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by: Arnulfo Bins


Marketplace > James Madison University > Geology > GGEOL 115 > EARTH SYSTEMS AND CLIMATE CHANGE C3T1G3
Arnulfo Bins
GPA 3.81

Elizabeth Johnson

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Elizabeth Johnson
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arnulfo Bins on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GGEOL 115 at James Madison University taught by Elizabeth Johnson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/214168/ggeol-115-james-madison-university in Geology at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 09/26/15
Sept 1 Scienti c method Know process of scienti c method After observing ask why Use good sense and reason to Offer explanations how Test explanations Repeat and modify until we construct the best explanation Examples of making observations vs making hypothesis Observation Something you can detect with your 5 senses or measure indirectly Hypothesis An explanation of observations that can be tested Example Observation Women dying after child birth childbed fever Hypothesis Cadaveric matter causes childbirth fever If the doctors clean their hands before going to the maternity room then childbirth fever will be reduced TESTABLE Theory An upgraded hypothesis has survived repeated testing even if it has been modified Correlation vs causation Correlation examples Positive and negative correlations Occam s Razor All things being equal the simplest solution tends to be the best one Use good sense and reason It is best to start with the simplest explanation and add one complication at a time if possible Sept 6 Earth Systems What do scientists do Ethics culture Follow the scienti c method Use critical thinking question everything including themselves Keep an open mind Open and honest about their work Climate vs Weather Climate Average conditions of a region over a year or much longer Weather Fluctuations in the conditions of a region over hours days or weeks Climate is what you expect weather is what you get Earth Systems is a theory we use to understand the climate We can explain how the climate works by breaking it into pieces Study the separate components and also how they interact Climate Change Forcing causes changes to happen Forcing Any process or disturbance that drives change C1imate Forcing Four major causes forcings of change Changes in plate tectonics Change in Earth s orbit Changes in Sun s strength Human activity Feedback ampli es or moderates change Feedback A process that alters changes under way either by amplifying positive or moderating negative them Everyday examples of positive and negative feedback An example of feedback in my life would be if I was considering breaking up with my boyfriend and then I talked about it with a friend who advised me not to do it This would be a negative feedback because my friend altered what I was going to do by preventing change my boyfriend and I being split up An example of feedback in my life would be fighting with my brother about who gets to shower first We are arguing and to amplify the situation my parents become involved and tell us to stop fighting and that just make use angrier This would be an example of positive feedback because in the situation that is already underway there was ampli er to increase the current problem Sept 8 Greenhouse effect and Goldilocks You are the energetic equivalent of how many 100 W light bulbs Calculation in class Roughly ONE 100W light bulb 2000 calday 8374000 J 24 hours 86400 seconds 8374000 J86400 sec 9692 MN One 100 watt light bulb Energy joules J m The ability to do work Power watts W 1 W 1 J sec Power is how much energy is being transferred per unit time Power units Watts 1W 1 Jsec Visible light shortwave energy is converted to infrared or heat energy longwave energy at Earth s surface Shortwave Sunlight Longwave Heat Energy Surface of planet converts LIGHT energy to HEAT energy Temperature measure of heat energy 3 Units Faherenheight Kelvin and Celsius Scientists use Celsius and Kelvin K C 273 Room Temp 25 C 77 F 298 K More sunlight absorbed by Earth s surface higher temperature all else equal Goldilocks hypothesis Earth is just right temperature for life Earth Venus and Mars Venus too close to sun Earth just right to sun Mars too far from sun Earth is just right temperature for life Right atmosphere and distance from the sun Distance Venus closest to Sun highest temperature more sunlight per square meter But Venus s clouds re ect most of light before it gets to surface Goldilocks hypothesis comes to correct conclusion for wrong or incomplete reason 80 of gases in Earth s atmosphere in TROPSOPHERE Major gases in Earth s atmosphere Nitrogen Oxygen and Argon J quot quot39 1 iptiuu of 5 gas Warm a planet s surface by absorbing heat energy and reradiating it back toward the surface Important greenhouse gases on Earth Carbon Dioxide Methane and Water vapor Venus s atmosphere has huge amount of C02 64 times the total amount of all gases in Earth s atmosphere Distance from sun and greenhouse gases in atmosphere determine surface temperature of a planet Earth is only planet currently in liquid water stability eld pressure Temperature we also have a lot more water than Venus or Mars Europa has ice but maybe a liquid water ocean deep under ice layer life there Don t memorize all of the numbers in the tables you should understand and interpret the numbers in the table correctly Sept 13 Hydrologic cycle and water feedback loops Hydrologic cycle liquid water water vapor ice How glaciers form Glaciers are formed by snow accumulation over many years De nition and units of albedo just know that ice snow have high albedo land trees oceans have low albedo don t need to memorize numbers Albedo Percent of incoming light that is re ected High Very re ective does not absorb light L0w Absorbs most light Fresh Snow High Albedo Water Low Albedo Temperature snowglaciers Albedo re ectivity feedback loop Ice high albedo re ects light amp does not convert to energy the ice and atmosphere above the ice stays c001 positive feedback loop sets up climate to have more snow and ice Snowball Earth hypothesis what is it what evidence do we have that there was a Snowball Earth in the past How did we get out of it Earth s surface was frozed between 750 and 550 million years ago Dropstones and paleomagnetism evidence Volcanoes have direct line to lava which eventually warmed things back up Sept 15 Atmospheric circulation and Coriolis Wind Wind is air in motion Transfer energy through the atmosphere Atmospheric Circulation uneven heating of Earth s surface and Coriolis effect be familiar with wind patterns directions in tropics from animation posted on Blackboard and discussed in class Uneven heating geometry of Earth more sunlight per square meter at equator than poles Shape of sunlight and temperature pro les of Earth s atmosphere graphs 3 ways to transfer energy conduction convection radiation air in atmosphere convects like water boiling in pot Coriolis effect wind or water de ected from apparent path to the light in the Northern Hemisphere to the left in Southern Hemisphere explanation of why winds blow counterclockwise in Katrina Can hurricanes form at equator Cross equator Why Coriolis effect explains why surface winds blow W E or E W rather than N S or S N Sept 20 Surface ocean circulation Watch NOAA video winds and ocean currents gyres Water moves perpendicular to wind direction to light in N Hemisphere to the left in S hemisphere Winds Coriolis shape of ocean basins gravity affect surface ocean currents Wetsuit in CA but not in VA beach Duckies we can observe surface currents by tracking movement of objects Garbage patch where what is it Know direction and location of N Pac S Pac N Atlantic S Atlantic Gyres any extra credit articles we discuss in class could be on test Sept 22 Deep Ocean Currents


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