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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Chaz Walter on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 364 at James Madison University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/214119/geol-364-james-madison-university in Geology at James Madison University.
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What is Karma?
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Thomas Kuhn and The Structure of Scientific Revolutions The impiications of the story so far is that science makes steady progress w That the process of science cycies round and round from induction to Deduction i i i w Adding fact on fact and accumuiating true knowiedgei But in practice it does not work that way w This is because of the aw of induction You can only see What you are looking for w Each cycie reinforces the theory at hand w The theory iooms iarger and iarger guiding expectations and observations w Soon the theory has a iife of its own i i i w And individuai scientists who have spent years studying under the theory have a vested interest in it But no matter how weii yested the theory is or how much it seems to expiain it is stiii based on induction and deduction i i i which are awed as the To and Pro modei makes ciear w And the more scientists have invested in the theory the more biased they are WPLsF364LEcTuREskuHN STRUCTURE or SCiENTiFiC REVOLUTiONS a 2 One of the great discoveries of sciehce was a way to break out of this ioopi w Getting caught in a ioop has been the piague ot aii beiiet systems ieadihg to more and more dogma w it is true that sometimes extraordihary ihdiyiduais can break out of the ioop but it is rare for them to make iastihg changes in the system w And when iastihg changes do occur it is usuaiiy precipitated by some accompahyihg historicai shitt otteh resuitihg in the destruction of the oid system The ihyehtioh ot sciehce is a methodoiogy which ieads to periodic destruction of oid ideas i i without destroyihg sciehce itseiti Thomas Kunn in his i969 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions reyeaied the true historicai nature of science and the way sciehce deyeiops w kuhh argued that the deyeiopmeht of scientific ideas is an aiterhatioh oti i i NORMAI SciENCE gt REVOlUTiON gt NS gt R gt NS WPLsF364LEcTuREsKuHN STRUCTURE OF SCiENTiFiC REVOLUTiONS 7 3 Normai Science is what most scientists do most of the timer w Puzzle Solving 7 finding detaiied answers to aiready Known ideas w Mopping Up Operations 7 These activities are guided by a Paradigm PARAdiqm I UNiVERSAlly Recoqnized sciENTific AclIiEVEMENTs TIIAT fon A TiME pnovidE MOdEl pROblEMS ANd SOlUTiONS TO A COMMUNiTy of pRACTiTiONERs That is a Worid View Or to state it another way Paradigms guide normai science untii unresoivabie probiems presented by nature cause a crisis and the tormuiation of an aiternate paradigm ie a revoiution to guide future research ie a new state of normai science Why is it iike this Because everyone agrees on what they Know They agree because the education system incuicates them in what they are supposed to Know 7 which is the current paradigm To be a science aii the practitioners must agree on the probiems which exist Kuhn argues that a science does not come into being untii aii practitioners accept a paradigm gt ADVANTAGES 7 in a very compiex worid it guides what you choose to iook at Without this fact gathering is random iike ciassicai induction WPLsF364LEcTuREsKuHN STRUCTURE or SCiENTiFiC REvotuTious a 4 gt DISADVANTAGES 7 restricts vvhat cah be beiieved or what is possibie iike a reiigious creed But the secOhd great ihsight that Kuhh had was how paradigms break dovvh ahd iead to revoiutiOhs RevoiutiOhs are hot precipitated by some maverick ihside or outside the discipiihe RevoiutiOhs are usuaiiy precipitated by the most Khovviedgeabie ahd experiehced sciehtists ih the curreht paradigm As Normai Sciehce progresses ahomaiies arise ih observatiohs ahd experimehts These are facts which do hot fit the paradigm so of course peopie do hot Khovv what to do With them They cahhot be expiaihed The importahce of ah experiehced practitiOher steeped ih the paradigm is that they are the Ohes who are best prepared to recoghize the ahomaiy for what it is Q But these ahomaiies are at first ighored because ho Ohe Khovvs what to do With them ih time however ahomaiies accumuiate ahd become so biataht that they cahhot be ighored Precipitates a revoiutiOh vvheh some briiiiaht youhg practitiOher Just ehterihg the eid but hot biihded by the paradigm recoghizes that the ahomaiies are ahomaiies to the paradigm because the paradigm is verhg Leads to breakdovvh of oid paradigm 7 a revoiutiOh Historicaiiy this is a very messy time