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by: Mrs. Raheem Heathcote


Marketplace > James Madison University > Biology > BIO 214 > CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Mrs. Raheem Heathcote
GPA 3.74

Marta Bechtel

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Marta Bechtel
Class Notes
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Raheem Heathcote on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 214 at James Madison University taught by Marta Bechtel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/214124/bio-214-james-madison-university in Biology at James Madison University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
BioEnerge39rics and Metabolism Chapter 3 Living 39rhings create and maintain order by a continuous process of biochemical reactions Each cell can be viewed as a Tiny chemical factory performing millions of reactions every secondquot B0214 Bechtel 1 define as the to do workquot Energy Energy of eat Mechanical Energ Energy Chemical Bonds Concentration Gradients POTENTIAL Energy in a cat39s muscles is in the form of covalent chemical bonds This energy is CONVERTED in39l39o MECHANICAL Energy 15 r law of THERMODYNAMICS Energy cannot be or 2 En or g1quot transformation A m easu ring device indicates that the total energy doe5 nut change 2nd law of THERMODYNAMICS Some energy is Disorder Ifth Energy transformation Umble energyvzufter free Energy flinusah le E3 aimquot 15T Law of Thermodynamics Energy is Energy 39transfmmatign l TOTAL ENERGY USABLE ENERGY UNUSABLE ENERGY Total Energy Energy 2nd Law of Thermodynamics is satisfied DEAD CELL LIVING CELL envjronrnerli sell lt QZ39 I 139 0 p g 39 AN I W 3 I I x V 2 03 v60 t Z gt 7 3 i f 0 x lt 3 Both and increased disorder incieased order Environment are Cells create large Disordered molecules amp become ordered 2nd Law of Thermodynamics is satisfied Text Figure 36 Chemical reactions that generate order also generate Heat is energy in its most disordered form Heat adds to random jostling of molecules Cell becomes ordered but universe is more disordered due to increased heat 2nd law of THERMODYNAMICS is satisfied TOTAL inside of cell plus its environment is In Cells Total Energy Free Energy En rropy En39rhalpy Free Energy Entropy HGT THERMODYNAMICS DEFINITIONS H Enthalpy Energy G Free Energy Energy s Entropy or Unavailable Energy T Absolute Temperature Typically we are interested in the Change A in a system AH A6 TAS Total Energy Change Change in Useful Energy 4 Temperature Change in Entropy Rearrange equation to get Change in Useful Energy A6 AH TAS All Spontaneous Transformations MUST have G Gibbs Free energy Exergonic Spontaneous Endergonic NonSpontaneous AG Change in Gibbs free energy AG Standard change in free energy at ideal conditions 10 Cells use CONTROLLED STEPWISE of Food Molecules to Efficiently Obtain Energy Al stepwise oxidation of lBl direct burning of sugar sugar in cells large activation energy overcome by the heat from a fire small activation energies evereame by body temperature 1 all I likee ENE 15 felea ezfed aaslhe e 39 maresize activated carrier molecules free energy Figure 2 69 Melecular Biology of the Cell 4th Edition METABOLISM CATABOLISM ANABOLISM FOOD MOLECULES MACROMOLECULES gm PATHWAYS PATHWAYS on a Text Figure 3 3 k I J 4 I Monomers for Biosyn rhesis of Macromolecules Z What tools do cells use to tightly control how and when each step in metabolism may occur Enzymes are specialized that 1 ACCELERATE chemical reactions of cells Biochemistry 2 reactions 3 Usually in a series of connected METABOLIC reactions 13 PRINCIPLE of a METABOLIC PATHWAY mo ecule mailecule mnlecu e malecube malecul e mn lecule I 39 6 catalysis by catalysia by natalvsis by catalysis by catalysis by enzyme 1 enzyma 2 enzyme 3 enzyme 4 enzyme 5 14 Text Figure 31 Cellular Me39l39abolic pathways are linked to create COMPLEX inferconnected ca r Mos Biological Systems Rely on as The INITIAL Energy Source F HOTOSYNTHESIS HESPIRATION mg H20 gt 02 SUGAHE SUGARS 01 Hit to m 11qu gt PLANTS quot ALGAE ll SDMHE IBAC TEHIA ENERGY OF SUNLJGHT USEFUL CHEMICAL BONDS Complementary and Processes 16 Text Figure 310 Even Energetically Favorable Reactions Require Energy To Drive 0 Reaction amzvma Inwara activation warm for natalvzed reamom Y 3 tam energy p tutall energy a 31 amvmacatalvzad A uncaiallvzad I ra actlan pathan reamtram pathway 17 Text Fig 313 In a chemical reaction an ini l39ial s l39able s l39a l39e must become less s l39able before change is possible n Fnergy Transition stale A ham 2 Unstable molecules 95 form E l a u g 1 iiquot 3 AG lo the reaclion is Ab not affected by energy requlred fora reaction to begin Products Reactant can now proceed to Form Product Free energy Free Energy BY ENZYMES CATALYZE A REACTION ACTIVATION ENERGY Free energyr J An uncatalyzed reactien has a greater activa tien energy than times a catalyzed reactien 39x Unea ta lyzed reactien I A catalyzed reaction has a lewer I actle atlnn energy There i5 ne difference in free T Reactants Catalyzed f 5 3 reactinn energy between catalyzed and uneatalyzecl reactiens Predueta 39 l39 quotnunw Hf reaf rm ENZYMES DO AFFECT AG FREE ENERGY OF A REACTIPON Exergonic reaction Spontaneous Energy released 1 Al Hmcmnt Ammm m J In an exergonir maction 3 quot e 33 energy energy 5 witused as the relea ed reactants Funn lawm enemy products 56 it negative Prnd urta Murat nl39 ruattinn Energy MUST be Added I md ud Ermrgy must be added for an endergcmic reaction in which quot 39i reactant are converted m pmducts wiih a higher 29 if Anmunl m 4 energy leuel AG IS p lIIVE 5 energy J required LL niactan be Cuu rw nf rumiinn IS THE ENERGY quotCURRENCYquot IN MANY CELLULAR REACTIONS phosphunhv rida bonds energyavailabile z ifgrm H20 far cellular wuril mg w and for chemical synthesis 11 linznrg39anlc phusphate lPil Text Figure 332 Exergonic reaction Spontaneous Energy released EXEFQDWC reamion The negative AG indicates 9193335 GHE FQW an exergan c reaction ATP hydro ysis H20 m Pi AG 43 Real mall 22 Ender39gonic reaction Energy must be Added Endergunis reacti n The wartime as indicates VB39CIUI I39ES WE VE am enderganic wrearc tinn D o 39 39 42 quot 4 n C NW 3 as 04 kcawmol 7 O MHQ Glutamine Glutamate 23 Adding ATP Exergonic and Endergonic reactions Free energy is Transferred from an Exergonic 1390 an Endergonic reac l39ion Exergonic reaction The negaltve AG Ttheates releases energy ah exergomc reactToh ATP hydroTysis H20 ASP OPT AG 773 kcano 39 Endergonic reaction The posmve AG Ttheates Teqmres energy ah endergomc reaetToh 0 0 IE 0 NH E 0 AG 34 keelmot of 2 Gtutamate Gtutamhe Net AG 439 Restmot The eoupTed reactTah has overaH negatwe AG Tthcethg ah exergomc reamon and that proceeds toward compTetTon Al ATP is often REQUIRED awno H W 1 mm DE NEATIUN 39 Elmquot 039 SEP Wu ACTIVATION pad ms m EH 3 STEP ATP hydrolysis u u UH pg at 5 139 5 H I 39 IIw J U U39 ENERGY To DRIVE high energy ir er mediate The REACTION W ACTIVATION STEP E1 quot 3 in productsaf ATP hydroliysis HER m UDEJI ll Hp H ch g utamic and I Text Figure 3 34 glutamme Catalyzed Reactions Reach a Maximum Rate Usually there is less are occupied with so when all active sites reaction rate is at maximum Enzyme An enzyme speeds up the reeetienl At the maximum reattien irate Reactinn rate heweuer all enzyme meletulles are new piled with Substrate malecuIes With nu enzyme Fitment the irleattien rate increases steadily as Limbstmt caneentratinn increases Reecljen wi mut V enzyme a 1IF Concentratinn 0f substrate MichaelisMen ron plo r Enzyme39s performance depends on how rapidly if can process its substrate vmax Enzymecatalyzed reaction initial reaction veiocity v Nonenzymecatallyzed reaction 27 Substrate concentration 3 MichaelisMenton plot E reaction rate increases as increases until maximum rate Vmax is reached Mmx f Enzymecatalyzed reaction Kinetics initial reaction veiacity v Monenzymecatalyzed reaction 28 Substrate concentration 3 MichaelisMen ron plo r KM Michaelis39 constant is a measure of I I of which works of its maximum speed Vmax quotS a Enzyme catalyzed I39EEIthiDn 395 g g E Vmax 9 2 E m E E E Nonmenzymecatalyzed reaction Substrate canoeMration S


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