sources appropriately 27 What are the types of supporting materials used in speeches a Facts b Statistics c Testimony d Definitions e DescriptionsExamples 28 What are the criteria for evaluating supporting material a Credibility b Relevance c Sufficiency 29 What are the basic elements of a competent outline symbols coherence completeness balance and division a Symbols Main Point A Primary Subpoint 1 Secondary Subpoint a Tertiary Subpoint Coherence Logical consistency and clarity main points and such flow Completeness Use full sentences Balance No lopsided time allotment e Division Divide the pie main points into subpoints 30 Identify the organizational pattern used in speeches topical spatial causal chronological problemsolution and Monroe s Motivated Sequence a Topical presents information according to types classifications or parts of a 9957 whole b Spatial presents information how it visibly appears c Causal standard patterns that present information according to causeseffects or effectcauses d Chronological presents information according to a time pattern a sequence of events e ProblemSolutionpresents information according to the nature of the problem and then presents a solution to the problem Chapter 13 Presenting Speeches 31 What is speech anxiety a Speech anxiety is when an individual is afraid to deliver a speech Speech anxiety affects 70 of the general population 32 What are some guidelines for managing speech anxiety a Some guidelines for managing speech anxiety are Prepare and Practice Gain Proper Perspective and Adopt a Noncompetitive Communicative Orientation 33 What are the critical elements of a speech introduction a Gain attention b State a clear purpose c Establish Significance d Preview of main points 34 What are the critical elements of a speech conclusion a Summarize main points b Refer to introduction 6 Make a memorable finish 35 What is the difference between oral and written styles of speech making a When we speak we use simpler sentences then when we write b Oral style is more personal and less formal then written style 36 What impact do various delivery considerations have on an audience eye contact vocal variety verbal fluency poise dynamism a Eye contact used to maintain an audience s attention b Vocal Variety various pitches in voice to maintain audience s attention c Verbal Fluency do not use word fillers keep speech fluid and precise d Poise be animated gesture appropriately but do not overdo it 37 Explain the differences between the major delivery styles manuscript memorized extemporaneous and impromptu a ManuscriptReading a written speech requires a large amount of practice for audience to not know that you are READING b Memorized Manuscript speaking without a manuscript can be a disaster if you FORGET c Impromptu Little or no obvious preparation only appropriate if you are asked to speak at the last minute d Extemporaneous Delivered from a prepared outline or detailed notes Chapter 14 Informative Speaking 38 What distinguishes informative speaking from persuasive speaking a Informative speaking teaches an audience b Persuasive speaking convinces listeners on a certain point 39 What is a transition a They are the bridges from point to point Ex For example Therefore In other words 40 What is necessary for an appropriate or effective oral citation a Must provide the audience the entire name of the source the source s qualifications and the date of the citation If same source is used later it then can be abbreviated for time 41 What are the types of visual aids that can be used during a speech a Objects models graphs maps tables photographs drawings chalkboard poster board handouts video excerpts projection equipment PowerPoint 42 What are guidelines for the competent usage of visual aids a Clarification of Difficult PointsDescriptions of Complex Objects b Help speaker to gain and maintain audience attention c Enhance Speaker Credibility d Improve DeliveryAid Against Speech Anxiety e Make presentation more memorable Chapter 15 Persuasive Speaking 43 Define persuasion a Persuasion Communication processes of converting modifying or maintaining the attitudes or behavior oh others 44 What are the primary dimensions of credibility a Competence trustworthiness dynamism and composure 45 Define the three Aristotelian modes of proof ethos logos and pathos a Ethos Credibility characterized by llgood sense good moral character and good will of the speaker b Logos Conception of building arguments based on logic and evidence c Pathos Conception of emotional appeals used for persuasion 46 Identify propositions of fact value and policy a Proposition of fact Primary overriding claim in a persuasive speech that alleges truth 57 Proposition of value Primary overriding claim in a persuasive speech that calls for a judgment that assesses the worth or merit of an idea object or practice c Proposition of policy Primary overriding claim in a persuasive speech that calls for a significant change from how problems are currently handled


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