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Date Created: 09/26/15
TAKluG STRATIGRAPHY In THE FALL 7 Get your FIELD EQUIPMENT early Don39t wait until the last minute If you wait until fall or the end of summer there will not be enough time to order and receive your required equipment for the field trip on the first Saturday See inside here for a list of things you need The geology Club can order most of them for you Or you can order them yourself from catalogues GETTING READY SEE INSIDE 2 Preparation for Stratigraphy 2 Getting Ready to Take GEOLOGY 364 STRATIGRAPHY AND BASIN ANALYSIS LABORATORY SCHEDULE In the class schedule the laboratory is listed as TBA The lab consists of seven full day Saturday eld trips We are out the rst four Saturdays in a row beginning with the very rst Saturday of the semester There is then a weekend off before the fth trip The last two trips will be scheduled later but if we are lucky before the weather gets lousy REQUIRED FIELD EQUIPMENT E Prepared get m required eld equipment before the rst eld trip next fall If you wait until you return you will not have enough time You need the first 6 items below for the rst Saturday of the semester for the rst eld trip The rest of the eld equipment 7 9 is necessary by the third weekend of the semester Hammers acid bottles and hand lenses may be ordered through online stores Search Google geology equipment and you will nd lots of places 1 Rock hammer 5 Field boots and eld 7 Drafting equipment ruler clothes drawing triangle 2 Hand lens 10 power protractor trig calculator 6 Field notebook ideally a 3 Texture scale buy one SUIVCYOI39S bOOk With a hard 8 Jacobs Staff purchase back sewn binding and water proof paper but any book which will t into your back borrow or make one instructions for making a from bookstore or make one with attached instructions pocket and take a beating will Jacobs Staff attached do 4 Acid bottle 9 Clipboard get the kind with a compartment for holding W PREPARATION FOR FIRST FIELD TRIP On the morning of the rst eld trip on the rst Saturday of the semester you will have to reproduce for me from memory and in complete detail the stratigraphic section of the Shenandoah Valley copy attached You will not have to reproduce either thicknesses or descriptions If you don t get it correct the rst time you get to try again as many times as necessary until it is correctly done Geology 3 64 Stratigraphy and Basin Analysis Lynn S Fichter Drawing on the Right Eide of the Brain LEARNING How TO OBSERVE ACCURATELY AND PRECISELY fyou can not draw it you can39t see it Ezlmfyfyou can not see it you can39t id ntgfy it Ezlmfyou can not id ntgfy it you can39t intevjaret it Ezlnofyou can not integaret it you can39tget a goocfgrad Introduction At every outcrop we visit on the eld trips we need to make observations and record those observations both visually and verbally The process must become second nature to you con dence inyour drawing ability has to be high enough that you just automatically look for the salient features in an outcrop or rock and make an accurate sketch of them So beg borrow or buy a copy of this book Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain by Betty Edwards It is avery successful and popular book available in most any book store or inyour public library Conversely as soon as strat for this fall shows up on Blackboard I will put up a photocopy excerpt Do the rst three exercises Vase Faces 1 Vase Faces 2 and Upside Down Drawing Drawings need to do two things well First be a facsimile of the rock or outcrop The drawing should look like the rocks so a stranger would instantly recognize the outcrop from the drawing Second the important geological features must be clear and obvious since that is what we make interpretation from Conversely however we cannot spend hours drawing a rock or outcrop Every rock contains noise weathering metamorphic overpr39inting vegetation or some other process that serves to mask the essential information in the rock Given a choice we default to capturing the information and leaving out the noise Of course one person s noise is another person s information Since we are interested in stratigraphy and structure and petrology most of what is out there is information for us Preparation for Stratigraphy 4 PREREQUISITE KNOWLEDGE ll Geology 364 Stratigraphy And Basin Analysis James Madison University All of you have had courses in physical and historical geology before coming to this class Much that you have learned in those classes is a necessary prerequisite to the learning that is to take place in this class It is assumed knowledge and much that we will do will be based on it This does not mean we will not review some of this knowledge but if you come to class having reviewed these concepts and knowledge beforehand it will go a lot smoother Below is a listing of these concepts models and terms most or all of which you are expected to know either by de nition description explanation or illustration If any are unfamiliar review your physical and geology lecture notes andlab manuals and textbooks for forgotten material And of course the rock and fossil collections are available for you to review Rock Identification and Interpretation The ternary classi cation of siliciclastic rocks including both texture and QFL diagrams Sediment Maturity and the means of measuring it The Folk system of carbonate classi cation Remember the clastic rock trays in Geology 2307 Ifyou cannotgo through them and identi each specimen from the ternaiy diagram classification with a high degree ofcon dence then you need to review them before the rst field trip I will assumeyou can distinguish a lithic arenite from a subarkose and an oomicrite from dolomite and a red lithic wacke from a red subarkose You know where the trays are Likewiseyou should be able to identi the rocks in the carbonate trays using the Folk system The processes by and steps through which sediments evolve from sourcelands to basins of deposition Basic Igneous Rock Classi cation Basic 39 39 39 Rock concepts and 39 T including ltgt Metamorphic facies ltgt Greenschist facies and rocks ltgt Metamorphic zones ltgt Amphibolite facies and rocks Deposulonal Enwronments Systems The concepts of Sourcelands and Basins of Deposition Clastic and carbonate dominated systems their environments and typical rock types in each environment Short and long depositional systems the environmental sequences typical of each and typical plate tectonic basins in which each forms Dipfed environmental systems identify speci c examples Strikefed environmental systems identify speci c examples Preparation for Stratigraphy 5 Flow Regimes and Sedimentary Structures Describe what ow regime is Recognize describe andor identigl typical quot y structures such as ltgt Ripples various kinds ltgt Load structure ltgt Cross laminations and beds ltgt Ball and pillow structure ltgt Plane bed ltgt Herringbone ltgt Flute marks ltgt etc Sketch or recognize a strip log of each of these sequences and know the environments they are typical of ltgt Bouma ltgt Hummocky ltgt Point Bar ltgt L B arTBar Fossil ldentifica tion Remember the fossils from historical geology If you cannot go through the collection and identify each specimen with a high degree of con dence thenyou need to review You know where they trays are your teXt book or lab manual will help Basic Structural Geology Describe illustrate or recognize each of the following You should also know the plate tectonic each 39 quot forms in ltgt Joints ltgt Thrust faults ltgt Normal faults ltgt Strikeslip faults ltgt Horsts ltgt Transform faults ltgt Grabens ltgt Reverse faults Plate Tectonic Concepts CI Back arc basin CI Divergent boundary CI Ocean basin CI Collision orogeny CI Divergent continental CI Plate CI Continent margin CI Remnant ocean basin CI Convergent boundary CI Island arc CI Terrane CI Cordilleran orogeny CI Magmatic arc CI Transform fault CI Craton CI Microcontinent CI Volcanic arc De ne or describe the Wilson Cycle For each stage in a Wilson Cycle predict andor describe the following ltgt Short or long systems ltgt Sediment location on a QFL ltgt Typical environments present Models of the igneous sedimentary metamorphic and structural processes occurring in the following tectonic situations ltgt Rift margins ltgt Subduction plate boundaries volcanic arcs and Cordilleran arcs ltgt Arccontinent and continentcontinent collision orogenies Preparation for Stratigraphy 6 Terms and concepts such as ltgt Allochthons ltgt Hinterland ltgt Paired metamorphic belts ltgt Backarc marginal basin ltgt Melange belt ltgt Remnant ocean basin ltgt Foreland ltgt Molasse ltgt Subduction zone ltgt Foreland basin ltgt Obduction ltgt Suture zone ltgt Flysch ltgt Oceanic crust ltgt Volcanic front Stratigraphic Principles The two Facies concepts Principles of lithologic and biostratigraphic correlation with facies changes and pinchouts Concept of time transgressive rock units Modern Stratigraphic Concepts De ne recognize andor distinguish among ltgt Time Units Era Period Epoch Age ltgt TimeRock Units System Series Stage ltgt Rock Units Group Formation Member ltgt Including examples or lucid descriptions of each Diastems what they are and how we know they eXist Unconformities 3 types what they mean and how they are recognized Uniformitarianism and Episodism their philosophy and practical applications Geologic History Reproduce the geologic time scale Epicontinental epiric seas Sequences Sauk Tippecanoe Kaskaskia Absaroka Zuni Tejas Appalachian orogenies and the mechanisms for each Taconic Acadian Alleghenian Ouachita Appalachian clastic wedges Catskill and Queenston Cordilleran orogenies and the mechanisms of each Antler Sonoma Nevadian SeVier Laramide Cascade Shenandoah V Preparation for Stratigraphy 7 Stratigraphy of the Central and Northern and Eastern West ltE mm dnmlnnrad ooll39 es blospnmasl C a1m M m 3 Palm Burienuanm red g l A 2 g m i g E a a CI 1 E E g E 3 m 3 2 7 u m m umkgmymmuzkmunnunmnnls m gt 0 lt6 0 a1lt g 0 ga a Q lt lt 3 Cnrlmnnle mm kmds snmaumas m quotHumanquot hangar mrarmdad wimshnla m nunm Gnnur aremes ml very mum Orogenic Calm Bmmsau Elonmsbwg rad very ne snndsxllnxhnlu MASSA numn Silurian JUHIATA East Coast MARTINSBURE TIPPECANOE ChopawamsiCArvonia Terra ne collldes wlth 42 7 Elm mnsswu quotBLAEK RIVER 600 Cnrhnnnluhummmky murwmndsmla GR sequamas quotPquot Ordovician Dlvergent Continental Margin SAUK Cambrian m E 6 co 5 24 c2 gt Preparation for Stratigraphy 8 SHORT GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF VIRGINIA 3 lt m ge39S39Igni eantt 39 isequefn39 oflEv irite D criptio 5 f of Etient AIlitmal and Coastal I laIII Sediments REJUVENATION sion again ieadrngto formation of the pres ges and water gaps Gentle uplift of the eroded roots oftlie Alleghenian mountains El lt starts ero mountains with their long CtNezoIc 7D Chesepeet Group Pemnht Group ATLANTIC DIVERGENT CONTINENTAL MARGIN After the rifting the new continental maigin sinks below sea level and accumulates an eastward thickening wed e of continuing until the present day Virginia erodes leve and the sea may at times ave sediments cornpleteiy down to sea covered Inost or all of Virginia Present sea level Is low Oswegn Mamnsburg In I LIIIceinshIre 4 Potomac omup W C D mm l lmfmml The supercontinent Pangaea rifts apart alonga zone now 3 Newark Gmup P Ma R located off the Virginia coast Culpepper Richmond C4 v N v p P v Farmviiie etc basins form sAfn39ca moves away the present 39 Nanh A melnca V vi 4 Ai nrtar Atlantic ocean begins to open and continues to the present Himquot ALLEGHENIAN ORQEENY Africa which rifted away in the Cambrian returns closing shut M s 39 WWW 39r the Protoatlantic ocean and creating the supercontinent 2 Wm Pangaea A Himalaya size mountain range exrsrs throughout Du m Vr ginra ept thefar southwe t ta i Z Gladmng orogeny most older rock rnra are folded and thrust z faulted toward the west C amps form in southwest 52 L V 39nia and spread across most ofthe eastern United States as J Princeton After the Acadlan mountains are eroded a large Inland sea HIIIK II spreads from eastern West Virginia across most of eastern w Bruegel ortiAmerica and lls with limestone sediments containing g G Eenbm abundant fossils Mecieay 7345 PV EE39PMDW A second terrane Avalon collides with eastern North America Z HRV39WWE building a mountain range In the piedmont area containing 3 menial Dav Richmond A laige basin sinks in western Vilginia and WVa g Braliter and lls with a thick sequence of gray green and red sediments a Mliibm now exposed in Shenandoah mountain at the western state line D Neeeimme ska 395 Hememmg INTEROROGENIC CALM After the Taconrc mountains are eroded to a very low region mum wmraiAnpab an aw i the Central Appalachian Basin In western V nra and WVa Z Binumsbuw PM gl s f I It II and lrrnestone deposition Desert 1 Keeier N A 7 conditions across all ea tern North America lead to salt g RoseHIii I or 3 g i gig deposition in the basin luscamra l l a l a a l 7435 passermuen TACONIC OROQENY A volcanic island antenna the ChopawamsicArvonia time a t AF We go In thewestern Piedmont deep basin forms in the Shenandoah valley area and a second basin in WVa which lls with sediments from the mountain collides with southwest Virginia and southeast Pennsylvania creating a mountain ran 39 regi n A New Market Eeehrtiaritown sinnehenge PROTOATLANTIC DIVERGENT CONTINENTAL MARGIN ProtuatIantI Ocean As the Protoatlantic ocean basin opens the new continental margin sinks below sea level and an east thickening wedge of sediments is deposited Climate was tropical and the sediment mos ly tidal flat limestones dolomites Rocks now exposed throughoutth Shenandoah valley l l UV s U D LAMBKIAN 8 Ohnoyi IAN Lynchburg Caloctln Robertson Rwer RIFTING Opening cl Vr0oaialtlc Octen EM R7199 AXIai Ri A t C The rifting of the Grenville supercontinent and the opening of the Protoatlantic ocean The continental edge at this time ran down xis o e present day Blue Ridge province and Virginia lay south of the equator in a tropical climate F PREe V CAMBRIA Old Ra Loungston Pediar L e GRENVILLE OROGENY The immune rocks may represent many geologic events but the l2 billion year event closed an ocean basin and suture orth America and Africa together Remainstoday In the Blue Ridge province as metamorphosed granite bathoiiths LS lquotChEl l99l i997i gt lNFORMATlON THEORY AND THE QUAuW or GEOLOGlCAL REAsouiNc A quantitative model in geology is no better than the foundation of geological reasoning on Which it is erected and a numerical measurement is no better than the method used to obtain it Proposition The measured stratigraphic section is the basis of historical geology and provides the raw material for the reconstruction of past environments db The interpretations made are only as good as the observations made and interpreted Schwarzacherl has applied concepts of information Theory to studies of the stratigraphic record These concepts can be very useful in understanding why and how we gather geologic data and what we are able to do with it One oly ect of this course is to sophisticate your geological reasoning and to develop your data gathering skills Schwarzacher has made it very easy to understand Where the weaknesses in this system are by applying concepts of information Theory based on the Transmission Model T Walther Schwarzacher l975 Sedimentation Models and Quantitative Stratigraphy QE57T 38 WPLSE364LECTURESiNEOTHRY iNEOR THEORY AND QUALiTY OE GEOL OBSERVATiON 2 THE GENERAL TRANSMiSSiON MODEL it we tnink of tnis rnodei in terrns of Morse code it is reiativeiy easy to understand Because we do tne encoding transrnitting reception and decoding tne messages are usuaiiy cornpiete ciean and easy to understand But it is easy for noise to siip into tne systern resuiting in a ioss of information Q We don t get tne tuii rnessage We iose understanding WPLSF364LECTURESiNFOTHRY iNFOR THEORY AND QUALiTY OF GEOL OBSERVATiON 3 THE GEOLOGiCAL TRANSMiSSiON MODEL Tne Generai Transmission Modei can be converted into a geoiogicai modei as snown on tne overnead Tne correspondences between tne two modei are pretty straignt forward But wnat we are interested in are tne sources of noise in tne geoiogic information since tne amount of noise determines now weii we can interpret tne past Encoding Noise Recording Errors Tne response is not unique to tne process producing it i For exampie Sunsnine 7 Snaie 7 simpie interpretation Rain 7 Sand 7 simpie interpretation RainSnine 7 Siit 7 message confusingi 2 Or ambiguous coior indicators db Biack snaies can be produced in a number of environments swamps iagoons deep water db But none of tnese can be interpreted from tne coior aione wnianust means anoxic 3 Rapid Environmentai Fiuctuations wnere environmentai processes cnange faster tnan tney can be recorded Transmission Noise Aiteration of originai sedimentoiogic data Litnification Metamorpnism Deformation WW WPLSF364LECTURESiNFOTHRY iNFOR THEORY AND QUALiTY OF GEOL OBSERVATiON 4 4 Pressure soiution 5i Weathering Reception Noise Type I Errors2 The point at which human observation enters i i Poor Observation 2 Poor recording of intorrnation Decoding Noise Type II Errors3 interpreting the right facts in an iiiogicai rnanner or in a iogicai manner from the wrong assumptions The point at which human interpretation enters Lack of understanding of geoiogicai processes Lack of understanding of modern environrnents Lack of anaiyticai technigue ignorance Stupidity wewme in generai it has been true that the guaiity of geoiogicai interpretation has increased with tirne 3 Sorne of this is due to accurnuiating experience 3 Sorne is due to more refined observationai technigues But none of it is any good it the individuai scientist isn t any good 2 From Wiiey Phyiogenetics p MS 3 From Wiiey Phyiogenetics p ii3 WPLSF364LECTURESlNFOTHRY lNFOR THEORY AND QUALlTY OF GEOL OBSERVATlON 5 THE STATE or GEOLOGY THE THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Plate TeCtOhiCs was a revolutiOh ih geology db To a large exteht all the rapid Chahges geology has beeh Uhdergoihg ih the past several decades is a direct result of this paradigm shift db it presehted a lot of puzzles to solve db Was accompahied by ah ehorrhous expahsiOh of ahalytioal teohhidues There have beeh humerous smaller revolutiOhs ih each of the subdisoiplihes resultihg ih totally hevv ways of lookihg at the earthy Descriptive db Process db Neotectonics and Geomorphology Geomorphology geomorphology Soft rook geology has beeh Uhdergoihg egually sighificaht Chahges db Whole field has beeh trahsforrhed db Most of what you will learh did hot exist T5720 years ago TraditiOhally soft rock geology COhsisted of 3 Stratigraphy db SedimehtatiOh db Sedimehtary petrology lh the past these were taught ihdepehdehtly as ehds ih themselves db it was hot always clear what to do With the ihforrhatiOh For example graih size ahalysis db Eveh less clear how these ihdividual suby ects vvere COhheCted WPLSF364LECTURESiNFOTHRY iNFOR THEORY AND QUALiTY OF GEOL OBSERVATiON 6 Today these suby eots are hot iOhger ehds ih therhseives db They have beeomey ust toois to ohderstahd iarger rhore ehoorhpassihg theories db Thus there exists a hierarchy of theories ih the modem paradigm The most ehoorhpassihg is teCtOhiCs m Nothing in geology makes sense except in terms of tectonics