U S GOVERNMENT [C4AE]
U S GOVERNMENT [C4AE] GPOSC 225
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miller Rosenbaum on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GPOSC 225 at James Madison University taught by Kathleen Ferraiolo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/214139/gposc-225-james-madison-university in Political Science at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
GPOSC Exam 1 Study Guide Representative democracy rule by the people de ned by popular sovereignty political equality and political liberty Fundamental principles of representative democracy 1 indirect democracy in which the people rule through elected representatives 2 popular sovereignty the people ultimately rule seen in conditions such as the government policies reflect the people s wishes competitive free and fair elections and people participate in the political process 3 political equality each person carries equal weight in the conduct of public business 4 political liberty citizens are protected from government interference in the exercise of a range of basic freedoms speech association and conscience Direct democracy business is decided by all citizens in small assemblies Republicanism a political doctrine advocating limited government based on popular consent protecting against majority tyranny Declaration of Independence a call to revolution ratherthan a framework for a new government articulated many ideasthat were later codi ed in the Constitution Basic principles humans have natural rights that cannot be given nor taken away people have government in order to protect those rights people have the ability to withdraw their consent from government in order to create a new one Articles of Confederation 1777 created a loose league of friendship among the states Features central government had few responsibilities and no power government under Articles was ineffective and unworkable Shay s Rebellion farmers in Mass wanted to keep their land so they rebelled by preventing courts from sittingproved the Articles to be faulty and weak because it couldn t restrain the mob Virginia Plan proposed the creation of a strong central government dominated by a powerful Congress controlled by the most populous states VA Mass and PA New Jersey Plan smaller states made a proposal whose central feature was a unicameral national legislature whose seats were apportioned equally among the states with representatives selected by state legislature Great Compromise mixture ofall the plans dealing with large and small states Framers goals of Constitution to establish a government strong enough to meet the nation s needs to establish a government that wouldn t threaten the existence of the separate states federalism to establish a government that wouldn t threaten liberty checks and balances government based on popular consent Federalist papers written by federalists to make the public be in favor ofthe Constitution appeared in newspapers in NY Federalist 10 stressesto guard against faction and how to x them factions groups of people united over something they have in common ways to cure factions remove causescontrol effects Checks on majority rule branches of government and popular vote noncongruencies in elections amendment process see page 48 Separation of powers distribution of government legislative executive and judicial powers to separate branches of government Checks and balances system to get bills passed many different steps to keep the system balances and prevent tyranny Rourke debate 1 constitution s meanings Wittington believed we should consider what was signi cant to the framers rather than what they would do Chemerinsky believed we should develop an understanding ofthe constitution for the 21 St century Federalism a system under which significant government powers are divided between central government and smaller units such as states or provinces Confederacy powerful states weak government Unitary System national government powerful states weak McCulloch v Maryland 1819 McCulloch was a cashier in Baltimore at Bank of US and refused to pay bank taxes so it was sent to the Supreme Court which showed that the national government was supreme Congress had the right to set up a bank due to enumerated powers those spelled out in the Constitution and was considered necessary and proper taxes could not be imposed by the state because national law is over state law Supremacy clause article VI of the Constitution that says what it says and laws and treaties of the US are supreme over all state laws Nulli cation doctrine John C Calhoun reasserted the doctrine of nullification if government tried to ban slavery the states could say it s unconstitutional and nullify it union is dissolvable Civil War Amendments the 13th 14th and 15th amendments adopted immediately after the Civil War no slavery or servitude everyone has equal rights and no one can take those away everyone is equal Dual layer cakequot federalism an interpretation of federalism in which the states and national government have separate jurisdictions and responsibilities Cooperative marble cake federalism sharing of responsibilities between states and national government New Deal 1930s under FDRimmigration industrialization and urbanization all showed a need for a national government Resurgence ofstates 1990s states are becoming more powerful once again and federal government loses some power Bush presidency federalism in 2010 from dual federalism to cooperative federalism terrorism resurgence of national government Federal grants categorical grants federal aid to states and localities clearly specifying what the money can be used for block grants broad grants to states for speci c activities such as secondary education or health services with few strings attached Devolution the delegation of power by the central government to state or local bodies Public opinion political attitudes and core beliefs expressed by ordinary citizens as revealed by surveys framers believed that public opinion was just majority tyranny Democratic responsiveness rapid transfer of what the public wants reflected in actions taken by officials Democratic hesitation allows of cials to think things through before immediately reacting to public opinion framers had more emphasis on hesitation Sussman article said that a simple change in wording can change a person s whole opinion people are more likely to allow gay men and women into the military than homosexuals Mechanics of polling makes inferences about larger unobserved population usually all American adults based on observed samples sampling errors are the likelihood that the responses of the sample accurately represent the views ofthe public usually within 0 Nonsampling errors question wording nonattitudes a response in the absence of a real opinion question context and social desirability Polling errors polling changes character of public opinion from an assertion to a response 2 polling changes public opinion from behaviorto attitude making public opinion less threatening to elites polls convert public opinion from characteristics of groups to characteristics of individuals 4 polling reduces citizen s opportunities to set political agenda v 3 v
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