LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS
LATIN AMERICAN POLITICS POSC 350
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Date Created: 09/26/15
CONTEMPORARY ARGENTINE POLITICS I Basic Political Institutions II The Rise amp Fall of Alfonsr39n 1983 1989 Building Democracy amial M any Pressures III Carlos Menem 1989 1999 Peronism Rede ned IV The Alliance amp De la Rua 1999 2003 From Crisis to Collapse V Nestor amp Cristina Kirchner 2003 present The Return of H yperpresialentialism VI Market Capitalism V State Capitalism I Basic Political Institutions System after the 1994 reform I EXECUTIVE 7 4year presidential terms w possibility of l immediate reelection 7 ballotage election gtgt 1st Round need 45 ofvote or 40 amp a 10point lead gtgt 2nd Round top 2 candidates in majority runoff 7 powers gtgt veto 2 3 to override amp partial veto reviewed by LEG gtgt decrees of necessity amp urgency LEG can countermand but needs to override veto a 2006 reform made these degrees effective indefinitely unless Congress countermands them in both chambers gtgt can name amp remove all ministers except cabinet chief I LEGISLATURE lower house Chamber ofDeputies gtgt representation of provinces by population gtgt 4year terms w half elected every 2 years gtgt closedlist PR elections gtgt new ability to call a referendum that cannot be vetoed upper house Senate gtgt 3 per province gtgt 6year terms w third elected every 2 years gtgt change from indirect election by provincial legislatures to majorityminority system I 2 seats to plurality party 1 seat to runnerup old 2party dominance in doubt since the decline of the UCR from mid1990s forward I JUDICIARY Supreme Court packed by Menem in 1990 gtgt ofjustices increased from 5 to 9 gtgt Peronist majority in Senate guaranteed their confirmation 1994 lessened PRES influence overjudiciary gtgt confirmation now requires 23 of Senate I new electoral rules mean that president s party must hold a plurality in every province to elect 23 of Senate gtgt new Council of the Magistrates appoints amp supervises all lower court judges in 2006 Nestor Kirchner got Congress to ensure a progov t majority on this Council II The Rise amp Fall of Raul Alfonsin 198389 l A 1st majority Victory over Peronism based on platform of human rights no ties to military V Peronist unions links no more economic austerity I B Human Rights policy successfully prosecuted high command gtgt But judges and prosecutors then opened trials of other of cers against the administration s plans 3 military uprisings brought a halt to the proceedings gtgt Alfonsin backed Full Stop amp Due Obedience laws to end most other trials I C Economic Policy WRONGLY assumed that DEMOCRACY would bring DEBT leverage gtgt concessionary int l credit did not come gtgt Peronist unions attacked austerity gtgt business fought for subsidies amp tariffs I D 1989 collapse no more money in Treasury in ation over 100month by May elections Carlos Menem handily defeats Radical Party opponent Eduardo Angeloz III Carlos Menem amp the Redef39mition of Peronism 198999 I A A traditional populist campaign followed by early inauguration 7889 amid hyperin ation of close to 200 in June I B The Swift U Tum to the Market cut deficits privatize cut tariffs amp subsidies 1991 convertibility law to protect currency and scal balance led by new Economic Minister Domingo Cavallo I C Controversy regarding liberty Pardoned the high command amp stopped trials Riddled with corruption scandals esp during rst term III Menem cont I D Successes growth during 199194 recovery lower in ation 919395 elections won by Peronists I E Problems wages stagnant some poorly done privatizations unemployment rate reaches record high lost 1997 legislative elections amp lowerhouse majority de cits and borrowing on the upswing in 2quotd term pursuit of a 3rd term lost him support at home amp abroad IV Crisis to Collapse 19992003 I A Fernando de la Rl39la wins presidency 7 Radicals amp FREPASO not always in agreement 7 inherits a rising budget de cit declining economic growth and a divided legislature 7 Brazil devalues its real over 30 against the dollar during 1999 amp another 25 during 2001 this doubles the cost of Argentine exports to its largest trading partner w whom it had run a surplus in the 1990s I B The Economy Unravels and so does the government 7 October 2000 Chacho Alvarez resigns as VP protesting corruption 7 by August 2001 Argentina has the world s largest debttoeXports ratio amp pays the highest interest rates for debt nancing Cavallo reaches IMF agreement contingent on zero de cit policy 7 October 2001 the Alliance does poorly in midterm elections 7 113001 there is a run on the banks 2b is withdrawn 7 12101 Cavallo imposes withdrawal restrictions on bank deposits these anger depositors and paralyze economic activity further 7 12601 the IMF withholds the next 13b ofloan agreed to in Aug 2001 7 1219 amp 1220 looting amp protests lead to De la Rua s resignation IVC Uncharted Waters l Adolfo Rodriguez Saa December 2001 7 Peronists cannot agree on a common choice for president Rodriguez Saa named interim president until March 2002 elections 7 122401 he gives an oldschool Peronist inauguration speech says with smiling vigor that Argentina will suspend debt payments 7 1230 01 faced w street protests against cabinet appointees he resigns after failing to convince Peronist leaders to allow him to remain through 2003 Eduardo Duhalde 2002 2003 7 all 3 major parties choose him to serve out De la Rua s term rivals molli ed by his pledge not to run in 2003 7 Devalues the peso to stimulate exports falls faster than hoped 7 from 11 to 141 to 41 by 502 7 Duhalde cannot get IMF to agree on bailout amid strife with Menem the Supreme Court bank depositors and creditors Amid the turmoil amp shaky banks the economy shrinks by over 10 in the rst half of 2002 7 after two piqueteros die in July Duhalde calls new presidential elections for March 2003 instead of October 2003 as planned in late August 2002 opinion polls the legitimacy crisis is palpable 7 2quotd economic minister s stay the course plan restores growth by late 2002 Roberto Lavagna stays economic minister for the lSt 2 years of Kirchner s term VA N stor Kirchner 2003 2007 I Peronist governor supported by Duhalde in his effort to block Menem s election I Presumed weak N Kirchner takes the initiative 7 Begins with tough talk about neglected subjects gtgt Reverses existing limits on human rights trials about the Dirty War gtgt Impeaches the Menem appointees on the Supreme Court gtgt The government cancels a few troubled privatizations gtgt Takes a rm stance in negotiating an exit from the debt default gtgt Follows Brazil s lead in 2006 by paying off all existing debts to the IMF I This frees the government up from IMF conditionality clauses 7 Rides a sustained commodity amp tourism boom gtgt Uses large budget surplus to extend social spending gtgt Also manages that spending to reward friends amp to punish critics 7 Establishes new powers during 20052006 gtgt Supports new candidates for govemorships to in uence future PR lists gtgt Breaks w Duhalde in mid2005 to establish his own legislative base gtgt Gets new legislature to expand presidential authority in 2006 I Revisions to Council of Magistrates amp executive degree power I Gets unprecedented indefinite delegation of budget to the presidency