ORGANISMS [C3T1G3] BIO 114
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Bio 114 (Science, Dr. Hyman, Organisms)
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Mrs. Raheem Heathcote
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Mrs. Raheem Heathcote
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Raheem Heathcote on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 114 at James Madison University taught by Grace Wyngaard in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/214127/bio-114-james-madison-university in Biology at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Mammals featuring adaptations to land and highly evolved nervous systems Shared derived traits that separate mammals from nonamnniote lineage hair endothermy mammary glands Hair Glands Circulation becomes very efficient 4 chambered heart in all mammals Thermoregulation Nervous System the hallmark of animals Relationship of Nervous system to other systems Course Objectives 1 Unique properties of water influence adaptations 2 Living things are hierarchically ordered 3 There is a strong relationship between structure and function at all levels 5 All life makes more of itself and the information for making living things is passed from generation to generation 6 Living things develop in an orderly and controlled manner and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors 7 Living organisms respond to environmental stimuli 8 The diversity of life is astounding but it can be organized by commonality of ancestry 9 Science is a way of understanding and producing explanations of nature Protostomes Deuterostomes Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa Hair endothermy Mammary glands Freeman Fig 3113 Some major episodes in the history of life mees MAIchm l ennui 393 was Ex nuthn Mdlnosaurs quotMic Plants and mbiotic 5 fungi mlonle39a land Uldun animal fossils Origin of mul oel lular 15m luknryms 3quot g 0Idlstawkzryati Min 5 g m WW W E 39 vnfgm i r mm f39 z Ielqppearjnfmaphsrd Ol m chimicnl sidelines of uuknrym 3500 Hf 3 39r39 fjl lifts Earth cool anoigh for crust to ear ify 4590 Origin of Earth Campbell Ch 30 pifw gl mm Age of Mammals 70 mya Recognition signal 3 thermoregulatory device to dissip heat 39 Miller amp Harley 222 Copyrlght Pearson Educatlon Inc publlshlng as Benjamin Cummings B N P Diversity in Extant A CI Mammal Shapes X o a quotran null39hw N D f B th ewa no 1 w y y 1 mammals come close to the size of larger dinosaurs I w 39 hi l 13 a A we 3 17 Radinsky 173 miMPPS Demise of dinosaurs paved way for mammals to get bigger Felisa Smith Science Nov 26 2010 Hair is a shared derived trait that unites mammals 39 g i Oh and here s Luannc now Bobby just got sheared today Luanncquot Glands in mammals develop from epidermis of skin Sebaceous oil glands lubricate amp waterproof skin Scent or musk glands around face feet or anus secrete pheromones involved with defense territorial behavior species amp sex recognition Sweat glands secrete watery substances for evaporative cooling Mammary glands present in both sexes but functional only in females amp contain substantial fatty deposits Believed to have evolved from sweat glands a shared derived trait that unites mammals Mammals 2 circulatory Turtles F o s 39 Fish 2 glat llZardS Crocodiles Birds 1circulatory 3903quot my 2circulatory 2circulatory 2circulatory loops l ops loops loops Achambered Achambered 4 Chambered rt heart ear op 2chambered 3chambered eart heart hea Lung 3chambered eart Gills ourchambered heart ourchambered heart reechambered heart wo circulatory loops Freeman41 15 Endothermy in mammals they are warmed mostly by heat generated by their metabolism Campbell amp Reece 409 a A walrus an endotherm Role of metabolic heat in determining body temperature 40 0 0 0 Endoderm s high Bobcat andotllarm metabolic rate generates enough heat to keep body 30 temp gt A environment 9 I 395 E 20 S 5 Ectoderm s low metabolic rate is 8 too low to affect m 10 body tem perature Ambient temperature C Skin as an organ of thermoregulation Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Adipose tissue Oil gland Hair follicle Wi i5 i quotii ii iii ulate mammals Evaporative cooling by sweat glands Constriction amp dilation of blood vessels Erection of hair Campbell 4011 Blood vessels Countercurrent heat exchange conserves body heat in animals adapted to cold environments Warm blood in arteries transfers Body temperature 40 C heat to blood in veins Reindeer leg temperature 10 C Constrictor nerve Countercurrent vessels Topor in ground squirrel During hibernation or winter sleep Hypothalamus of brain slows metabolic heart respiratory rates slows to 3 5 beatsmin Body temperature decreases 3 4 C Sleeping forms minimize surface area volume ratios The Scientist How does the nervous system work Signals from outside and inside the body sensors convert signal into electric signal electric signal is transmitted by neurons nervous system then signals effectors muscles or glands Very simple only detects food or danger Diversity in Nervous systems Sea anemnne Sea star Cnidartal 39lechmudcrmalail quot Brain B m n Tl1 cured quot7393 2 mil 5x Nerve If move around and hunt h Ude Ganglion 5 39 need to integrate more in ventral 13quotquot 3939ranswrse info 39gtganglia nerve mrd nerve Em h wmm Flamerm Amwlid Platth minimal anuin 39 Luntml H 39 ivrvmg x hlmml mm L 39n 39 i 7 quot System 39 1 Brain 39ll ur39a wrisu l Ganglia get larger and f39i gnugliml more central gt hawsea 39 v r tugm 3 l erlplwral Bram rmglmnj l l T WTFR IUS 1 Hyhlum l 1 lquot Ff Slmllar to Campbell amp Squid 5 NWquot 1 3quot 39H M39 Human 492 Itsminim H39rll ilt39 Chumaml 1993 Sinauer Associates Inc 3 overlapping functions Sensory input olnteg ration Motor output Dendmes Cell body contains collect nucleus nd organelles electrical si n ls Axon passes electrical signals on to dendrites of another cell or to a effector cell The basic unit of nervous system The Cell Body Neuron contains nucleus and organelles Dendrites bushlike projections which bring information from other neurons to neuron s cell body An Axon longest dendrite which carries info away from cell body Axon Terminals swelling at end of axon Axon hillock decision making site where action potentials are generated Is not insulated has lots of voltage gated channels Other cells Glial Cells Scientists just beginning to discover many functions Supply neurons with nutrients consume foreign particles and debris maintain proper ionic environment insulate neurons with myelin Schwann cells peripheral nervous system Myelin sheath is composed of lipids insulates axons amp increases speed of propagation of nerve impulses Node of Ranvier Layers of myelIn Schwann produced by Schwann cell cell 77 H1 Axon l odes ul Schwann Myelin Flanvier 09quot A Shem Nucleus of 4 x0quot Schwann cell Cupy ghlol umn Emmm lm pmmm as Emjamln cumming Campbell 485 How neuron conducts electricity Voltage electrons move from negative to positive poles in a battery if poles connected As electrons flow they produce current which can do work ln membranes electric current is charged ions Na K Cl39 Ca Every cell has voltage or membrane potential across its plasma membrane Membrane potential difference in negative charge between 2 sides Sodium poiassium pump M Mr CI1 ggLTf39DE 5 mM 1 5 MM 120 ITIM Plasma a membrane IN SIDE K Na quot1 A O CELL 150 mM 15 mM in mM mu mM INSIDE CELL Q b Sodlumpotasslum pump uses ATP 5 to actively transport Na back out of A denotes anions such as cell amp K back into cell proteins amino acids sulfate phosphate Campbell 487 Chemical Synapse at Axon Terminal Action potential of nerve impulse depolarizes presynamptic membrane which triggers influx of Ca Synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters which diffuse across cleft Synapse 25 nm space Neurotransmitter molecules bind L to receptor molecules in postynaptic membrane Locomotion gquot u H W Hormone Gas exchange Circulation action D lg e SH 0 n Copyrigm 2008 Pearson Educsuon Ina pubnsmng as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Campbell 497 Sweat glands secrete sweat which evaporates cooling the body Thermostat in hypothalamus activates cooling mechanisms Blood vessels 39 in skin dilate capillaries quot Thermoregulation B d t t 39 geure agigrsalghates In humans amp other themstat 39quotmased b dV mammals relies shuts off cooling temperature quot han39sms39 on nerve cells in H t 39 Interzglntagmgesrlgture hypothalamus 36 3quot c thermostat in B dy temperature Decreased body brain amp feedbaCk Increases thermostat temperature shuts off warming mechanlsms mechanisms Blood vessels in skin constrict reducing heat loss my Thermostat in Campbell 4416 hypothalamus activates warming mechanisms Skeletal muscles contract shivering generates heat Copyiighl c 2006 Pearson Education me publishing as Pearson Beniamm Cummings Premolars and molars Time permitting Premolars and molars 1 Enamel on anterior surfaces of incisors wears more slow y than dentine behind keeps chiselsharp Teeth lncisors provide exceHent clues as to lifestyle of mammas Robustteelh f for crushing hard lruit incisors and cheek teeth grow throughout like a L slicing meat Early lnsectlvore rugivores wllh generalized dentltlon F irulteatlng hat m lete lass Numerous similar co p 39 teeth in bothjaws olteeth f f h tongue principal 039 IS capture lee ingtoo Versatile dentition for varied Derlved Insectlvores Hickman 3010 Heed anteater Bio news Ardi Fossil that was found a few years ago female only 47 inches tall 110 pounds what did she eat how did she walk did she swing from tree to tree teeth size and shape canine and molar it appears that it is omnivorous pelvis is curved inward in such a way that this organism walked upright had opposable thumb but had long ngers she might have done a lot ofgrasping intermediate stage between swing from branches and walking When she walked she might have used one of her digits to move toward walked clumsily Time permitting Morphology of digestive tracts reflects diet Hickman 3011 re it goes again And we just Slt here without opposa ble thumbs Well te
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