ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY [C3T1G2]
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY [C3T1G2] GISAT 112
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Antonia Lehner on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GISAT 112 at James Madison University taught by Robert Brent in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/214151/gisat-112-james-madison-university in General Education Isat at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
GISAT112 Exam 1 Review Things You Should Know CiC Chapter 1 The Air We Breathe Know the difference between elements compounds and mixtures 0 Elements substances that cannot be broken down into simpler ones by any chemical means 0 Compounds pure substances made up of two or more elements in a fixed characteristic chemical combination 0 Mixtures a substance consisting of two or more substances that have been combined without chemical bonding taking place Understand ionic and covalent bonding o Ionic Bonding Electrons are transferred from one atom to another form ions 0 Covalent Bonding Share electrons very stable amp hard to break Understand the octet rule 0 Most stable when atoms have 8 electrons in their outer shell shares electrons Know how to properly balance chemical equations Know the layers ofthe atmosphere Troposphere closest to the earth Stratosphere above troposphere contains ozone layer Mesosphere Know the composition of air 0 Composition of Dry Air Nitrogen 79 Oxygen 21 Other gasses 1 Argon 90 of this 1 0 Typical Air Nitrogen 75 Oxygen 20 Water Vapor 14 Other gasses 1 Know what a mole is and how to calculate the mass ofa mole of a substance 0 Mole Avagadro s Number 6023 10quot23 of that thing mole ofa chemical is this many molecules 0 Can be used to describe the amount of a chemical that will be involved in a reaction 0 One mole of any chemical correlates with the Atomic Mass on the periodic table Complete Combustion 0 Add Oxygen 029end products always H20 C02 Know how to solve problems using the ideal gas law PVnRT P Total Pressure V Volume in liters N Number of moles in the gas R Gas constant 082L T Absolute temperature Kelvin degrees C273 Soda bottle experiment Know what each ofthe criteria air pollutants are and where they come from 0 Carbon Monoxide CO On road vehicles Non road equipment 000 O 0 Ozone 03 Secondary pollutant formed by NOx VOC sunlight reacting in the lower atmosphere 0 Lead Pb Industrial Processes Non road equipment electricity generation GlSATllZ I Used to be in gasoline big source of pollution o Nitrogen Dioxide N02 or NOx On road vehicles electricity generation non road generation Particulate Matter PM Fires Road dust I PM10 lt 10 micrograms in diameter 0 I PM25 lt 25 micrograms in diameter 0 Sulfur Dioxide SOZ or SOx Electricity Generation I Burning coal biggest source developed lclean coal with less sulfur o Volatile Organic Compound VOCs smell of gasoline new car pine trees Understand the formation of ozone in the troposphere Sunlight reacting in the troposphere 0 02 s break up and become single 0 59 bond with 02 to form 03 o VOCNOxSunlightOzone Understand the relationship between air quality standards values and the averaging period 0 Gas Behavior ppt pg 4 Understand the relationship between risk hazard and exposure and know which factors affect each RISK HAZARD X EXPOSURE o HAZARD or toxicity is a measure of adverse health effect per unit mass of pollutant o EXPOSURE measure of the mass of pollutant breathed over a period of time Understand the importance of indoor air quality and know some ofthe indoor pollutant 0 Indoor air quality is so important because most humans are indoor most of the time adults 21 hday children 19 hday 0 Indoor Polutants Bacteria Fungi Spores Dust Dander Aerosols Know what an isotope is o Isotope different atoms of the same element with different weights based on different number of neutrons protons define the element neutrons define the isotope Know about radon exposure 0 Comes from underlying rocks and soil pumped into your house by heating system 0 No color odor taste collects in basements amp can cause lung cancer Chemical Reactions 0 The rearrangements of atoms when reactant are transformed into products COZCOZ two molecules into one How Air Pollutant Move 0 By Molecular Diffusion Kinetic energy 0 By Convection air that moves for temperature reasons or mechanically or wind driven o By Settling gravity forces airborne particles downward larger particles CiC Chapter 2 Ozone Understand the difference between ozone in the troposphere and stratosphere o Tropospheric ozone pollutant secondary pollutant formed by NOx VOC amp Sunlight GlSATllZ o Stratospheric Ozone Beneficial amp Natural sheilds earths surface from harmful UV rays protects from skin cancer eye damage plant and animal effects 0 Know how to draw Lewis structures 0 Outer shell electrons ONLY 0 Resonance structureform different ways lewis structures can be shown Ozone 0 Shape nonpaired electrons want to be as far away from the others as possible 0 Know the electromagnetic spectrum and how to calculate energy frequency and wavelength 0 OZONE ppt memorize each piece 0 Shortest Wavelength most energy 0 Highest Frequency most energy 0 Least Energy to most Radio Microwaves IR UV Visible R to V XRays Gamma Rays 0 Know the types of UV radiation A B C their penetration levels and energy 0 UVA Rays 320400nm least energetic least damaging greatest amount 0 UVB Rays 280320nm most absorbed by ozone in the stratosphere o UVC Rays 200280nm most energetic most damaging but totally absorbed before hits earth 0 Understand the concept of UV absorption 0 UV energy can be absorbed by molecules amp brake bonds C02 H20 02 03 0 Understand the Chapman Cycle 0 Natural Formation amp Destruction of Ozone Oxygen bonds can be broken by strong radiation Oxygen atom can bond with 02 molecule to form Ozone Ozone is more easily broken down with lower radiation waves back to two oxygen molecules 0 Know the relative amount of ozone thinning at various latitudes 0 Global thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer has been observed since 19705 I 36 at mid latitudes I None at equator o Thinning is pronounced over the South Pole forming an quotozone holequot I Up to 70 reductions in spring 0 Understand the work of catalyst and free radicals 0 Catalyst chemical substance that participates in a reaction and affects the rate amp remains unchanged 0 Free Radical atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons I Natural Free Radicals O OH 0 In speeding up ozone destruction Cl acts as free radical basketball 0 Understand the process of how CFCs destroy ozone o Chlorofluorocarbon s are broken down in the stratosphere and the byproducts from radicals CIO N02 that destroy ozone 0 Understand how the ozone hole develops 0 Hole is Seasonal from September to December in Antarctica record lows of ozone lowest recorded 33 GlSATllZ 0 Record number of CFC s in air clouds of ice crystals make perfect lbreeding ground for CI 02 0 Polar VorteX 0 Know about the Montreal Protocol 0 International treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion Chapter 3 GlobalWarming 0 Know what albedo is and understand the differences between planet39s effective and real temperatures 0 Albedo reflectivity the ratio of electromagnetic radiation reflected relative to the amount of radiation on the surface I Albedo of lall light reflected I Albedo of 0all light absorbed o Earths real temperature should be 0 degrees F I Real Average Temp 60 degrees F I 93 million miles from the sun 0 Mars temp should be 70 degrees F I Real Average Temp 81 degrees F I 142 million miles from the sun 0 Venus temp should be 51 degrees F I Real Average Temp 867 degrees F I 67 million miles from the sun 0 Understand the greenhouse effect 0 Absorption of infrared wavelengths by certain molecules C02 amp MH4 0 due to wavelength visible light can pass through but heat energy cannot pass through as easily 0 UV and visible light reaches earths atmosphere some is absorbed amp some is reflected back as R waves 0 Sometimes rebounces back off atmosphere and back into Earth why earth is warmer than predicted 0 Know what compounds are greenhouse gases 0 C02 CFC CH4 N20 from greatest to smallest 0 Know what current C02 levels are and how they have changed over time o Rising levels of C02 with seasonal rising and falling 0 Currently 358 0 Know how historic C02 and temperatures are measured 0 Scientists use ice cores to determine temperature and levels of C02 in the atmosphere I Look for isotopes of hydrogen found in the frozen water 0 Understand positive and negative feedback loops
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