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by: Lela Moen


Lela Moen
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Philip Heap

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Philip Heap
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lela Moen on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GECON 200 at James Madison University taught by Philip Heap in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/214108/gecon-200-james-madison-university in General Education at James Madison University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
The Wealth and Poverty of Nations Chapter Synopsizes and Outlines Chapter 1 This chapter was mainly devoted to explaining the role in which geography plays in determining economic conditions for nations around the world Many environmental factors affect a nation from health care to technological advancements or lack thereof for third world countries Geography a Not respected enough in educational environments b Temperate climates prosper i More suited for human prosperity natural comfort zone c Tropical and semitropical climates struggle to produceadvance technologically i Plays host to many insects ii Easy site for disease bacteria to grow and spread d Many only come to pass this area not dwell Medicine a Third world countries can t afford specific necessary medicine i Needed for threats of malaria AIDS etc ii Costly for pharmaceutical companies to produce 1 Unwilling to help countries in need without payment 2 Serious inflation in African countries b Illnesses unknown to doctors in the area Natural Occurrences a Rainfall in areas is greater in some than others i Sahara invaded many fertile lands in North Africa in 1970 s ii Bangladesh and SE Asia b Forming of bacteria i Streams and ponds ii Spreading to larger areas 1 SE Asia to Africa surrounding water c Storms weather i Droughts plague northern Africa ii Warm wet climates for extended periods foster bacteria growth 1 Indonesia 2 Low lying areas swamps Preference a Used to temperate climates z i llI have always felt Iand 39 39 Iby the climate ii More productivity of workers more technological advancements Chapter 2 A majority of this chapter pertained to the climate differences between Europe and China and how this affected the evolution of agriculture as a whole in these areas The challenge of feeding such a large and quickly growing population in China also was explained including the varying types of land as well as how to attain highest yield of crop Climate a Europe i Mild winters flourishing summers ii Western Europe had better llgrowing seasons iii Poland and Russia get more extreme temperatures b China i Heavy inconsistent rain seasons Geography a Europe i Western receives warmer air of jet stream ii Famine and disease 1 The plague Black death iii Not most fertile land b Egypt i Hardwood forests c China i Dry land to north ii Loess soils along upper Yellow River 1 More fertile soils in lower Yellow River iii Fertile towards Indochina Agriculture a China i Most sophisticated agriculture 2000 years ago ii Must provide food for 20 of world s population 1 On 7 of world s land iii Population sprouted due to large ability to produce food iv Treadmill process 1 Mobilize cultivators storage of grain focus on food supply b Europe i Techniques such as plow iron tools came with invasion 1 Typically from the north 2 Lack of tools resulted in less farm area due to forest coverage C Egypt Pharaoh withheld all food supplies 1 Forces compliance with citizens to attain food Chapter 3 This chapter described the evolution of society or civilizations in Europe from that of previous nomadic war camps spread about The growth of an economy is these civilizations are helped by the innovation of agriculture with the addition ofa centralized religion Many agricultural innovations included the domestication of farm animals allowed for explosion of growth in Europe I Europe s beginnings a Invasions i From Vikings marine bandits 1 Areas including Atlantic coast as well as Italy and Sicily ii From Hungarians 1 From Asia spoke an UralAltaic language b Small villages c Invaders decided there were better ways to make a living II Europe settling down a Kingdoms replaced nomadic war camps i Trying to oust the llswagger captains with private armies pillaging villages ii Kings don t need career trouble makers b Path to growth and development i Increase is natural wherever opportunity and security are c Middle Ages i Link between ancient world and modern Europe ii New form of society III Economic development a A Western invention b Aristocratic empires i Leaders wanted to squeeze subjects 1 Forced and oppressed for more productivity c Property rights i Needed rediscovering after fall of Rome i New institutions support private property d Agriculture i Cultivators pooled resources in small remote areas ii Domestication of farm animals living mobile engines iii Capital resource 1 Substituting man power and animal power with machines IV Political fragmentation a Constraints caused also by insecurity b Different viewpoints i Dream of the rise of Rome again ii Ruler designated by birth not elected Denton Asdourian 82910 Macroeconomics Chapter 1 Economics Foundations and Models I Microsoft Versus the US Congress on worker Visas A The number ofjobs requiring technical education and training continues to increase 1 US law restricts the number of foreign quotspecialty workers who may enter the United States under the ll1B visa program to just 65000 per year 2 Bill Gates chairman of Microsoft testified before Congress in 2008 that limiting the number of foreign technical workers allowed into the United States was resulting in a quotcritical shortage of scientific talent and hindering the ability of US firms to compete with foreign firms 3 He noted that foreign students make up more than half of enrollments in computer science programs at leading US universities B In 2009 Congress tightened rather than loosened restrictions on the immigration of technical workers to the United States 1 Congress put strict limits on the ability of banks and other firms receiving government aid to hire foreign workers 2 Economics provides us with tools to analyze many important questions including the economic effect of the immigration of skilled workers C We use economics to answer questions such as the following 1 How are the prices of goods and services determined 2 How does the pollution affect the economy and how should government policy deal with these effects 3 Why do firms engage in international trade and how do government policies affect international trade 4 Why Does government control the prices ofsome goods and services and what are the effects of those controls D Economists are always at work developing new methods to analyze economic issues E People must make choices as they try to attain their goals F People are rational people respond to incentives and optimal decision are made at the margin 1 Consider the three fundamental questions that any economy must answer What goods and services will be produced How will the goods and services be produced Who will receive the oods and services roduced r allquot Economic 1 Three Ke A People are rational 1 Economists assume that consumers and firms use all available information as they act to achieve their goals 2 The assumption of rational behavior is very useful in explaining most of the choices that people make B People respond to economic incentives 1 Human beings act from a variety ofmotives including religious belief envy and compassion 2 Economists emphasize that consumers and firms consistently respond to economic incentives C Optimal decisions are made at the margin 1 Some decisions are quotall or nothing 2 Economists use the word marginal to mean quotextraquot or quotadditionalquot 3 Economists reason that the optimal decision is to continue any activity up to the point where the marginal bene t equals the marginal costin symbols where ME MC a we Often apply this rule without consciously thinking about it III The Economic Problem That Every Society Must Solve A Because we live in a world of scarcity any society faces the economic problem that it has only a limited amount of economic resourcessuch as workers machines and raw materialsand so can produce only a limited amount of goods and services B Tradeoffs force society t fundamental questions 1 What goods and services will be produced 2 How will the goods and services be produced 3 Who will receive the goods and services produced 1 What goods and services will be produced a The answer to the question is determined by the choices that consumers firms and the government make b Consumers firms and the government face the problem of scarcity by trading off one good or service for another And each choice made comes with an opportunity cost measured by the value of the best alternative given up 2 How will the goods and services be produced a In many cases firms face a tradeoffbetween using more workers or using more machines 3 Who will receive the goods and services produced a An important policy question however is whether the government should intervene to make the distribution ofincome more equal b Such intervention already occurs in the United States because people with higher incomes pay a larger fraction of their incomes in taxes and because the government makes payments to people with low incomes C Centrally Planned Economies versus market economies 3 All the highincome democracies such as the United States Canada Japan and the countries of western Europe are market economies a Market economies rely primarily on privately owned firms to produce goods and services and to decide how to produce them b Markets rather than the government determine who receives the goods and services produced c In a market economy firms must produce goods and services that meet the wants of consumers or the firms will go out of business 4 In a market economy the income of an individual is determined by the payments he receives for what he has to sell D The mo 1 E Efficiency and Equity 1 Market Economies tend to be more efficient than centrally planned economies a There are two types of efficiency productive efficiency and allocative e cienc a Productive efficiency is achieved when competition among firms in markets forces the firms to produce oods and services at the lowest cost 53 l l v vi a Allocative efficiency is achieved when the combination of competition among firms and voluntary exchange between firms and consumers results in firms producing the miX of goods and services that consumers prefer most 4 Markets tend to be efficient because the romote competition and facilitate omote distribution of economic benefits than would result from an emphasis on efficiency alone 7 There is often a trade017 between e iciency and equity a Government policymakers often confront this trade off IV Economic Models A Economists rely on economic theories or models to analyze real world issues such as the economic effects ofimmigration 1 Economists use economic models to answer questions 2 To develop a model economists generally follow these steps 1 Decide on the assumptions to use in developing the model 2 Formulate a testable hypothesis 3 Use economic data to test the hypothesis 4 Revise the model ifit fails to explain well the economic data 5 Retain the revised model to help answer similar economic questions in the future B The role ofassumptions in economic models 1 Any model is based on making assumptions because models have to be simplified to be useful a We cannot analyze an economic issue unless we reduce its complexity C Formin and testin h 1 2 Economists accept and use an econom1c model 1f1t leads to hypotheses that are confirmed by statistical analysis D Normative and u ositive anal sis 1 w mam 3 Economics is about positive analysis which measures the costs and benefits of different courses ofaction E Economics as a social science 1 Because economics studies the actions of individuals it is a social science a As a social science economics considers human behaviorparticularly decisionmaking behavior in every context not just in the conteXt ofbusiness V Microeconomics and Macroeconomics A Economic models can be used to analyze decision making in many areas 1 We group some of these areas together as microeconoml39cs and others as macroeconomics macroeconomic aspect VI A preview of important economic terms Entrepreneur Someone who operates a business InventionInnovation An invention is the development of a new good or a new process for making a good An innovation is the practical application of an invention TechnoIogy A firm s technology is the processes it uses to produce goods and services Firm Company or Business An organization that produces a good or service Goods Tangible merchandise such as books or computers Services Activities don for others such as providing haircuts or investment advice Revenue A firm s revenue is the total amount received for selling a good or service It is calculated by multiplying the price per unit by the number of units sold Profit A firm s profit is the difference between its revenue and its costs HousehoId Consists of all persons occupying a home Factors ofproduction or economic resources Firms use factors of production to produce goods and services Capital The word capital can refer to nancz al capital or to physical capital Financial capital includes stocks and bonds issued by firms bank accounts and holdings ofmoney In economics capital refers to physical capital which includes manufactured goods that are used to produce other goods and services Human Capital Refers to the accumulated training and skills that workers possess VII Conclusion A The best way to think of economics is as a group ofuseful ideas about how individuals make choices 1 Economists have put these ideas into practice by developing economic models 2 Consumers business managers and government policymakers use these models ever day to help make choices 3 We explore many key economic models and give examples of how to apply them in the real world Denton Asdourian 091210 The Wealth and Poverty of Nations Outline Chapter 5 The Great Opening 0 In 1992 Columbus 500th anniversary of the discovery ofAmerica was suppose to be huge 0 But Columbs symbol of historical achievement turned out to be a political embarrassment o In Berkeley CA irreverent municipal enclave with its own foreign policy the City Council renamed Columbus Day Indigenous People s Day and offered two performances of an opera entitled Get Lost Again Columbus the work of a Native American composer named White Cloud Wolfhawk o In 1942 the indigenous peoples discovered Columbus 0 The Discovery of the New World by Europeans was not an accident 0 Europe now held a decisive advantage in the power to kill I It could deliver its weapons wherever ships could take them and thanks to new navigational techniques European ships could now go anywhere o Alaw of social and political relationships namely that three factors cannot coexist I 1 a marked disparity ofpower I 2 private access to the instruments ofpower I 3 equality of groups or nations 0 Imperialism the domination by one group of another I It is the expression ofa deep human drive 0 There are other finer sentiments the altruistic impulse ideals of solidarity the golden rule I But such noble ideals even when sanctioned and propagated by organized religion have been honored as much in the breach as in the observance 0 Europe after centuries of compression and victimization at the hands of invaders passed to the attack from the eleventh century on o The Crusades were a manifestation of this outward push I They were promoted in part as a way of sublimating internecine violence and turning it abroad I A bellicose society 0 The crusader invasion did not take 0 The Muslims expelled the intruders and have cherished that success ever since as a sign of divine judgment 0 But the war against the Muslims was going on in other places too most notably Spain I In this intermittent combat the Muslims were handicapped by their dependence on Berber soldiers brought over from North Africa mercenaries short on loyalty to the rulers who engaged them Against these stood Christian barons and bullies whom the Castilian monarch sent to war against the infidel In the end civilization succumbed and ferocity triumphed o Cordoba once the greatest center oflearning in Europe fell in 1236 o Seville the great economic metropolis of elAndalus in 1248 0 The emir made a deal to withdraw as Ferdinand s vassal to the tiny mountain stronghold of Granada which hung on b pursuing a strategy of timorous collaboration and systematic indifference to the fate of fellow Muslims in other parts 14901492 The Victors in this reconqul39sta were Portugal which liberated its territory from the Muslims by the mid14th century and Castile an expansionist frontier state of caballero pastoralists and roughnecks and soldiers of fortune for whom the great Moorish cities of the south were an irresistible target 0 After reconqul39sta the land had to be grabbed up and resettled estates bounded and exploited peasants set to work for their new lords And the Kingdom had to be Christianized for the Queen Isabella Even before the final expulsion of the Moor from the Iberian peninsula Portugal and Spain were moving on to probe and attack beyond the water 0 The first targets were islands in the Mediterranean and the shores of North Africa War was a way of legitimating its cause and celebrating its conquests The choice of targets was not random I They began with the closest places most accessible I Beyond these nearby victims lay an alluring array of distant OO temptations 0 Gold 0 Spices 0 Fabulous silks 0 ALL held ransom by Muslim traders Those were only the known treasures of the East things people could hold in their hands 0 Going west was the unknown I The west was the place of the blessed isles and all the hazards that realism and imagination could put together In the decades following their discovery however they represented a major addition to European space 0 The southern islands Madeiras and Canaries proved superbly suited to the cultivation of sugar cane destined to become Europe s greatest money crop 0 Sugar is powerfully addictive naturally pleasing to the palate and comforting to the human psyche I It cost a great deal at first and was limited to pharmaceutical uses I Spreading cultivation price fell to the point where sugar could be found at the grocer s 0 Sugar cane grows best in tropical or subtropical climes I It takes a lot of hard gang labor the sort of thing shunned I The Arab sugar industry ran on slave labor most of it brought from East Africa I Slavery had long since given way to serfdom in part because Christians were not suppose to be held as slaves in part because the supply ofpagan or infidel slaves was small and unreliable o Blacks to be sure might be seen as an exception 0 Portuguese had no qualms importing black slaves for domestic service or for labor in the cane fields of the coastal plain some 10 percent of the population of Lisbon in the midsixteenth century was apparently black 0 If Europeans were going to use black slaves for field work they wanted it done far away 0 The Atlantic islands were far away 0 Here was a tabula mm a laboratory for new social arrangements 0 Portuguese crown took a third or more of the gross in the form of license fees sugar contracts and taxes I These plantations then served as models for later even more profitable developments in the New World Caribbean history after the coming of the white man was in large part the replacement ofpeople by cattle followed by a repeopling with black slaves to work the sugar plantations o The process of depopulation was hastened by massacre barbarous cruelty deep despair o The natives committed suicide abstained from sex aborted their fetuses killed their babies Nothing like this would be seen again until the Nazi Iew hunts and killer dives of WWII o The ingredients of empire power greed and mission seasoned with credulity wrath and madness BLACK GOLD o The gold that found its way from somewhere in Africa to the Mediterranean coast held European merchants in thrall I Not only did the yellow metal cast an almost hypnotic lure the rate of exchange made these transactions extremely lucrative I The suppliers took pains to keep the source secret wise choice because the Christian infidels would kill and die for gold I The gold came from deep in the interior ofWest Africa upper reaches of the Niger o It had to pass from its source through the African kingdom Mali which controlled access to Timbuktu and the crossSahara camel routes and was the farthest quotup stream source known to the Mediterranean merchants I Here the bullion traders paid a heavy tribute to the local middlemen and the ruler known as the Mansa I Mali took the gold nuggets and left the dust to the traders I One Mansa by the name Musa went on pilgrimage to Mecca in 13 24 0 He stayed three months in Egypt and his visit was remembered for centuries He gave the Sultan 50000 dinars By the end of his stay the value of gold in Egypt had fallen by 1025 The Mansa commanded more devotion from his people than any ruler anywhere In the later 14th century when the Portuguese got down to the African quotgold coast and were able to penetrate Gambia the successors of Mansa Musa came to be seen as crude pretentious stereotypes Chapter 6 Eastward Ho 0 The Portuguese began by island hopping 0 Down the western coast ofAfrica aiming at an end run around the Muslims into the Indian Ocean 0 The first reaches were easy 0 Southing their sails swelled with the trade winds I But that meant trouble getting back to Lisbon I The Trouble began around Cape Bojador o Symbolic boundary between creation and chaos where struggling waters made the sea seem to boil 0 Portuguese pressed on voyage after voyage I At first they thought that no one lived along the arid coast but then they encountered a few natives took some prisoners learned of slavery saw new opportunities for profit 0 The South Atlantic is like no other ocean o On the African side it is not bordered by a convenient continental shelf currents and winds run against southing ships and the coastline is drearyarid o The earlier experience of the Portuguese in using the trade winds to ease their return home from the islands paid off but in a different direction 0 This added hundreds of leagues to the route and meant weeks even months out of sight ofland but the effect was to shorten the voyage and give them clear sailing around the point of Africa into friendlier seas o The Portuguese could do this because they had learned to find the latitude o In the 111 115th centuries Arab and Jewish astronomers there prepared convenient tables of solar declination for the use of navigators I Once on could find the latitude both at sea and on land one had the key to the oceans I The most important information that Bartolomeu Dias brought back from his voyage 1488 was the coordinate of the southern tip of Africa I Every trip was an experience an incentive to emendation 0 Ocean sailing further depended on instrumentation I The compass for direction the astrolabe and crossstaff for measuring altitudes of celestial bodies devices for sighting with back turned to the sun sand glasses for timing and estimating speed 0 Each trip built on the ones before I Each time they went a little farther each time they noted their latitude changed their maps and left a marker ofpresence The Portuguese push to the Indies is not understandable without taking account ofmen such as Vasco de Gama sailor and seaman from childhood man of hard head and hard measures 0 In July of1497 a small otilla of four ships under the command of Vasco da Gama set forth from Lisbon to follow on the aborted initiative of Bartolomeu Dias To da Gama s astonishment the merchants he encountered in India were Muslims and had no intention of trading with Christian infidels The little he did bring back was a prize ofwar I In is eagerness and desperation he attacked and captured a small Muslim vessel with a cargo of spices 0 Not a good precedent from that point on the Portuguese would rely on force to establish themselves in the Indian Ocean rather than on market competition 0 Much more important da Gama brought back news two kinds ofnews I 1 that Europeans were stronger than the natives 0 they had better ships and better guns I 2 that although he had not been able to trade spices aplenty were to be had for prices that promised huge profits It is well known that those who possess stronger arms can kill from a distance at no risk to themselves whereas those in a position of weakness must close and rely on personal valor and strength to gain a Victory 0 Europe could now plant itselfanywhere on the surface ofthe globe within reach of naval cannon The Portuguese went at their task with method 0 O O 0 Here were curiosity and appetite rationalized as in the instructions to Diogo Lopes de Sequeira in 1508 for the exploration of Madagascar I These systematic inquires went back in Portugal at least to 1425 beginning with the exploration of the Canaries I The Spanish did not adopt this methodical approach until the last quarter of the 16th century 0 Either they did not need it or it did not accord with their tradition and style 0 As for objectives the Spanish aimed at treasure the Portuguese aimed at profits from trade From 14051431 the Chinese undertook at least 7 naval expeditions to explore the waters of Indonesia and the Indian Ocean 0 These voyages aimed to show the Chinese ad bestow awareness and knowledge of the Celestial Kingdom on the barbarians receive homage and tribute and collect for the emperor those few rarities not available with his borders 0 The relationship of these voyages to trade is not entirely clear I The sorties were apparently intended to open the way to normal trade and merchants did come along to make their own deals In effect the Chinese people were paying for the profits of the officials who organized the treasure eets and promoted private trade so much indeed that the burden of these voyages came to exceed the empire s means 0 The ships were probably the largest vessels the world had seen I High multideck junks acted as oating camps each carrying hundreds of sailors and soldiers testimony to the advanced techniques of Chinese shipbuilding navigation and naval organization I The first of these eets that of the eunuch admiral Zheng He in 1405 consisted of317 vessels and carried 28000 men 0 From 14041407 China undertook and orgy of shipbuilding and refitting o In this way over a period of three years the Chinese built or refitted some 1681 ships 0 Medieval Europe could not have conceived of such an armada o The decision early 15th century to move the capital to Peking made things worse I The transportation bill alone moving the court from Nanking some eight hundred miles drove tax charges upward I From 143 6 requests for the assignment ofnew craftsmaen to the shipyards were refused while conversely foreigners asking for the renewal of customary gifts were turned down presumably for reasons of economy I By 1500 anyone who built a ship of more than two masts was liable to the death penalty 0 1525 coastal authorities were enjoined to destroy all oceangoing ships to arrest their owners 0 1551 it became a crime to go to sea on a multimasted ship even for trade 0 This deliberate introversion could not have come at a worse time for it not only disarmed them in the face of rising European power but set them against the lessons and novelties that European travelers would soon be bringing Chapter 7 From Discoveries to Empire New land invites action The rulers of Spain saw and held the prospect ofa great empire Even disappointment turned into attraction for it meant that the treasure was still to be found 0 Anything and everything was possible in those distant lands For a quarter of a century the Spanish sailed about the Caribbean touching the continents to south and north always disappointed not tot find the treasures that presumably lay just beyond the neXt landfall o Messengers went back to Spain with jewels and nuggets by way of inducing the crown to send back reinforcements animals and weapons Their folly Adam Smith describes this quotsacred thirst as quotperhaps the most disadvantageous lottery in the world Sailing along the coast onucatan in the second decade of the 16th century the Spanish encountered Indians like none seen before 0 These were dressed in cotton garments and lived in towns built of stone The Spanish learned ofa land somewhere to the west over the mountains where ruled a great king rich in ornament and glittering treasure I The ruler of this land had given orders to appease the Spanish with gifts in hope ofinducingthem to go away I This was a big mistake The leader of the decisive exploratory otilla was a man named Hernando Cort s a weakness for the most dangerous kind of woman another man s wife I Even so Cort s only begins the story 0 People matter but the Aztec empire collapsed for deeper reasons 0 The most important lay in the very nature of tributary empires which differ from kingdoms O O O and nations by their ethnic diversity and want of sympathetic cohesion I With the Aztecs alias the Mexica The Mexica were a small group a rough nomadic people come into the sedentary areas of the south from primitive desert lands to the north They found no welcome and ever served a time as slaves to a more civilized people on the shores of the great lake of the valley of Mexico 0 When the Aztecs broke free they ed into reechoked fastnesses and sheltered there until they grew in numbers and strength 0 When they came out originally because they needed drinkable water they conquered one people after another using a combination of art prowess and above all a terror that unstrung their adversaries and brought them to surrender before they were defeated I Human sacrifice for religious purposes was general to the area and re ected a belief that the sun god in particular needed human blood for nourishment Adult esh came primarily from capture in battle and the victim was presented and told to think of himselfas a hero in a noble cause The Aztec innovation was the work ofa member of the royal family Tlacallel kingmaker and adviser to a series of emperors 0 Where once the sacrifice touched a handful Tlacallel instituted blood orgies that lasted days and brought hundreds then thousands of victims to the stone their hearts ripped out while still beating their blood spattered and sprinkled on the idols Aztec ceremonies also created a supply problem 0 This was the device of the socalled ower wards where aristocratic collaborators from other nations watched behind ower screens as the Aztecs staged simulated war games and jousts designed to produce prisoners for sacrifice before the hidden eyes of their own chiefs Detested for its tyranny and riven with dissention the Aztecs were already in breakup when the Spanish arrived 0 Since so many local natives hated the Aztec ceremonies Cort s had no trouble finding allies who gave him valuable intelligence and precious help with his transport Cort s army also had superior weapons I Steel swords and daggers I While the Aztec used sticks and slings and obsidianspiked clubs By Aztec standards the Spanish did not fight fair they thrust at the body rather than at arms and legs I The Aztec response to these tactics was drastically weakened by uncertain wavering leadership 0 0 Chapter 8 Bittersweet Isles 0 Once the Spanish conquistadors found the mainland empires with their treasures and people they lost interest in the Caribbean 0 They needed food and found the local starch staple manioc noxious and inedible Grain cultivation never entered their mind the Indians were wanted for mining and the Spanish had not come to be farmers I So they imported food from Europe which was very expensive and brought in cattle to pasture where men had once hunted and fished To quote Chaunu quotSpanish colonization is premised on the Indian With the Arawaks wiped out and the Caribs unwilling what useless islands In retrospect the Spanish passion for gold was a big mistake I Columbus had understood 0 When he did not find the gold he had hoped for he wrote his sovereigns that these islands were made for sugar 0 The sugar leap from the AfricanAtlantic islands to the New World came not with the Spanish but with the Portuguese who early on planted cane in Brazil and the Dutch who served as merchants refiner and financiers of the Brazilian crop o The Dutch seized the northeast coast for some years 163043 0 This search turned them north to the nearest weak point in the enemy armor the Lesser Antilles The English initially saw these Caribbean islands as settler colonies like the east coast of the North America 0 Homesteaders came in number attracted by cheap and fertile land and grew tobacco indigo and cotton 0 O O 0 After them however came the sugar planters inspired Dutch example and even financed in part by Hollanders I No commercial crop paid more I And no commercial crop cost more The success of the sugar plantations was the ruin of the small middling tobacco and cotton farms Sugar work was uniquely demanding and disagreeable and too often the planters treated their servants like curs beating them until the blood ran The French followed close behind the English 0 They concentrated at first on Guadelope and Martinique 1635 I Which had not attracted the English because they were full of those nasty Caribs who sprang ambushes and used poisoned arrows I Unlike the Aztecs the Caribs tried to kill their adversaries o The Big French prize however was the western end of Hispaniola SaintDomingue I The eastern half remained Spanish I The island lends itself to this divisionL the two ends are separated by a high mountain barrier Over the years SaintDomingue had become a favorite hideout of freebooters and maroons runaway slaves o The French made allies of these troublemakers and with them simply took over that part of the island so the Spanish stayed far away SaintDomingue was the last of the great sugar isles to come into production and being last was the most fertile and profitable In 1790 the slaves of SaintDomingue encouraged by revolutionary doctrines from France rose in revolt and established the second new nation of the New World 0 The French tried to return and failed defeated more by disease than by bullets The sugar planters wanted to hire white men but white men that is free man would not do such work 0 Atleast not at wages that the planter could afford to pay 0 The answer to labor needs in the islands as on the mainland was to bring in African slaves on vessels I By the tens of thousands 0 Estimates have grown over the years by way of aggravating the crime but it is not unreasonable to speak ofsome 10 million over the course of 3 centuries 0 Only commercial interest protected the slaves the trader did not want to lose valuable stock 0 O


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