Cultural Anthro Chapter 3
Cultural Anthro Chapter 3 0780
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Date Created: 09/22/14
Cultural Anthropology CH 3 GLOBALIZATION NEOLIBERALISM AND THE NATIONSTATE 1 Intro a Idea of globalization increased productionsale of things like the tshirts a helped create jobs for people in poor countries and b provided cheap prices for consumers b American society take for granted that having more is better and that it39s natural for people to want materialistic things we are quotliterally consuming our planet and ourselves to death c 5 questions to explain humans consuming habits i How do we define happiness and wellbeing How did this happen and what are the consequences ii Where does the growth of goodsservices that is required to achieve this quotdream life come from What has made the modern market economies so successful at maintaining economic growth What is the role of the nationstate and how does it help the economy39s growth v Why do economies occasionally collapse 2 Question 31 How do we define happiness and wellbeing a b c Each culture has its own material symbol or activity that represents what is necessary for happiness and well being i Contemporary society money and wealth because it defines relationships at work amp home Coastal Malay villages money represents commercial fishing so presence in house is threatens the bonds of kinshipfriendship with relatives i For our economy to work we need to depend more on getting what we need from the market as opposed to our familyfriends ii We are so dependent on buying goods from the market in order to survive food drink clothing shelter and other services Brief history of money Money is a medium of exchange i Commodity Money the object had some value in its nature and could be used for something else ex Silver could be used to make jewelry ii China first used paper money in the 12quot century 1 Important bc paper money meant that the quotamount of money that could be created was theoretically unlimited 2 In reality it was limited bc most woudn t accept it unless it was backed in a precious metal To stabilize new use of paper money the US gov t created the Federal Reserve Bank in order to regulate money supply and amount of gold banks had to keep on hand to meet demand 1931 ppl could no longer convert their paper money into gold v 1971 currency no longer backed by precious metals Fiat Credit Money paper that was quotused as evidence of a claim to economic value but that legally was not redeemable for anything created by loans 1 Bills and coins actually make up only a small part 510 of money supply rest exists as numbers in records of banks 2 Important consequence of debt money every debt dollar spent must be repaid interest 3 This creates the need for perpetual economic growth if money lenders are to collect their interest money owned 4 If unable to repay debt economic growth starts to decline if this continues economy will collapse d Society of Perpetual Growth i Gross Domestic Product GDP a measure of national we being the total of goods and services consumed and sold each year ii Healthy economies grow gt3yr without inflation so if economy decreases for 6 months or more country enters a recession iii Cannot keep printingloaning money to keep money supply growing supply of material to buy must increase iv Inflation supply of money increases faster than materials available thus value of money decreases 3 Question 32 Where does the wealth needed to sustain growth come from a Capital Conversion convert a resource natural the arts etc in something that can be sold on the market i Economy will grow more if people have to pay for more things ii Ironically problems divorce oil spill illness disaster actually help economic growth while sharing things hinders economic growth since no spent money iii The extremes society in which everything is sold on the market and society in which most everything is kept off the market iv quotgenius of modern market economy 95 turn natural forestswater political access to intogov t social social networkscommunity functions capital into money see fig 33 pg 96 into money 1 Water only 10 of water supply goes to houses around the world Good for GDP bad for people 2 Political Capital our freedom to regulate our lives and our access to leadersdecision makers in our society a Corporations accountable to their shareholders are now in charge of planning functions instead of gov t accountable to all citizens 3 Social Capital connections among people that result in social networks reciprocity and trust a Found in solidarities people working for the common good b Robert Putnam Decline of social capital because recent generations less involved time amp money pressures of dual income families increase of suburban sprawl no central community c Nowadays we convert social capital into economic capital v Wealthier a country grows harder it is to maintain that level of economic growth 4 Question 33 What kind of economic system is necessary to sustain growth a quotThe Great Transformation aka Industrial Revolution i Adam Smith utopian market perfect system for which in the quest for wealth people will make things in demand for the common good ii iii iv However with an unregulated market resulted in horrible working conditions damage to natural environment and economic fluctuations that put people in poverty Late 19 century America era of monopolies like Rockefeller and Carnegie which resulted in more gov t involvement to regulate market 1 Keynes supported policy of using gov t to regulate economy through spending tax policies and interest rates Neoliberalism economic philosophy stating that there should be minimal gov t involvement in the economy as this would allow individual entrepreneurs to function better due to property right free markettrade opposite of Keynesian policies similar to globalization 1 Mont Pelerin Society a Liberal bc adhered to idea of freedom b quotneo bc adhered to neoclassical economic theory opposed to gov t involvement in economy 2 Support privatization reducing influence of unions and removing any restrictions on business b Market Externalization i ii Less gov t involvement means externalizing cost of production distribution consumption disposal of goods 1 When buy car don t have to pay for pollution Automobile essential to US economy sticker price is not full price people end up paying 1 Costs to use it gas insurance interest payments maintenance 2 Auto accidents medical bills property damage legal services 3 Widens economic class gap less money more taken out of income to go to auto 4 Influence obesity in Americans also harsh chemicals quotoffgassing more auto accidents as more people on the road 5 Question 34 What is the role of the nationstate in sustaining growth a Nationstate helps in enacting different policies to ensure the profit of domestic producerssellers b c i Cotton industry helps cotton farmersconsumers but hurts 3quotquot World countries they can39t compete w US farmers bc gov ts can39t afford to pay workers like US can 1 Now illegal for US gov t to pay subsidies to cotton farmers Free Trade usually associated with globalization means that there are no restrictions on internationa trade of goods i ii iii i The WTO get agreements between nations to remove any restrictions on trade like taxes tariffs subsidies to domestic companies laborenvironmental laws Not everyone gains from free trade ex neoliberals argue that economic growth should take priority over a clean environment in a way this turns a clean environment into a commodity But it does create more jobs in developing countries Avoiding democratic decision making How do gov ts protectmake everyone happy 3 strategies 1 Talk the talk about social political environmental concerns but don t walk the walk 2 Assign regulatory power to another unelected global organization like the WTO 3 Allow corporationsmass media distort current events to appease public fearsdemands d The use of force i Necessary to protect economy39s access to resources to open countries to the sale of goods to suppress any protests that may result in violence ii Neoliberalism fuels dissent bc supports bad conditions for the sake of economic stability 6 Question 35 Why do economies collapse a Study economic crisis of Dutch in 1636 to learn more about economic crisis in American b 20072008 i Dutch wanted to make money with money invested in new capital intensive technologies ii Made money financing the public debt sold bonds to people that paid them with interest iii Sold stock for the United or Dutch East Indian Company iv However not all investments were profitable 1 Tulips people started betting on the future price of bulbs 2 Paid in down payments and then paid the rest upon delivery 3 Prices offered began to decline so investors faced economic ruin while sellers lost large sums of moneygoods Housing Bubble of 2007 i Economy must grow at least 3 each year harder for economic growth as country grows wealthier ii Wall Street and other sectors of the economy needed to find new ways to make money each year iii Prices need to keep rising ex Interest of a loan in order for economy to grow 1 As long as house prices kept rising economy could keep growing iv Economic crisis a result of perpetual need for economic growth and return on capital 7 Case Study 3 Anthropology and Public Policy a b Market Externalities costs or benefits that are not included in the sticker price of a good Can include environmental social or political consequences of market transactions Market externalities of quotHog Hotels i Hog hotel large factory pig farm ii Represent industrialized agriculture usually owned by a corporation 1 Minimize cost while maximize profit 2 Bad for local community environment employment iii Hog Hotels create environmental social and political issues
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