GEOGRAPHY GLOBAL DIMENSION [C4GE]
GEOGRAPHY GLOBAL DIMENSION [C4GE] GGEOG 200
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GGEOG 200 Geography the Global Dimension Questions on Chapter 3 Instructions As you read and study the chapter answer the following questions Be sure you are familiar too with the terms at the end of the chapter The quiz on this chapter and the exams will include questions from this study guide Introduction 1 North America has been fundamentally reshaped by Globalization 2 In this textbook the authors write that North America includes USA and Canada 3 Politically North America is home to the United States the last global Empire 4 What is the current estimated population of New York City 22mln 5 What has the cost of development been to North America It was High rivers diverted numerous species have been threatened with extinction so on 6 What are four cultural characteristics that hold the region together Common process of colonization a Heritage of Anglo dominance a shared set of civic beliefs in representative democracy individual freedom 7 Truefalse There is a clear cultural divide at the border between the US and Mexico false Environmental Geography 8 9 gt O N 6 Urban areas at nighttime are often 7 to According to Map 38 what is the climate of Harrisonburg Humid subtropical without dry season hot In the region struck by Hurricane Katrina poverty rates are almost Double the national norm The Ogallala Aquifer is a valuable underground source of water in the central portion of the US It is situated under what five states New Mexico Kansas Texas Colorado Oklahoma What part of the US is most impacted by acid rain Ohio Valley Appalachia the northeastern US City dwellers use on average more than 175 gallons daily Indirectly Americans may consume more than 1400 gallons per day What are three of the most toxic places in the US that are mentioned by the authors of your text Petroleum rich Texas Louisiana Gulf Coast older industrial centers Northeastern and Midwest nuclear fuel and chemical warfare storage areas such as Hanford Washington North America is plagued by Acid Rain industrially produced sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere that damage forests poison lakes and kill fish than nearby rural areas summer One longterm consequence of climate change is redistribution of native plants As North America becomes hotter which way are tundra and permafrost environments shifting Pole ward Population and Settlement 17 What is the population of the US use the intemet not the book 308745538 18 How long has North America been populated At least 12 000 years 19 In the author s discussion of Americans on the move what five trends did they describe Westward moving population black exodus from the south rural to urban migration growth of the sun belt southl970s 1990s patterns of counter urbanizationl970s 20 By 1990 more than half of the population of the US lived west of the Mississippi 21 What percent of the North American population is urban 80 22 List factors that favor urban decentralization in the US 23 What were the impacts of suburbanization on inner cities during the 1960s and 1970s How has gentrification changed that They suffered absolute loss of population had lots of crime and tension of racism social disruption Lower income residents of central city neighborhoods with higher income residents the improvement of deteriorated inner city landscapes and the construction of new shopping complexes entertainment attractions or convocation centers in selected downtown locations 24 Currently many areas of rural North America face population declines What changes in rural areas have contributed to this tent As they adjust to changing conditions of modern agriculture Cultural Coherence and Diversity 25 26 U L 3 5 35 What did traditional Anglo beliefs emphasize Representative government separation of church and state liberal individualism privacy pragmatism and social mobility According to figure 320 in which two phases did the most immigration occur How is the origin of the immigrants different between the two time periods 3 and 5 in 3 they mostly come from Europenorth and west in 5 they mostly came from Latin America and Asia Since 1920 what has limited the number of immigrants entering the United States Federal immigration policiesquota act of 1921 and national origin act of 1924 Most of the projected increase in the US Hispanic population in the future will be fueled by Birth In percentage terms migrants from Latin america constitute the fastestgrowing immigrant group Will nonHispanics whites in the US ever be a minority Explain With this rate of immigration they could become minority in the future 2070 Give an example of a welldefined cultural homeland and describe it FrenchCanadian Quebec they speak friench this language is sort of cultural glue that holds them together What is an ethnic neighborhood Give an example of an ethnic neighborhood discussed in the text It is characterized by small scale ethnic signatures as buildings and language and ethnicity Like aisan neighborhood in Los Angeles Truefalse One of the problems faced by the US is that most immigrants don t want to learn English false Based on the information provided in Figure 326 what two imported beers were most popular in the United States in 2002 and where were they manufactured Corona Heineken Mandarin may have surpassed English as the leading global language of Internet users by 2010 Geopolitical Framework 36 37 38 39 40 While the US and Canada have lived in harmony for many years some issues do cause tension between the two countries What are some of these issues What is the difference between a federal and a unitary state FederalCanada usa they have power beneath central government unitary state has just central power What are two examples given in your text of minority groups asserting their political power What document asserted that US interests extended throughout the Western Hemisphere and went beyond national boundaries Monroe doctrine Give some examples of the US global political reach over the past few decades Economic and Social Development 41 42 43 44 JkB ONUI 4 1 4 00 An abundant resource base along with the region s people has resulted in very high levels of economic development What energy resources does the United States possess Oil coal How is connectivity linked to economic growth Based on the information presented in Table 32 which country in your opinion has the higher standard of living the skills and diversity of its What factors enticed industry to the South and West What are four population challenges discussed by the authors of your text Health care aging single motherschronic disease What is an H1B visa and why does the US government issue them In the map in Figure 33 7 what country stands out as a source of these visaholders HB visa to encourage skilled workers to work in the usaIndia Outsourcing is one example of North America s role in the global economy What is outsourcing Corporations transfer their facilities to other cheap labor force countries Key Terms acid rain boreal forest concentric zone model connectivity counterurbanization cultural assimilation ethnicity federal state gentrification Group of Eight G8 location factor Megalopolis NAFTA outsourcing prairie sectional transformation Spanglish tundra unitary state urban decentralization urban realms model World Trade Organization WTO Chapter 3 Map Identification List Instructions Use the list below when taking the map quizzes Be sure to type the name of each map feature EXACTLY as it is listed here If you misspell the answer Blackboard will not give you points Physical features Rocky Mountains Appalachian Mountains Mississippi River Colorado River Rio Grande Great Plains Great Lakes Aleutian Islands CitiesUrban areasOther human features Los Angeles San Francisco Houston Dallas Canada Montreal Qauebec New Orleans Boston Ottawa Washington DC San Diego St Lawrence River Lake Superior Lake Michigan Lake Huron Lake Erie Lake Ontario Hudson Bay Nova Scotia Questions on Chapter 4 7 Latin America Instructions As you read and study the chapter answer the following questions Be familiar too with the terms at the end of the chapter Questions on the Chapter 4 quiz will be taken from this reading guide Introduction 1 N 9 4 V39 0 9 0 O N LA 4 Ul ON 00 What is the origin of the term Latin America Is the region similar throughout What similarities exist The latin America came from French geographers because region mainly spoke in Spanish and Portuguese Romance language The region is not similar throughout colonial history is one of the things that incorporate them Through colonialism immigration and trade the forces of Globalization have been at work in Latin America for decades Most countries specialized in one or two products bananas and coffee meat and wool wheat and corn petroleum and copper Such a Primary export tradition led to an unhealthy economic dependence on a handful of exports Why have some Central American countries been referred to as banana republics A105 because they mostly export bananas What is the largest country in the region Where does this country stand globally in terms of total population Brazil 5Lh country by population What percent of the population lives in cities What are the four megacities of the region 34 live in cities Sao Paulo Mexico City Buenos Aires Rio de Janeiro 39 39 Diversitv and Urban 1quot J The diversity and uniqueness of the Neotropics have long been of interests to naturalists naturalists such as Charles Darwin The region s biggest natural resource management challenge is to balance the economic benefits of t quot with the 39 39 39 J of Sustainable development What is happening to the incredibly beautiful temperate rainforests of Valdivia Chile Is being cleared to export wood chips to Asian market What drives much of the tropical rainforest destruction in Latin America as seen in Fig 45 making settlements and ranches and give land to the lanless and reward political elites they cut them to find gold coca cocain What is BR 364 and how does it contribute to tropical deforestation It is a popular road alongside this road they cut the forest How are countries of Southeast Asia becoming involved in the deforestation They buy wood chips to produce paperJapan What has helped to preserve the tropical forests of Costa Rica A102r because some environmental movements Read information on p 120 of your atlas on the two different perspectives on deforestation and make notes on the evidence that supports each What are the four environmental challenges facing the Valley of Mexico What are the causes and impacts of each Air pollution Mexico city sits in a 7400 feet above sea levelwarm air traps cold air near the surfacethermal inversion filled with exhaust industrial smoke garbage fecal matter water resources aquafers are being over used and polluted now they pump water from 100mile away a sinking land mexico city overused aquafer and because of that it is sinking modem urban challenges many urban dwellers tend to live in unplanned scatter settlements it is expensive to service them with utilities The city of Curitiba in Brazil receives international attention What is unique about this city Less pollution and developed public transportation Great drainage canals Latin America is geologically active and frequently suffers the impacts of earthquake One struck El Salvador in 2001 killing 900 people Your instructor survived one in Guatemala that killed 23000 O Historically why have most of the cities of Latin America been built in the uplands and plateaus Because of the mild climate arable land and sufficient rainfall that are important to agroculture Make notes on the characteristics of each of the following physical features the Andes beginning in north Venezuela ending at Tierra del Fuego it is divided to northern central and southem components It has greatest width in central component Altiplano treeless high plateau in Peru and Bolivia highest peak is in southern part 6958 meter the uplands of Mexico and Central America the Shields the Amazon Basin and the Plata Basin Look at the climate map on p 91 What four climate types cover the most extensive areas AfAwCfa and BSBsk Bsh Look at the diagram on p 115 of your atlas How does climate vary in the Andes Write the Spanish names and their English equivalents for the five climate zones beginning at sea level 23 The Atacama Desert is considered one of the driest deserts in the worlds In some places rain has never been recorded What is the cause of the aridity of this area of the region A115 the cold Peru current 24 What is El Nino It is a weather phenomena occurs when a warm Paci c current arrives along the normally cold coastal waters of Ecuador and Peru in December around Christmas Population and 39 7 The T 39 of Cities 1 In the 1950s and 1960s like in other regions of the world population soared Why did population growth in Latin America outpace that in the United States Because infant mortality rate declined life expectancy soared while its birth rate remained higher than that of USA 2 What country has the largest percentage of population living in cities Uruguay 3 What is urban primacy and how common is it in Latin America They have high urban primacy a condition in which a country has a primate city three to four times larger than any other city in the country 4 What is in situ accretion Squatter settlements In situ accretion an area of mixed levels of housing and services Squatter settlement very poor settlement with no sewer and unpaved roads waters trucked in 5 What is the difference between latifundia and minifundia Why have latifundia been historically significant in the region Were agrarian reform attempts successful Latifundia the establishment of long large blocks of estate land meant that peasants were denied access to territory of their own so they were forced to work for the estate They were passed down through generation Minifundia peasants have farmed small plots for their subsistence It was successful 6 Migration within the region and to other regions is the result of a number of factors What are some that are discussed by the authors of your text Between 18701930 Latin America wanted to whiten the population they mostly were mestizos late 19Lh and 20 centuries Japanese people immigrated Civil wars in Guatemala and El Salvador they migrated to Mexico and USA To seek work in other countriesUSA Europe Japan Cultural Coherence and Diversitv 7 P 7 What did the colonists find in terms of human settlement and civilization when they arrive in the New World Flouridhing civilization of Aztecs and Maya 8 Give four factors that contributed to the indigenous demographic collapse that began with the colonial period Disease warfare forced labor starvation 9 What five countries today have large indigenous populations How did the indigenous populations of these countries manage to survive Mexico Guatemala Ecuador Bolivia and Peru Isolationlong term occupancy 10 In temis of racial mixing what are the four broad racial categories that are found in the region today BlancoEuropean acestry Mestizomixed ancestry IndioIndian ancestry negroAfrican ancestry 11 Explain the most important aspects of the geography of language in the region 12 What role do syncretic religions play in the region How has syncretism developed Christiannity is mixed with indigenous beliefs because of it was little bit similar to their indigenous faithCamava1 in brazil Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico N O N N N I a nntinent Gennnliticnl Framework 7 n 1 the Map What was the significance of the Treaty of Tordesillas It lead to formation of Portuguese Brazil Since the 1980s however the trend has been toward democratically elected governments Most of the newly elected democratic leaders are also free market reformers who are quick to eliminate state What three countries are most important in terms of the production of coca Columbia Peru Bolivia On what primary economic commodities has the region relied CoffeeCosta Rica BrazilNicaragua 13 East part of Atlantic Ocean was belong to Portugal 14 Approximately how many years have most Latin American countries been independent 150200 years 15 backed social safety nets such as food subsidies 16 What is a subnational organization and how can one lead to internal con ict within a country Group that represents areas or people with in the state country They may have different ideologies than state authorities and they might want to separate from the state 17 What are the supposed benefits of economic trade blocks Name five blocks that have formed over the past decades in Latin America To promote internal marked and reduce trade barriers 1 Latin American integration association2 central American common market3 Andean group 4 NAFTA 5 Mercosur 6 CAFTA 18 Why are Latin American governments not real concerned about controlling the drug trade Because Drug Lords built schools and housing parks to their communities 19 E and Social D 39 7 Denendent Pnnnnmic Growth 20 What development strategies have been promoted over the past few decades Neoliberalismstresses privatization and free trade few restrictions on import 21 What is a maquiladora What are the positive and negative aspects of maquiladoras It is a manufactory facility that is been built by US They employ 13 mln people in Mexico 22 What is the informal sector in Latin America and why has it been so important not state regulated jobs most of people in some Latin countries employ themselves like this 23 bananasCosta Rica cottonNicaragua copperChile 24 What is dependency theory and how does it apply to Latin America It means that Latin American economy largely depend on USA and Europe 25 What is neoliberal economic policy and what impact has it had on Chile It stresses privatization export productions Foreign Direct Investment and few restrictions on import They are outspoken defender of neoliberalismtheir annual grth 20002007 was 45 26 What is dollarization partly or fully using dollar as a currency Ecuador did it in 2000 27 The mortality rate for children under five has dropped significantly What does this tell us about the social welfare of children in the region 28 What evidence is there of racial discrimination in Brazil 29 Based on the map on p 112 where is the greatest wealth in Mexico and in Brazil in general terms 30 How is life for women changing in the region The A after a page number indicates a page in your Nystrom DeskAtlaS Key Terms agrarian reform informal sector neoliberal policies subnational Altiplano paramilitary group neotropics organizations CAFTA latifundia O supranational dependency theory maquiladora remittances organizations dollarization megacities ruraltourban syncretic religion El Nino Mercosur migration Treaty of Tordesillas grassification mestizo shields urban primacy growth poles minifundia squatter settlements Chapter 4 Map Identi cation List Instructions Use the list below when taking the map quizzes Be sure to type the name of each map feature EXACTLY as it is listed here If you misspell the answer Blackboard will not give you points Physical features Mexican Plateau Baja California Altiplano Andes Mountains Amazon Basin Guiana Shield Brazilian Shield Pampas RegionsCountriesStatesProvinces Mexico Guatemala El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Costa Rica Panama Columbia Venezuela CitiesUrban areasOther human features Mexico City Bogota Buenos Aires Brasilia Caracas Lima Sao Paulo Rio de Janeiro Santiago Chile Patagonian Shield Pantanal Galapagos Islands Tierra del Fuego Amazon River Plata Basin Orinoco Basin Brazil Ecuador Bolivia Peru Paraguay Uruguay Argentina Chile Questions on Chapter 5 7 The Caribbean Instructions As you read and study the chapter answer the following questions Be familiar too with the terms at the end of the chapter Questions on the Chapter 5 quiz will be taken from this reading guide Introduction Over the centuries what has attracted people to the Caribbean region Cotton sugar cane 2 Why is the term isolated proximity used in reference to the Caribbean Because they rely on North American wealth 3 an enduring Cultural richness and attachment to the place is witnessed here that may explain a growing countercurrent of immigrants back to the Caribbean Environmental Geography 4 V39 05 D W O N b l LA When Columbus arrived on the island of Hispaniola it was a paradise Now the western onethird of the country which is occupied by Haiti is an environmental disaster What are the factors that contributed to the environmental destruction Forest cutting Europeans valued clear land to plant sugar canes cotton The severe depletion of the biological resources helps explain some of the present economic and social instability of the region What factors have contributed to the region s deforestation Building plantations to produce charcoal in Cuba According to the map in Fig 54 what five countries still have substantial tropical forest Dominican Republic Belize Guyana Suriname French Guiana What is the Rimland It is coastal zone in Belize and central America What environmental strains are discussed by your authors when speaking of the growth of Caribbean cities What four large islands make up the Greater Antilles Hispaniola Jamaica Cuba Puerto Rico What are the Lesser Antilles What force created them Double arc islands stretching from Virgin islands to Trinidad Volcanic activities mountains In terms of climate seasonality in the Caribbean is defined by changes in rainfall more than temperature Based on the climate map on p 122 what two climate types are most important Note Give both the letter designation and the climate type Afitropical wet climate AwTropical savanna climate Where do hurricanes that impact the Caribbean originate and what is the more frequent path that they take Form off the West Africa westward moving they typically enter through Lesser Antillas then they curve north or northwest and collide with greater Antilles central America mexico southern north America Population and Settlement 14 15 ON 00 O N O 21 22 About 87 of the region s population is concentrated on the four islands of the Greater Antilles What do the authors of your textbook say about population densities and food production and availability in the region What places are sparsely settled Lesser Antilles are densly settles Greater Antilles are highly populated but not so much densly arable lands are scarce so people move to cities or abroad What has happened to the rate of natural increase of the population over the past century Fertility rate declined What is the most significant population trend in the region as discussed by the authors of your text declinin The rate of HIVAID infection in the Caribbean is more than three times that in North America making the disease an important regional issue In what country of the region is the rate of infection the highest Bahamas3 What is the Caribbean diaspora and why has it occurred Economic ight of Caribbean peoples across the globe in search of work What factors since the 1960s have caused a ruraltourban migration Mechanization of agriculture offshore industrilization rapid population growth What are the impacts of the colonial period that are evident on the landscape today Plantation agriculture and subsistence farming shape most settlements Why does the housing shortage that impacts other cities in the region not as much of an issue in Havana Because of government housing apartment blocks like in Russia Cultural Coherence and Diversitv 23 24 25 the European colonial presence the African in uence and the mix of European and African cultures is referred to as creolization What economic activity necessitated the importation of African slaves to the region Work force plantations What were the characteristics of the plantation economy Slave labor force N ON At least 10 million Africans were carried in slave ships to the Americas see Fig 518 What percentage of the 10 million ended up in the Caribbeanrimland exclude British colonial America and Brazil 5345300 53 27 Who were the indentured laborers and why were they brought to the New World What have the longterm impacts been They are contract worker often for several years Suriname Guyana Trinidad and Tobago these states have them in Suriname 13 indian decent 16 JavaneseIndonesia they become business owners merchants 28 What are Voodoo Santeria and Obeah and how did they end up in the Caribbean They are African evolved religions they end up by African slaves What are the four most widelyspoken languages of the region as listed by your authors Spanish French English Dutch 30 What makes the region of cultural interest in terms of language They ve got Creole languages this is a blend of European and African languages In Jamaica it is English and African in uence 31 What types of music have made the region famous Reggae calypso merengue rumba zouk Geopolitical F rameworkz 32 Why have European states and the US been interested in the Caribbean region Because of the profitable tropical terristories they also wanted to push Spain out 3 Inspired by the Monroe Doctrine which claimed that the US would not tolerate European military involvement in the Western Hemisphere the US government made it clear that it considered the Caribbean to be within its sphere of in uence The authors of your text state that many residents believe that one kind of political dependence was being traded for another 7 colonialism for neocolonialism What does this mean Because USA promised liberation from European colonialism but instead it takes the power to its hand In what ways has the US in uenced politics and other aspects of life in the region Military ways they block ports and other facilities What is Puerto Rico s political status and why does it have a higher per capita income than many of its neighbors Because USA built 140000 industrial jobs resulting in market increase in per capita gross national product Commonwealth of Puerto Rico Why are each of the following years important in terms of the US history with Cuba 1898started military occupation 1959Fidel Castro took power 1960Cuba established strong diplomatic relation with USSR 1962Soviet missiles were found in Cuban soil early l990sfall of soviet union and end of cold war What is CARICOM and has it been successful Why or why not It is integration program among Caribbean statesCaribbean Community and common market it wasn t successful because islanders tend to keep their back to the sea didn t trust each other Economic and Social Development 39 How does the standard of living in the Caribbean compare to that of SubSaharan Africa South Asia and China better 40 Why is agriculture no longer as important as it was in the past Because of offshore banking tousism assembly plants challenged agriculture 41 What is the history of sugar in the region Dominate product of Caribbean in the past but today they don t depend on it What challenges are faced by banana farmers in the region and why do some of them grow marijuana instead They couldn t compete with Latin American producers and they started to change their fruits from bananas to avocadoes and marijuana and others What is assemblyplant industrialization and why has the region resorted to this type of economic activity How are free trade zones FTZs important in this activity Foreign investors building their assembly plants thus giving jobs FTZs important because they are duty free and tax exempt regions for foreign investors N 0 Li D A LA Ul LA ON U l U 00 A N A U 44 What is offshore banking and why has the region become important it is a banks that offers specialized services that are con dential and tax exempt This kind of activity helps to increase per capita income Why is the region important for tourism and what aspects of tourism are most pro table What is capital leakage that is associated with tourism Because it is pro table and less harmful for he environment Employing citizens Capital leakage is when tourists stay at hotels and ships that has headquarters out of an island For rich and poor alike the temptation to leave the region in search of better opportunities is always present Why Because of high unemployment poorly housed and dependance on foreign remittances 47 How does education in Cuba compare to that on the island of Hispaniola Cuba has high education rate among citizens almost all adults are literate than in Hispaniolaeven though Dominican R has 87 adult literacy Haiti half illiterate 48 What is a brain drain what are the forces behind it and what are its impacts Loosing educated people unemployment in homeland lead to lowering healthcare education and enterprise 49 What factors have contributed to the matriarchal societies of some Caribbean countries Because men leave home for employment Immigrants are expected to send money back home This money is extremely important in both economic and political terms What is the word for monies sent back home Remittances 4 u 4 ON VI 0 The A after a page number indicates a page in your Nystrom DeskAtlaS Key Terms African diaspora Greater Antilles Monroe Doctrine brain drain hurricanes neocolonialism capital leakage indentured labor offshore banking CARICOM isolated proximity plantation America Caribbean diaspora Lesser Antilles remittances creolization maroons rimland free trade zones monocrop production Chapter 5 Map Identi cation List Instructions Use the list below when taking the map quizzes Be sure to type the name of each map feature EXACTLY as it is listed here If you misspell the answer Blackboard will not give you points Physical features Hispaniola Caribbean Sea Lesser Antilles Windward Passage Greater Antilles RegionsCountriesStatesProvinces Bahamas Jamaica Belize Puerto Rico Cuba St KinsNevis Dominican Republic Suriname Guyana Trinidad and Tobago Haiti CitiesUrban areasOther human features Havana Kingston PortauPrince Santo Domingo Questions on Chapter 6 7 SubSaharan Africa Instructions As you read and study the chapter answer the following questions and de ne the terms Introduction 1 9 4 For what reasons do the authors of your text separate North Africa from SubSaharan Africa Because subSaharan africas culture is different that of Saharan Africa and because of the economic reasons North Africa closely related to arab world than to sub Saharan What are the characteristics of SubSaharan Africa that are discussed in the rst paragraph on p 146 SubSaharan Africa is poorer 43 is younger than 15 yrs 73 live in less than 2 a day life expectancy is 50 What factors create unity in the region Similar livelihood and colonial experience The cultural signi cance of European colonizers cannot be ignored European and were adopted and modi ed In spite of its integration into the world economy why is SubSaharan Africa still so poor Because of slavery export oriented mining and agriculture didn t serve the need of local people Environmental Geography 6 gt1 9 0 Africa is called the great plateau continent yet one of the most important features on the continent is the Great Rift Valley What is the Great Rift Valley and what are its characteristics 131A Figure 64 GRV zones is a series of faults that have created volcanoes escarpments elongates lakes and valleys What are ve environmental issues faced by the region as discussed by Rowntree et al desertification deforestation drought wild life conservationhow it is difficult city problems What is the Sahel and why is it important in a discussion of environmental issues It is a ecological transition from sahara to south part of the Africa Getting deserti cated How do transhumance and peanut production lead to deserti cation Because life in sahel depend on transhumance peanut production is between aptil and maythey r cultivating former desert wetland What is the Green Belt Movement and why was it necessary It is a movement that plants trees it empowerment of women environmental protection to meet fuel crisis Deforestation in Madagascar see Fig 69 is especially worrisome because the island forms a unique environment with large number of endemic species What is an endemic Endemic plants and animals native to particular area SubSaharan Africa is famous for its wildlife What factors contribute to its decline Population pressure civil unrestpoverty What is the ivory controversy and how is the CITES involved CITES banned ivory internationally but some African nations want to make them legal because they think it is nsot a poroblem What are the four major river systems of SubSaharan Africa What are the characteristics of each as discussed by the authors of your text Congo or Zaire largest watershed in the region by drainage area and volume of river ow tropical forest Zambezibegins in angola ows to indian oceansub Saharan two largest HydroElectic installations are located in Zambezi Victoria fall Nileis longest river in the world Nigercritical source of water for arid countries Mali and Niger Why do African soils tend to be infertile Where are the most fertile soils found African soil is old especially in tropical environments the most fertile soilsnb are in rift valley lake Victoria lowlands and in central highlands of Kenya Most of SubSaharan Africa lies in the tropical latitudes and it is the largest tropical landmass on the planet The three main biomes of the region are tropical forest Savanna and desert What is a biomeBiome are areas on the earth with similar climate plants and animals 18 What is the Ituri and where is it located Why is much of the tropical forest of Africa still intact Figure 69 Ituri 7 the second largest tropical rain forest is extended in Congo basin Low dencity of population exportation of oil not trees civil chaos Look at the map in Figure 66 on p 153 When traveling from Kisangani due north and due south what climate types will you encounter Tropical Web Climate Tropical savanna Tropical and subtropical steppetropical and sub tropical desertmarine west coast with dry season warm to cool summers What is a savanna Where are the most important savanna regions of the continent In terms of biogeography why are they important Figure 66 they wrapped around tropical forests have mixture of trees and tall grasses and immediately adjacent to the forest belt and shorter grasses with fewer trees in drier zones Important for ora and fauna DR of Congo Zambia East Angola 21 Where are the deserts of the region Figure 66 top right 131A southern and northern boundaries south west north east Population and Settlement 22 What are the population characteristics of SubSaharan Africa as listed by your authors in the first paragraph on population issues Young population 43 under 15 by 2050 increase by more than 100life expectancy 52 in 2008 35 live in cities 23 Six countries account for half of the region s population which is not densely populated and which has approximately the same population density as the United States 24 Does everyone agree that Africa has too many people No 25 What factors contribute to the preference for large families that is seen in the region work force kids take care of parents when they get older 26 What five countries have a life expectancy under 40 years No country Where are they located What four political units one is not a country have a life expectancy over 70 Cape verde reunion sechelles Where are they located Do you see any geographic pattern for high versus low life expectancy 27 it was estimated that the epidemic had already claimed 17 million lives in the region and left 12 million orphans What epidemic In what part of the continent is the incidence of the disease estimated to be over 10 Figure 616 HIV south part of Africa central west Africa 28 What are some of the methods thought to be good for preventing the spread of HIVAIDS 132A educating people condoms use contraceptives In Uganda state agencies along with NGOs began a national nononsense campaign for AIDS awareness in the late 1980s that focused on the schools What are the characteristics of each of the following types of agriculture as practiced in Africa subsistenceswiddenbuming the natural vegetation African agriculture is relatively unproductive plantationis designed to produe crops for export it is crucial for some statesAfrican countries rely on one or two export crops like coffee and cotton cacao peanut and herdingPastoralists are in horn of AfricaCattle Sahel goat and camel What limits the extent of cattle production Tsetse ies infestation Although SubSaharan Africa is considered the least urbanized region in the developing world most SubSaharan African cities are growing at twice the national growth rates Lagos is the largest city in the region with 14 million people 32 What are some of the characteristics of cities as described by the authors of your text Crime rate is high slums are not rare informal sector provide jobs for many Cultural Coherence and Diversity 33 What is the origin of many African cities What is apartheid and what impact did it have on the cities of South Africa Most Western African cities are colonial origin apartheid is racial segregation in south Africa cape town is divided into residential areas by color 34 The lack of traditional cultural and political coherence across SubSaharan Africa is not surprising if one considers the region s huge size How does the region compare in size to Europe 4 times larger than Europe O N O N 0 LA 0 U r 35 In most SubSaharan countries as in other former colonies multiple languages are used that re ect tribal colonial and national affiliations 36 How many languages families are represented as seen in the map on p 164 What conclusion can be made when studying the map inset on official languages of the region 6 very diverse region 37 What religions are important in the region how signi cant is religious con ict and where in particular right now is there what some say is a religious con ict In Nigeria and SudanDa1fur Islam Christianity and animism Geopolitical Framework 38 prior to European colonization SubSaharan Africa presented a complex mosaic of kingdoms states and tribal societies What did colonization do to this social organization Colonialists divided the territories without considering ethnicity What do early colonists face as they tried to gain control of territory on the African continent Disease What is the Berlin Conference How did the present country boundaries come about It is a gathering of European powers to decide how to devide Africa organazer is Bismarck 41 What is the history of the Boer War Who were the Afrikaners and what impact did they have in South Africa War of Dutch fanners with Britain Afrikaners are Dutch whites in south Africa there are farmers 42 When did much of the decolonization of the region take place What European power was reluctant to give up control Who is Kwame Nkrumah and what did he in uence Beginning in 1957 Portugal was reluctant to give up its colonies Kwame was Ghana s president who wanted the unity of Africa but it never happened It lead to AU 43 Why has independence not brought peace to Africa Because they were lack of educated people and they were divided not evenly by ethnicity 44 What is the difference between refugee and internally displaced What does Figure 635 tell you about the situation in SubSaharan Africa in terms of con ict Refugees are people who ee their state because of wellfounded fear of persecution based on race ethnicity and so on Internally displaced personsIDPs have ed from con ict but still reside in their country of origin 45 How is genocide defined and what country now has UN peacekeepers as a result of this Deliberate and systematic killing of racial political or cultural group Sudan 46 The deadliest ethnic and political con ict in the region has been in the Democratic republic of congo 47 What are secessionists movements and why would one expect them to occur in Africa They are people that want to separate from state and organize new state Because there is lots of tribes and clans Economic and Social Development 48 By almost any measure SubSaharan Africa is the poorest and the least developed world region 49 What is structural adjustment why is it promoted who promotes it and what its impacts It was prompted cuz of debt crisis 980s and 90s promoted by international monetary fundIMF and world bank To reduce government spending cut food subsidies encourage private sector initiatives Couse harship for women and children life in cities Made Africa even poorer What are the roots of African poverty Colonial past Europeans didn t educate them just interested in minerals Corruption kleptocracy According to a recent poll of international businesspeople what African country is the world s most corrupt country What is a kleptocracy kleptocracy state which institunaliazed the corruption Somalia first Sudan second How integrated is the continent into the world economy Connectivity is one indicator of integration What do the authors of your text say about the regions connectivity Less than 2 of global trade 1 phone line for 100 in Nigeria average 2 lines 100 23 cell phone100 Why is the region starved for capital capital that could further the development of the continent Because of the unstable social environment LA 0 4 0 VI 0 UI UI N UI LA u 4 states had a lot of debt to pay UIUIUI IONUI clothing manufacturers lost their jobs 5 00 malaria aids Poverty kills people 59 What is the status of women and what are some of the issues that they face The A after a page number indicates a page in your Nystrom DeskAtlaS Key Terms African Union apartheid Berlin Conference biofuels clans coloured desertification genocide Great Escarpment homelands Horn of Africa internally displaced persons kleptocracy pastoralists refugee Sahel Chapter 6 Map Identi cation List What is debt reduction and why has it been necessary To use debt money for infrastructure Some What is ECOWAS SADC and CEEAC How successful have they been What resources have brought some wealth to the region Oil minerals gold Gabonfew people What negative impact has used clothing from the West had on the region Many people working in In general terms how is the region doing in terms of life expectancy and health Bad lower 40 structural adjustment programs swidden transhumance tribalism tribe tsetse y Instructions Use the list below when taking the map quizzes Be sure to type the name of each map feature EXACTLY as it is listed here If you misspell the answer Blackboard will not give you points Physical features Congo Basin Congo River Kalahari Desert Lake Tanganyika Lake Nyasa Mt Kilimanjaro Namib Desert Niger River RegionsCountriesStatesProvinces Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Central Africa Rep Chad Congo Brazzaville Congo Kinshasa Cote d Ivoire Ivory Coast Djibouti Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Gambia GuineaBissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Sahel Serengeti Plain Victoria Falls Zambezi River Niger Nigeria Rwanda Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Swaziland Zimbabwe CitiesUrban areasOther human feature Cape Town Johannesburg Lagos Questions on Chapter 7 7 The Southwest Asia and North Africa Instructions As you read and study the chapter answer the following questions Be familiar too with the terms at the end of the chapter Questions on the Chapter 7 quiz will be taken from this reading guide Introduction N 9 9399 In Setting the Boundaries the authors of your text give four characteristics of the region Largely dry climates an Islamic religious tradition abundant fossil fuel reserves and persistent political instability Why is the region referred to as a key global culture hearth The region produced many new culture that spread around the world The 20Lh century development of the petroleum industry largely initiated by the US and European investment has had enormous consequences for the economic development within the oilrich countries of the region Why do Islamists resent the West They blame west for their poverty What has shaped human settlement in the region and impacted the survival of plants and animals They settled in the water regions agriculture isn t developed Environmental Geography 6 gt1 9 0 Ho N What are five types of environmental degradation of the regions as seen in the map in Figure 74 desertification river pollution salinization coastal pollution aquifer depletion deforestation has resulted in a long slow deterioration of the region s water supply and in accelerated soil erosion How does salinization occur and what impacts has it had on the region Irrigation for centuriesBuild up of toxic salts in the soil thousand of acres of once fertile lands are destroyed by salinization What have been the positive and negative impacts of construction of the Aswan High Dam Made more land and water available for agriculture clean electricity for people increase in salinization of the region collapse of mediterrenian fishery near nile delta Increased inputs of costly fertilizer infilling of Lake Nasser increased salinization and an increased incidence of schistosomiasis are all negative impacts of Why is the Jordan River critical in terms of hydropolitics Because it is between Israel and Jordan What are some of the geomorphological aspects of the region Mauntainsrocky plateus and lowlands and others BS BW and Cs climates dominate the region What is each climate type and in general where is each found Cs mediterranian summer dry around Med Sea and in north west Iran BW tropical and subtropical desert sahara Arabian peninsula BS tropica subtropical steppe central Anatolia most of iran ans southem sudan Population and Settlement l3 14 15 ON 1 Large areas of the population map remain almost devoid of permanent settlement while lands with available moisture suffer increasingly from problems of crowding and overpopulation Why is the physiological density of most countries of the region high There is less arable land Look at the population map on p 195 List in geographic terms the five most important population clusters Nile valley Maghreb region southwest Asia shores of Mediterranean southwest Arabian peninsula What is the Fertile Crescent and why historically is it so important in terms of agriculture Ecological diverse zone stretches from the Lavent inland through the fertile hill country of northern Syria into Iraq Fewer than 10 million pastoral nomads remain in the region today What is a pastoral nomad They depend of seasonal movement of their livestock What is an exotic river Name three that are of importance in the region under study Kibbutzesizrael the Nile Tigris and Euphrates rivers Exotic rivers transport precious water and nutrients from more humid lands into drier regions 19 What illegal crops are being produced in the dry lands of this region Canabis hashish crop 20 For what reasons have cities of the region been important historically Trade route religious centers political authority 21 What are some of the characteristics of a traditional Islamic city Urban core medina dominated by central mosque nearby bazaar saq houses are located tightly to increase shadow 22 Since 1950 cities in the region have become the gateways to the global economy Explain this Because they opened to change in other parts of the society They were rst to open to investments 23 What aspect of the global economy has changed urban traditions in recent decades Oil production 24 What push and pull factors are at work in the region in terms of migration patterns 25 Why is the fertility rate in some countries going down More urban consumer oriented increase in contreceptives Arabic women delaying marriege to middle 20Lh and even early 30m 26 Areas such as the West bank Gaza and Yemen experience some of the highest rates of natural increase on the planet Cultural Coherence and Diversity Truefalse A surprising degree of cultural diversity characterizes the region Explain your answer 203 What is the Jewish diaspora and how is it important today It is important What three modern religions originated in Southwest Asia What are the major characteristics of each as discussed by the authors of your text When did a division occur in Islam Why did it occur and what are the two major groups of Islam today 632 How did Islam spread to other parts of the world What was the Ottoman Empire When did it appear and when did it disintegrate Today Muslims form the majority population in all of the countries of the region except Israel Where do Shiites dominate What impact did the death of Saddam Hussein have on the Shiites and Iraq Why is the city of Jerusalem so signi cant in modern times In addition to Arabic what four languages are important see Figure 728 Do they all belong to the same language family Nilosaharan Altaic indoeuropean afroasiatic 7 What aspects of our global world threaten the culture of North Africa SW Asia Geopolitical Framework 38 What role have European powers played in the region 39 By the 1950 most of the countries of the region were independent 40 What political events have taken place in the Sudan over the past 20 years 41 Based on the four maps presented in Figure 732 what is the history of what was once Palestine Occupied by Jews 42 What is the West Bank and who controls it Fatah party paletinian 43 What two activities of Israel have angered the Palestinians Entering israleli people to the region building settlements in the West bank 44 What is Hezbollah and how has this organization contributed to the instability of the region Shiite islamists in lebanon against Israel state Ultimately the sacred geography of Jerusalem a mere 220 acres of land within the Old City stands at the center of the con ict 46 What is the history of con ict in Iraq Iran Kuwait and the US since 1980 47 Who are the Kurds and what do they want 48 What contributes to instability in Saudi Arabia and Iran Saudiya US presence in the regions Wahhabi sect Economic and Social Development 49 SW AsiaN Africa is a region of both incredible wealth and discouraging Poverty 50 Truefalse Petroleum resources are evenly distributed across the region 51 What country has the most extensive petroleum reserves Natural gas reserves How do these figures compare to figures for the US Saudi Arabia21USA2oil iran16 gatar15USA3 gas NNN Ooo LA 0 LAUJUJ LAN U 4 mm GNU U 4 u 52 What five countries have collected billions of dollars in revenues from oil What is the darker side of dependence on oil and natural gas exports What is the current socioeconomic situation in Iraq today Unstable Kurds Shiites Sunnis ght again Why does Israel have such a high standard of living Large amount of investment high tech industry Why do each of the following face serious economic challenges Sudan Egypt Yemen Gaza and the UIUIUIUIUI IONUIALA 58 59 60 What are the two major geological zones that supply much of the region s output of fossil fuels West Bank The role of women in the largely Islamic region remains a major social issue In what ways are women s lives controlled How is the situation changing What does the region have to offer that attracts tourists Key Terms brain drain Islamism pastoral nomadism culture hearth kibbutzes physiological densities domestication Levant qanat system exotic rivers Maghreb Quran Fertile Crescent Medina Shiites fossil water monotheism Suez Canal Hajj Sunnis hydropolitics Ottoman Empire theocratic state Islamic fundamentalism Palestinian Authority transhumance Chapter 7 Map Identification List Instructions Use the list below when taking the map quizzes Be sure to type the name of each map feature EXACTLY as it is listed here If you misspell the answer Blackboard will not give you points Physical features Sinai Peninsula Dead Sea Persian Gulf Arabian Peninsula Jordan River Atlas Mountains Mediterranean Sea Nile River Sea of Galilee Red Sea Lake Nasser Arabian Sea Sahara Desert RegionsCountriesStatesProvinces Egypt Qatar Turkey Sudan United Arab Emirates Lebanon Tunisia Yemen Syria Algeria Oman Jordan Morocco Libya Israel Saudi Arabia Western Sahara Golan Heights Kuwait Iran Gaza Bahrain Iraq West Bank CitiesUrban areasOther human features Cairo TelAviv Baghdad Mecca Jerusalem Basra Medina Beirut Tehran Khartoum Bethlehem Ankara Riyadh Damascas Istanbul Suez Canal Aswan High Dam Questions on Chapter 8 7 Europe Instructions As you read and study the chapter answer the following questions and de ne the terms Introduction 1 More than half of Europe lies north of the 49 parallel 2 The region is home to about 531 million people 3 The supranational organization called the European Union EU is made up of 27 countries Environmental Geography 4 According to the authors of your text what four factors explain the diversity of the region The complex geology of this western exension of the Eurasian landmass has produced some ofthe newest as well as the oldest landscapes in the world 2 Europe s latitudinal extent creates opportunities for diversity because the region extends from the arctic to the Mediterranean subtropics 3 These latitudinal controls are further modi ed by the moderating in uence of the atlantic ocean and black Baltic and Mediterranean seas 4 The long history of human settlement in Europe has transformed the region s natural landscapes in fundamental ways What is the physical and socioeconomic significance of the European lowland Socioeconomic Great ports are located thereLondonHamburgErope s major river are also therethamesthe Loire the Rhine Physiological elevation doesn t exeed 150 meters but in Brittany and France it exeeds 300 meters What are three major environmental problems displayed in Figure 88 of your text Acid rain polluted rivers poor urban air quality How does Europe rate in terms of being green Why Is the greenest world region because of EU added environmental issues to its economic and political agenda 8 Why is the environmental situation in eastern Europe so bad Because of soviet communist system Study the pollution map on p 150 of your atlas What small country has experienced the greatest damage to its trees What are the two major sources of acid rain pollution 150A Why have the central uplands been of importance What is the shield landscape of Scandinavia and how was it formed 228 They have provided raw materials to western Europeli1lte iron and coal to germany and france the shield landscapes were formed by erosion of bedrocks by glaciers What are the three principal climates of the region and where is each important Continental Maritime from Portugal to finland along atlantic o Mediterrenean Of what significance are the oceans and seas in the region in terms of climate Warmth the climate What current brings warm water from equatorial regions up to western Europe 144A north atlatic drift Gulf Stream Of what economic significance are Europe s rivers and which is the longest river in the region Danube is longest major ports are mostly located in the mouth of major rivers What was the role of windmills in the Netherlands To produce energy reduce carbon footprint What is the Zuider Zee project What of the Netherlands is below sea level 139A 27 reclaimed lands polders What two mountain ranges separate Europe from Asia l38139A Ural Caucasus Population and Settlement 18 How is the population of Europe distributed Where are the greatest concentrations of people Core perifery distribution Concentrations are 7 north italy west gennany north france netherland uk 19 Why do some predict a decline in the population of Europe in the future What could possibly offset the decline Migration is offset low increase rate death higher than birth V 0 u 50 O 1 1 HH pm H H V 4 HH SQ N O N N N 2 L 4 U Some demographers suggest the addition of a fth stage to the Demographic Transition Model Why What would that stage be called Post industrial period below replacement level of population Table 81 indicates that the RNI of countries in Eastern Europe are all negative How do the authors of your text explain this negative growth in population migration TO WEST EUROPE migration is one of the most challenging population issues facing Europe today because the region is caught in a web of con icting policies and values Why does the region need guest workers What challenges do guest workers create After war Europe needed workers to do works that is why immigrants came they create ethnic enclaves they fill in free work places before natives In reference to city landscapes in Europe what are the three historical periods discussed by the authors of your text When did each period occur What are the characteristics of each period Medieval900 1800 narrow streets small spaces inside houses Renaissancebaroque15001800 more spacious and expansice ceremonial buildings they started to build walls after building the wall cities couldn t expand outward so they expanded inward building new stories to the medieval houses Industrial1800 to present the cities were altered by rail roads and other industrial innovations Truefalse Most countries in Europe have laws and regulations designed to preserve and protect their cultural heritage in historical cities true Cultural Coherence and Diversity 26 European culture spread across the world changing speech religion belief systems dress and habits w 0 w 4 3 u 00 O r N L U of millions of people on every continent Today though many European countries resist the varied expressions of global culture The culture of Europe is highly complex What two aspects of culture are most important 1 highly varied and fascinating mosaic of languages customs religions ways of life 2european culture played leading role in globalization European colonization brought change to every comer of the world What three language families are most important and in what part of Europe does each dominate Germanicnorth of the alpsEngland German Sweden Iceland dutch and Norway romance French spain Portugal and italy SlavicPolandszech Slovak Slovenia croatia Serbia Bulgaria macedonia What happened to the Christian Church in Europe in 1054 When did the Protestant revolt take place Explain the geography of Christian and Protestant religions in the region today In 1056 Roman empire spit into west and east parts in 16Lh century protestants split from catholic church protestants live peacefully today than beforebu1 there is a tension in Ireland What religion did the Ottoman Turks bring to the region How long did their presence last Islam they present today What was the Jewish Pale How many Jews were murdered during the Holocaust What European country has the fastestgrowing Jewish population outside of Israel After persecution from reconquesta and inquisition they ed to central Europe Jewish pale 6mln were murdered Germany What is the history of religious strife in Northern Ireland Catholic and protestant christs fight eachother54 protestants 42 Catholics Catholics feel they are discriminated Since World War II Europe has been trying to control cultural contamination from north america In what ways has France tried to protect its culture from outside in uence Ban head scarf don t let fast food and GMOs Cultural battles between European natives and immigrants have waged over the past few decades What government action against Muslim high school females triggered riots Head scarfs Geopolitical Framework 3 ox oou One of Europe s unique characteristics is its dense fabric of 41 independent states within a relatively small area Why does most of Europe see a bright future Because they live in oeace What problems occurred as a result of the way boundaries were drawn on the map after World War I new nationstates were born like Yugoslavia and czechoslavakia Baltic states to create more tensions among them they didn t devide by ethnicity some ethnic groups left minorities in this states 4 O 4 4 N 4 L 4 0 Litbk 0000 U m N mm bu U U What three competing ideologies were presented as solutions to problems in Europe brought on by the Depression and other political and economic problems Capitalism communism fascism What was the Iron Curtain and what happened to the east of it from 1945 to 1990 It is a infamous border between west and eastern Europe east was imposed by communist stuff What was the Cold War and what led to the Cold War thaw When did the Berlin Wall fall The decline and fall ofUSSR 1989 What is the world s smallest independent country and how many people does it have 133A Vatican less than 1000 39 and Social D As the acknowledged birthplace of the Industrial Revolution Europe in many ways invented the modern economic system of industrial capitalism Westem Europe s success at blending national economies has given the world a new model for regional cooperation an approach that may be imitated in Latin America and Asia in the 21st century What two fundamental changes were associated with the industrial revolution 1 Machines replaced human labor 2 inanemate source of energy like water steam petroleum powered that machines Where were the center of this change and what type industry was involved Pennine mountains England woolen textile By the second half of the l9Lh century the dominant industrial area in all Europe was the Ruhr district in northwestern Germany This region was heavily bombed during World War II What led to the downfall of Europe as the world industrial power war Today what country has most seriously adopted nuclear power 142A france How did the European Union EU come about European coal and steel industryecscfrance germany italy Luxemburg Belgium to european economic communityeec to European community with its own parliamentEC to in EC to EUl99l What is Euroland European monitary union with their own money What is a command economy What did the collapse of communism do to many Eastern European countries What were the characteristics of the economy under communism Was communism successful When did the Soviet domination over the region come to an end Why was the transition period after communism so painful 90sLack of cheap oil in east Europe Has privatization been successful in Eastern Europe What action on the part of some countries indicates their disinterest in going back to being a satellite country The A after a page number indicates a page in your Nystrom DeskAtlaS Key Terms buffer zone guest workers moraines Cold War Iron Curtain polders continental climate irredentism privatization Cyrillic alphabet marine west coast climate RenaissanceBaroque Euroland maritime climate landscape European Union EU medieval landscape secularization fjord Mediterranean climate shield landscape Chapter 8 Map Identification List Instructions Use the list below when taking the map quizzes Be sure to type the name of each map feature EXACTLY as it is listed here If you misspell the answer Blackboard will not give you points Physical features Adriatic Sea Black Sea North sea Aegean Sea Danube River Pyrenees Alps English Channel Scandinavian Peninsula Balkan peninsula Iberian Peninsula Strait of Gibraltar Baltic Sea Lapland Mediterranean Sea RegionsCountriesStatesProvinces Albania Great Britain Netherlands Andorra Greece Norway Austria Hungary Poland Belgium Iceland Portugal Bosnia and Herzegovina Ireland Romania Bulgaria Italy San Marino Croatia Latvia Serbia Cyprus Liechtenstein Slovakia Czech Republic Lithuania Slovenia Denmark Luxembourg Spain Estonia Macedonia Sweden Finland Malta Switzerland France Monaco United Kingdom Germany Montenegro Vatican City World Cities 1 amp 2 d tier Amsterdam Geneva Prague Brussels Londonquot Rome Dusseldorf Madrid Stockholm Frankfort Milan Warsaw Paris Zurich Questions on Chapter 9 The Russian Domain Instructions As you read and study the chapter answer the following questions and de ne the terms Introduction 1 According to the authors of your text the Russian Domain includes Russia along with what ve other countries Ukraine Belarus Moldova Georgia and Armenia The fall of the Soviet Union occurred in what year 1991 Russia is the world s largest country 7 nearly twice the size of Canada Russia stretches across Europe and Asia from the Baltic Sea to the Paci c Ocean and from the arctic Ocean to the black and Caspian Seas Asian Russia is often called siberia A149 Environmental Geography 4 Within the Russian Domain what species is in danger and where exactly are they located 5 Who is the culprit for this species near extinction Pacific salmon 6 What is another problem that affects hundreds of cities and industrial areas throughout the region Air water pollution nuclear threat 7 Name some of the speci c places affected by water and air pollution During the Soviet period what city was thought to be one of the dirtiest in Siberia if not the entire Western Hemisphere 9 Why is this city in Siberia so dirty In terms of latitude Moscow sits as far north as what American city Ketchikan Alaska Concerning water what is one of the major geographical advantages of European Russia Why is this an advantage Different river systems all linked by canals goods can ow in many directions 9 ii HO 12 13 Brie y describe the various Russian Domain climates What four climate zones dominate the Russian Domain BSkmidlattitude steppebeHumid continental cool summerchSubarctic short cool summer DwdSubarctic very cold winter ETTundra In Russia snow and ice cover Siberia for halfthe year and the temperature can drop as low as 900 F 680 C What town in Siberia has the distinction of being the world s coldest continuously inhabited settlement A159 Verkhoyansk Population and Settlement 9 O NNN NHO N 9 N 4 MN U N The Russian domain is home to more than residents living mainly in Look at the graph on p 149 of your atlas European Russia has of the land area and the total population What percentage of the GDP does European Russia claim The majority of the population lives in what portion of the continent Western part The region s largest cities biggest industrial complexes and most productive farms are located in the European core a subregion that includes Belarus much of Ukrain and Russia west of the Urals The highly commercialized river that supports a diverse industrial base strategically located to serve the large populations of the European Core is what Edil The Siberian hinterlands are divided into two regions each of which can be linked to railroad lines What are these railroad lines Describe the route of the TransSiberian Railroad Describe the route of the BaikalAmur Mainline BAM Railroad Why were peasants originally attracted to the Siberian region Agricultural opportunity freedom from czar Political motives also shaped migration patterns Uncounted millions were forcibly relocated to the region s wellknown Gulag Archipelago Russi cation the Soviet policy of resettling Russians into nonRussian portions of the Soviet Union also changed the regions human geography What do large Russian cities possess within their cores or centers Explain the purpose and uniqueness of mikrorayons What do present trends suggest in terms of Russia s population Figure 920 What are some troubling symptoms of the region s population problems Death rates began exceeding birth rates in the early 90s by 2050 Russia could have 45mln ppl of Cultural Coherence and Diversity 2 N L r 4 8 9 The origin of the Russian Empire lies in the history of which people Slavic political power grew by 900 CE as they intermarried with southwardmoving warriors from known as or What religion had brought into the Russian Empire by 1000 CE Along with this new religion came aspects of what culture including what By the 7 century Northern Slavic peoples overthrew state and did what Who did Tsar Peter the Great defeat in the early 1700s and what did he obtain through it What language and people dominate the Russian Domain Russians Russian language What percentage of Russia s population claims a Russian linguistic identity What are Finnish speaking people called and where do they live Most Russians Belorussians and Ukrainians share a religious heritage of Why did Soviet leaders turn against modernism by the late 1920s To where did Soviet artists ee After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 increased information and movement into the region brought what Global cultural in uence When did MTV Russia officially go on the air By 2005 it had reached how many viewers Geopolitical Framework When and why did the Bolsheviks seize power Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks Who was to receive a union republic and under what circumstances Who was Joseph Stalin Dictator froml922l953 What territories did Russia claim as a result of a victorious power in WWII JgtJgt bu JgtJgtJgtJgt ooumm Who was Winston Churchill What was the Iron Curtain After W W 2primeminister of uk Who was Mikhail Gorbachev and what policy did he initiate Glasnost In response to increasing food shortages and the declining Gorbachev introduced Perestroika Who joined the Commonwealth of Independent States CIS What document was signed in March 1992 and what did it say What is the problem with political fragmentation Why is a centralized state more ideal Since the fall of the Soviet Union what kinds of tensions continue to challenge the Russians in both the east and west Explain the boundary between Russian and China in East Asia Economic and Social Development 4 O L O UIUIUIUIUI mgwph mm 0 U 00 Between 1990 and 1999 what percent of Russia s gross national product decline What did these declines mark What did the birth of the Soviet Union initiate in 1917 Radical change in economy of the region Under the Russian Empire most people were Peasant farming the land much as they had done for centuries What proved to be important during the 1930s and World War II List the Russian domain s basic infrastructure that originated during the Soviet period What is the VolgaDon Canal and during what period was it built Figure 933 What happened in Russia in 1992 1993 How much of the private economy and how much of staterun enterprises are estimated under Russian ma a control Private 40 state run enterprises 60 Has global capitalism hit Russia and if so how has it What remains one of the strongest economic links between the region and the global economy Oil and Gas industry Russia s energy production makes up more than 25 percent of its entire economic output Russia has 35 percent of the world s natural gas reserves and is the world s Largest gas exporter has affected different locations within the Russian domain in very distinctive ways Within has brought its most dramatic though selective benefits to Russia The A after a page number indicates a page in your Nystrom DeskAtlaS Key Terms podzol soils Cold War Chemozem soils glasnost taiga perestroika permafrost Commonwealth of Independent States CIS TransSiberian Railroad denuclearization BaikalAmur Mainline Railroad tsars Gulag Archipelago Russifrcation Mikrorayons Slavic peoples Eastern Orthodox Christianity centralized economic planning Cossacks Socialist realism Bolsheviks autonomous areas exclave Iron Curtain Map Identification for Russia and Central Asia Instructions Use the list below when taking the map quizzes Be sure to type the name of each map feature EXACTLY as it is listed here If you misspell the answer Blackboard will not give you points Physical Features Black Sea Caspian Sea Aral Sea Lake Baikal Caucasus Mountains Ural Mountains Ob River Barents Sea Kamchatka Peninsula Kuril Islands Siberia West Siberian Lowland Siberian tundra Siberian taiga CountriesOther Political Units Russia Belarus Ukraine Moldova Georgia Armenia Azerbaijan Turkmenistan Kazakhstan Chechnya Kyrgyzstan Uzbekistan Tajikistan Mongolia CitiesOther Human Features St Petersburg Kiev Moscow Irkutsk Arkhangelsk Questions on Chapter 11 7 East Asia Instructions As you read and study the chapter answer the following questions and define the terms Introduction 6 China s population is approximately 13 bln people 61 Approximately 95 of the residents of China live in the eastern half of China often referred to as china proper 62 While China is still governed by the Communist Party it is now on a path of capitalist development 3 19 63 East Asia must be recognized as one of the core areas of the world economy and it is emerging as a center of the political power as well Environmental Geography What is the path taken by the Chang Jiang and how has it been important to the country Important corridor for transporting good to interior china beautiful Where does this river originate Tibetian highlandsWhat are the main environmental problems of the region ooding The Three Gorges Dam is the largest hydroelectric dam in the world Why was it built to prevent ooding generate electricity decrease environmental issues from coal plants Why has it been controversial Because some people say its cost was high than its benefits that endangered yantze dolphins displacd more than lmln ppl The Huang He or Yellow River which cuts through the North China Plain has been referred to as China s Sorrow Why Because it caused historically a lot of damage by flooding and killing many ppl it changed its path 26 times What is loess where is it found and what problems are associated with it It is a fine windblown material that that was deposited on the Loes plateau west of north china plain upland area during last ice age Its soil is fertile but washes away easily Why does China suffer a severe shortage of forest resources Chinas uplands don t support big trees and Chinese ppl cultivated maize sweet potatoes and other crops for 2 hundreds of years that this soils cant support forests Genereally china is not caricaturized as savers of forests as Japanese ppl What has contributed to environmental pollution Coal burning automobiles At present 16 of the world s 20 most polluted cities are located in China 0 N 9 4 V 0 12 Give three reasons that Japan s environment is relatively clean 1 Large population travelling in cities easier by subways than by private auto 2 environmental strict laws 3 it relocated its dirty factories to poorer countries of East Asia Cfa is a humid subtropical climate It is found in southeastern US and in what three parts of East Asia Southern japan south eastern china Taiwan What is the Kanto Plain What 2 major cities are located there Is the largest alluvial plain in Japan l30km to l60km Tokyo and Yokohama Why does Japan experience frequent earthquakes Because it has 85 covered by mountains What produces the heavy snows of northwestern Japan Subarctic climate type In terms of the physical environment how is North China different from South China North cold summer precipitation but other seasons it is dry Overall low precipitaion unpredictable More at South lots of mountains limited agriculture Large plateaus found in far south There is an unintentional wildlife refuge in the Korea peninsula How has it come about What endangered species do the authors of your text mention live in this refuge Population and Settlement 13 4 UI ON 26 East Asia is one of the most densely populated regions of the world What has happened to the population growth rate It declined dramatically What is the situation in Japan Lose of population China Expanding of population though its population growth is low by global standards What are the characteristics of agriculture in Japan Because lowlands in Japan are rare so agricultire should share that land with population settlements Farming in jpn is very intense What is the major crop Rice Based on the population indicators in Table 111 on p 319 which country of East Asia has the highest standard of living Japan Lowest North Korea What two regions of China are most densely populated North china plain with loess plateau and Sichuan basin Central and southern china is highly populated in the broad lowlands Where are the vast majority of Japanese located Lowlands of japan industrial beltsfrom Tokyo to Nagoya Osaka How do living quarters of Japanese cities compare to those in US cities Apartment complexes gray and dull places Truefalse Over half of China s people live in cities How does north China differ from South China in terms of crops produced Southemcentral yearroundsub tropical crops sweet potatoes corn Northless agricultural productionloess plateau Are countries of East Asia selfsufficient in terms of food production No Jpn s krea main food importers of the world Truefalse China has one of the world s oldest urban foundations When the communists came to power in 1949 Shanghai with a population of over 19 million people was the secondlargest city in the world What is the oating population How large is this population what do they do What are the three largest cities of China Beijing Shanhai Hong Kong What three cities are parts of the greater metropolitan area of the Xi Delta Hong Kong Shenzhen Guangzhou South Korea is noted for pronounced urban primacy while Japan is the center of a new urban phenomenon that of the super conurbationmegapolis Today the Greater Tokyo metropolitan area is home to almost 2530 million people Cultural Coherence and Diversity 27 28 29 Religion is a unifying characteristic of the region How is the religion of the region characterized Written language characters What is ideographic writing Each symbol represents meaning not sound What is its disadvantage It is difficult to learn person have to memorize all the characters What is Confucianism It is a philosophy idea system largely in china and Korea Not religion Where and when did it originate China 6th century BCA How has it been important to East Asian culture Confucius stresses to obedience to authority and authorities care to subjects Emphasized education 30 What are characteristics of each of the following and where is each practiced Mahayana Buddhism 7 followers can practise other religions quest to escape an endless rebirth and reach union with cosmosnirvana mostly China and Korea not Japan Shintoism for Japanese ppl place and nature centered religion and Taoismor Daoism indirectly associated with Feng ShuiGeomancy in englishChina and Korea 31 Truefalse East Asia is one of the most secular regions in the world 32 Under the Communist government of Chairman Mao what philosophy took the place of religion Marxist philosophy 33 The Japanese form one of the world s most homogeneous peoples What does this mean All the same What is the name of the indigenous group of northern Japan Ainu people24000ppl left 34 The Koreans are also a relatively homogenous group A Korean diaspora has brought hundreds of people to USA Australia New Zealand Philippines and others 35 Who are the Han Historically related to the Chinese history and politics Do they all speak the same language No What language is spoken by the large majority of them Mandarin Geopolitical Framework 36 The traditional Chinese conception of geopolitics was based on the idea of a universal empire All territories were supposed to be a part of the Chinese Empire pay tribute to it and acknowledge its supremacy or stand outside the system altogether 37 The original core of Chinese civilization was the North China Plain and the Loess Plateau 38 From its height in the 1700s under the Manchus the Chinese Empire declined rapidly in the 1800s as it failed to keep pace with the technological progress of Europe What did the Europeans want from China They were lack of silver to buy stuff and then they started to sell opium What did the British begin to sell that led to a war Opium 39 What is a shogun Is a military leader who in theory remains under the emperor Japan remained largely closed to foreign commerce and in uence until what American gunboat came to the shore of Tokyo bay What did this initiate among Japanese leaders They started to modernize their economy and military 40 Why did Japan begin to build an empire Because they were threatened by European power What Asian lands did they eventually control see Figure 1131 on p 332 Korea east south asia What did the Japanese decide to do in 1941 to expand their in uence To destroy us eet in the pacific Were they successful Nope 41 What became of Japan s military after World War 11 Military was limited by US imposed constitution What is the US role in the country today Japan rely on US military supportnuclear and so on 42 What series of events led to the Korean War Division to two parts 38 parallel north korea invaded south 1950and war aftermards What is the demilitarized zone Zone between north and south korea runs near the 38 parallel Why did US troops remain To secure the safety 43 Tensions between North and South Korea have eased In spite of reduced tensions the North Korean government has continued to work on both nuclear weapon and rocket delivery systems What does North Korea want ofthe US to leave 44 World War II brought tremendous destruction and loss of life to China 45 In 1949 the communists proved victorious forcing the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan A dormant state of war between China and Taiwan has persisted ever since Do the Nationalists in Taiwan still believe China will be reunited No What does China threaten to do if Taiwan declares independence To invade it 46 Taiwan is basically a singleisland country but its political status is confusing because China claims it as part of its own territory 47 What is the history of China in Tibet and Xinjiang Tibet claims independence Xingjian also does 48 Tibet in southwestern China has a highly distinctive culture and the people in general resent Chinese authority 49 What is the history of Hong Kong and Macao What is their threat today Administrative reagions no threat 50 What concerns the US about China today Not bad but USA afraid of china little bit so it sought alliance with Japan and India Economic and Social Development 51 Where are the poorest people in East Asia The richest North Korea What country was the pacesetter for the world economy in the 1960s 1970s and the 1980s Japan 2 What was the Japanese s economic miracle Economic boost after 1950s What happened in the 1990s to the economy Collapse of Japan s real estate market leading to banking crisis What role does Japan play in the global economy today High tech eld How does the standard of living in Japan compare to that of the US low standard of living then usaexpensive life no central heating but high in social standardslow crime health system What is the situation with women in Japanese society today Doesn t share the bene ts of their high developed country as men South Korea and Taiwan have been called NICs newly industrializing countries and Hong Kong has been a newly industrializing economy How did the rise to wealth through industrialization occur in each SKorea de to industry gov involved in development Hong Kong government didn t involve in development due to textile toys consumer good after 80s business service banking telecornrnunicationbounded with usa uk canada Taiwan started with small to middle sized family rms high tech with high bound with usa What is a laissezfaire economy and even back under China does this type of economy exist in China today Free economy How did the economy of China fare under Communism What were the two economic disasters of the 1950s and 1960s How was the population impacted by each Communism under mao were the worst more than 20mln ppl died in the leap forward program the 1970 cultural revolution What political struggle took place after the death of Mao Who won the struggle capitalism What capitalist reforms have taken place since then SEZ special economic zones like Shenzhen and other regions on coastal regions What parts of China are booming Coastal regions What has this done to the disparity between rich and poor Life is good on coastal regions not in interior and north regions 9 By the 1990s the Yangtze Delta centered on the city of Shanghai reemerged as the economic core of China What has happened to the stateowned heavy industries of Manchuria Decayed low efficiency What are the social conditions in China in terms of poverty literacy fertility levels and the position of women Education all children attend elementary education literacy is low in low income provinces fertility one child program since 1980s 16 fertility rate it will reach 15bln ppl until its ppltn UI UI LA on 4 UI UI UI ON UI VI 00 UI ON 0 stabilizes Ke Terms autonomous region China Proper Cold War ideographic writing social and regional Confucianism loess differentiation deserti cation Marxism Special Economic Zones diaspora multinational SEZs geomancy pollution exporting spheres of in uence gross domestic product GDP rust belt superconurbation sediment load tribal peoples urban primacy Chapter 11 Map Identification List Instructions Use the list below when taking the map quizzes Be sure to type the name of each map feature EXACTLY as it is listed here If you misspell the answer Blackboard will not give you points Physical features Taklimakan Desert Sea of Japan Ryukyu Islands Tibetan Plateau Yellow Sea Okinawa Huang He East China Sea Hong Kong Chang Jiang South China Sea RegionsCountl39iesStatesProvinces China North Korea Xinjiang Japan South Korea Tibet Xizang Mongolia Taiwan CitiesUrban areasOther human features Shanghai Seoul Lhasa Guangzhou Pyongyang Taipei Beijing Tokyo Three Gorges Dam Questions on Chapter 12 7 South Asia Instructions As you read and study the chapter answer the following questions and define the terms Introduction 1 Why is the region of South Asia referred to as the Indian subcontinent because of India 2 What country in the region is the largest How many people inhabit it India 11 bln 3 How and when did Pakistan and Bangladesh become established Pakistan 1947 Bangladesh 1971 4 Over what are Pakistan and India both countries that have nuclear weapons in con ict Religious devition 5 Political tensions have reached such heights that many experts consider South Asia the leading candidate for a nuclear war 6 Why is South Asia beginning to have a significant global impact For emerging global information tech Environmental Geography 7 What is the Golden Quadrilateral Highway and what problems has the government had in constructing it Peasant hundu ppl protested for cutting sacred trees and cattle movement problems 8 What national hazard is faced by the people of Bangladesh Seasonal ooding on delta cyclontropical storm rain On what natural feature do most of the people of the country live River 9 What are some of the environmental problems that are a challenge to the region Deforestation for wood burning they burn dung cakes from cattle but they also use them for fertilize 10 The dominant climatic factor for most of South Asia is the MANSOON the distinct seasonal change in the direction of the winds Why is Cherrapunji one of the world s wettest places Because of the orographic rainfall What are the four extensive physical subregions of South Asia 1 Mountains of the north 2 Indus GangesBrahmaputra lowlands 3 peninsular India 4 the southern islands Population and Settlement 13 How does South Asia compare to East Asia in terms of population size South Asia will soon surpass East Asia r NH H gt How successful have planning programs in South Asia been Bangladesh was successful in family planning north India has high fertility rate but west and south have low What are the TFRs of the three most populous countries India27 Pakistan4 Bangladesh40 Which of the countries on the subcontinent has the greatest population density BangladeshWhat is the population density of that country 1127 per km square Go to p 59 to find the population density ofthe US for a comparison South Asia is one of the least urbanized regions in the world with only about a quarter of its huge population living in cities The majority of the people reside in compact little villages Rapid migration from villages to large cities however is occurring Why Desperate conditions in countrysides and search for job mechanization of agriculture Where is the major zone for each of the following crops rice wheat and millet Rice lower Ganges valley ganges delta lower Indus valley and its delta coastal lands of india sri lanka Wheat northern Indus valley western half of India39s Ganges valley South asia s bread basket is northern idiapunjab adjacent pakistan areas Millet less fertile central india What is the Green Revolution It originated in 1960s agriculture research for nding and Growing of High yield rice varieties What are the positive and negative aspects of it in terms of the region Positive self sufficiency of the eragion negative environmental issuespesticides fertilizers less work for poor peasants so they move to crowded cities What is salinization Build up of salts in fields India alone lists more than 40 cities with populations greater than a million most of which are expanding rapidly What are some of the problems of these cities Homelessness poverty congetion water shortages air pollution sewage disposal What is a bustee Sprawling squatter settlements What are the main points your authors make about each of the following cities M umbai the largest cityin south asia financial city poor live in hutments on busy sidewalks Delhi K olkata lmln ppl sleep in the streets electricity sewage ooding issues religious tension and Karachi largest commercial city in Pakistan fastest growing citywas capital until 1963 ethnic tensions between muhajirs and original inhabitants Cultural Coherence and Diversity 22 A thousand years ago virtually the entire region was united by the religion of Hinduism What changed that Buddhism and Islam 3 Is India a secular or religious state Secular 4 What are the characteristics of Hinduism Complicated faith varying across india caste system languageSanskrit How did Buddhism originate Buddhafrom elite caste When and how did Islam arrive By merchants mughal empire 14 century What are the characteristics of Islam in terms of the region Northeast north west Islam What is Sikkism Between Islam and Hinduism Punjap Jainism North west of India they can t kill any living creature The Parsis In uential religious ppl Zoroastrianism ed from iran 7th century today Mumbay Where in the region is each of these religions important What is the caste system Complex social order in hindu world Dalit untouchable lowest level Is it still significant throughout South Asia Yes but not among educated ppl and Muslim In terms of language what is the difference between northern and southern India North indo EuropeanHindi10 indian states Bengalinorth east Punjabinorth west Urdupakistan similar to Hindi south Dravidian family What languages are most important in the north Hindi10 indian states Bengalinorth east Punjabi north west Urdupakistan similar to Hindi What language is the second most widely spoken language in the world Hindi Why is there no linguistic nationalism in India Because there are so many of them What would be the obvious choice of a single national language Hindi Why majority How many national languages in fact exist in India 22 state languages H U H 0 H u H 9 NH 05 N H NN N U N 0 N u N 00 29 Why do religious leaders of the region often criticize Western norms and morals and have a problem with beach attire of Western tourists Because hindu and muslim ppl come to the beach fully attired Geopolitical Framework What did the Europeans want when they rst began traveling to the subcontinent Textile spices other Indian products The 1700s were a period of political turmoil in South Asia and provided an opening for European Imperialism Before the Industrial Revolution Indian cotton textiles were considered the best in the world and British and French merchants needed huge quantities for their global trading networks What was the British East India Company Private organization that acted as an arm of British Empire During what period were the British in control of the region1840 nal control over the territory Why did the British leave Independence movement Who was Mohandas Gandhi Father figure of independence of india Why was the region divided upon gaining independence in 1947 Religion How and when did Bangladesh emerge 1971 What has caused tension in each of the following places Kashmircontrolled by muharajaafter independence movement decided to join india but before some territories went to pakistan the Punjab the Northeast fringelocal ppl are not related to Indian culture so they don t like new comers and Sri LankaTamil ppl started rebellion against government but they were stoped in 2009 37 Where has the Maoist challenge been the greatest Nepal 8 What is the region s greatest international geopolitical problem Cold war between Paki and india How has Pakistan been involved in the US war on terrorism It helped to us against terror Economic and Social Development 39 More than 800 million Indians live on less than 2 per day and Bangladesh is poorer still In spite of this why should the region not be seen as a zone of misery 300mln ppl are middle class What did governments do in terms of their 39 after 39 39 39 39 J r J Heav industrialization economic self sufficientcy not to corporations for ppl How did this impact their development Slow growth by 1990s it opened its borders to international corporations What are the economic characteristics of each of the following regions the Himalayan countriesBhutanpurposely was disconnected from the world around it but now they allowed TVintemetNepalnot prestine environment tourism but tourism contracted after crisis of 2002 Bangladesh prepartition Bengali businesses was on west of gang delta so it belongs to india now Instability environmetntal degradation clouds its future Pakistan Early independence years it boasted but afterward slowed its growth many military spending Sri Lanka and MaldivesSri Lanka is more prosperous in south asia but not in world civil war hindered it from growing it experts tea textile tourism Maldivesfishing tourism but money from tourism goes to small number of ppl India s less developed areas North and east are less developed Bihar state less developed most corrupt82mln ppl What is the Grameen Bank Bank for poor women low interest rate Bangladesh Why is there a relatively low level of globalization in the region Because of its initial economic path self sufficiency self industrialization But in 1991 it opened its border to international trade What has been happening in India since the early 1990s Mixed socialcapitalist system How has this impacted poverty The poverty stand still constant What is the situation in India in terms of information technology Rapid development after 1990s IT is so developed companies cant find and retain engineers What can be said about the overall social development of countries in the region Low education health is low How are Sri Lanka and Kerala different from other parts of the region Sri Lankalife expectancy 75 literacy90 Kerala southwestern stateliteracy90 life 74 What is the status of women in the region LowWhat factors contribute to a larger number of males than females Sexselective abortion U 0 U r U N U U L He UU 0U U 4 O 4 r JgtJgt Ul 4 4 4 U 4 ex 4 u Key Terms British East India Company bustees caste system Dalit DraVidian language federal state Green Revolution Hindi Hindu nationalism Indian diaspora Jainism linguistic nationalism maharaja monsoon Mughal Empire orographic rainfall rainshadow effect salinization Sanskrit Sikhism subcontinent Urdu Chapter 12 Map Identi cation List Instructions Use the list below when taking the map quizzes Be sure to type the name of each map feature EXACTLY as it is listed here If you misspell the answer Blackboard will not give you points Political Units Pakistan Bhutan Nepal India Bangladesh Sri Lanka Maldives Kashmir Questions on Chapter 13 7 Southeast Asia Instructions As you read and study the chapter answer the following questions and de ne the terms Introduction What happened in Southeast Asia in the late 20th century 2 What is included within the region of Southeast Asia Fig 131 3 Southeast Asia is commonly divided into two subregions Name those subregions and what countries they include Fig 131 Mainland south east Asia and insular south east Asia 4 Southeast Asia struggles with which two types of government Along with this what else troubles most Southeast Asian Communism and capitalism Environmental Geography 5 Who are the Karen and about how many are within this group Karen indigenous ppl in Burma 7mln ppl overrun by Burma military 6 To what does the term Burmese refer What does Burmans refer to Burmese to all inhabitants of burma bunnans a major nation in Burma 7 Deforestation and related environmental problems are major issues throughout most of Southeast Asia 8 Malaysia has been one of the leading exporters of what Tropical hard woods from east asia 9 Thailand cut more than 50 percent of its forests between 1960 and 1980 10 What type of ban did this produce and what did the ban do Logging ban that caused to eliminate forestry by 1995 11 From where does Southeast Asia s air pollution come Urban forest fire What was lost due to two years of disastrous air pollution Tourists didn t come and they lost tourist money 12 Describe the region s air pollution disaster of the late 1990s What were several factors 3 that produced it Drought urban pollution Elnino caused drought What two types of forest are of primary interest for commercial logging in Southeast Asia Where are they located 14 What is a monsoon Seasonal shifting winds Name the two tropical climates that dominate mainland Southeast Asia Tropical mansoon tropical savannah 15 Indonesia contains more than 13 000 islands dominated by which four great landmasses Sumatra borneo Java Sulawesi 16 What three factors make climates of insular Southeast Asia somewhat more complex than those of the mainland Equatorial location Population and Settlement 1 About how many people live in Southeast Asia 570 mln ppl Why is the area relatively sparsely settled Because of infertile soil rugged topography LA 2 List two reasons why much in insular Southeast Asia has relatively infertile soil 1 Nutrients are locked up in the vegtation itself instead the soil 2 Constant heavy rains wash up the nutrients away to the sea 3 With more than 50 volcanoes Java is blessed with rich soils that support a range oftropical crops and a very high population density 4 Java is home to more than 124 million people more than 50 the total population of 243 mln 5 The population core of Thailand is formed by the valley and delta of what river Chayo Phraya Burma s is focused on what river Irrawaddy 6 What is the smidden system Cut and burning of plants What is shifting cultivation Shifting cultivation after swiddened soil exhausted ppl move to other place nearby 7 What is one of the main cash crops grown in the mountains of northern Southeast Asia Opium It is grown for what purpose For global drug trade 8 With European colonization Southeast Asia became a focus for what Plantation agriculture 9 What three delta areas have been the focuses for commercial rice cultivation Mekong in Vietnam Chao Praya in Thailand Irrawaddy in Burma 10 As of 2006 what two countries were the world s largest rice exporters Thailand and Vietnam 11 Vietnam is the third most populous country in Southeast Asia and has a 12 growth rate 12 The highest total fertility rate TFR in mainland Southeast Asia is found in what country Laos This country is of primarily what religion Buddhism 13 What country has the most explicit policy of transmigration Indonesia Why has the population grown rapidly since the 1970s because of the transmigration from Java 14 What percentage of the population of Southeast Asia lives in cities Fewer than half of ppl What are primate cities Explosive urban growth in both Manila and Bangkok has led to what Housing problems congestion pollution Vietnam has two main cities Ho Chi Minh city in the south and the capital city of Hanoi in the north Jakarta is the largest urban area in Indonesia but the country has a number of other large and growing cities including Bandung and Surabaya Ul 0 Cultural Coherence and Diversity 17 When and how did the first major external in uence arrive from South Asia 2000 years ago 18 The Vietnamese were not heavily in uenced by South Asian civilization but instead had early connections to whom China 19 Vietnam was an early province of China until about 1000 CE 20 The traditional religious and philosophical beliefs are centered on what Buddhism Confucianism 21 By 1650 what religion had largely replaced Hinduism and Buddhism throughout Malaysia and Indonesia Islam 22 When and how did Christianity spread through other parts of Southeast Asia By Spanishphilippenes and portugese in east timor Around 1570s then in 1920Lh century 23 The several hundred distinct languages of Southeast Asia can all be placed into five major linguistic families What are the four linguistic families that the book discusses Austronesia TibetoBurman Taikadai MonKhmer languages 24 Which is one of the world s most widespread language families and how far does its domain extend Austronesia from Madagascar to easter island 25 What is the national language of Burma to what other language is it closely related and how many people speak it Burmese language Tibetan 32mln ppl The TaiKadai linguistic family probably originated where and then spread into Southeast Asia around what year Originated in southern china 1200 2 ON 27 28 The MonKhmer language family contains two major languages Vietnamese and KhmerCambodia as well as a host of minor languages spoken by hill people and a few lowland groups scattered throughout the region What are the official languages of Singapore Mandarin Chinese Malay English Tamil What percentage of people in Singapore is of southern Chinese ancestry 75 Geopolitical Framework 29 30 LA L N LA LA LA 4 LA UI LA 1 1 Southeast Asia is sometimes defined as a geopolitical grouping of 10 different countries that have joined together under the umbrella organization of Association of South East Asian Nations or ASEAN Who were the first Europeans to arrive to what is now eastern Indonesia Around what year did they arrive Portuguese around 1500s Maluku islands By the 1700s who had become the most powerful force in the region Netherlands What happened as a result East Indies began they controlled Indonesia divided New Guinea by Germany20 century What happened in 1954 and what did the international peace council determine shortly after French defeated to Vietnam shortly after and north to USSR and China South is to USA Saigon fell in 1975 and in the following year Vietnam was finally reunited under the government of the North Why did the Netherlands organize an election in 1962 If West New Guinea wanted to be independent or join Indonesia What was decided as a result of the election and who did people believe had rigged the election Indonesian government had rigged the election Papua joined Indonesia Where and why did con ict erupt in the late 1990s Indonesia Christian Amuslim con ict peaked Burma s simultaneous wars have pitted the Central government dominated by the burmanese ethnic group against the country s varied nonBurman societies With the rise of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN and the growth of trade relations what have national leaders concluded Friendly relations with neighbors are important than territorial gain Economic and Social Development A A A mus N o poo A U What characterizes a booming tiger economy What does the text say is probably the reason for the fall within the Philippines Dictator Ferdinant Marco stole moneyCrony Capitalismsupport president family not others After Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law in 1972 and suspended Philippine democracy what happened within the country Crony capitalism Within Malaysia where was development initially concentrated and where is it concentrated now West side of Malay In Chinese community Bangkok has one of the largest commercial Sex industries in the world From where do these women usually originate before they reach Thailand Fig 1321 As of 2006 Vietnam s economy was growing at an annual rate of more than 8 far faster than any other country in Southeast Asia except Singapore Why do Laos and Cambodia face much more serious problems than Vietnam Laos rough terrain isolation just agriculture Cambodia warcorruption 45 What did Burma attempt to do in 1962 Tried to isolate its economic system under Buddhism 46 What is the life expectancy within Laos65 and Cambodia61 Female literacy ratebelow 65 Key Terms Animism Domino theory Lingua franca ASEAN entrepot Primate cities Bumiputra Golden Triangle swidden Crony capitalism Khmer Rouge typhoons transmigration tsunami Chapter 13 Map Identification List Instructions Use the list below when taking the map quizzes Be sure to type the name of each map feature EXACTLY as it is listed here If you misspell the answer Blackboard will not give you points Physical features Irrawaddy River Malay Peninsula Borneo Mekong River Sumatra Lake Tonle Sap Mekong Delta Java RegionsCountriesStatesProvinces Brunei Laos Vietnam Burma Malaysia Philippines Cambodia Singapore Indonesia Thailand CitiesUrban areasOther human features Hanoi Jakarta Manila Phnom Penh Angkor Wat Kolkata Ganges River Indus River Ganges Plain Cities Arabian Sea Islamabad Indian Ocean New Delhi Bay of Bengal Kathmandu Thar Desert Dhaka Physical Features Deccan Plateau Columbosri lanka Himalaya Mountains Western Ghats Mumbai Brahmaputra River Eastern Ghats Questions on Chapter 14 Australia and Oceania Instructions As you read and study the chapter answer the following questions Be sure you are familiar too with the terms at the end of the chapter The quiz on this chapter and the exams will include questions from this study guide Introduction 1 What is Oceania Collection of islands 2 What is the history of the IndoFijians and why are they in con ict with native Fijians Indo fijians came from south asia as cane workers they are better off economically than Native Fijians 3 Describe the distribution of the population in the region 178A very scarcely populated Environmental Geography 4 Are all the environmental problems in the region caused by humans Explain Most of them Australian drought European introduced colonization problems 5 Looking at your text and p 180 in your atlas list and describe three human activities that have harmed the environment Mining deforestation Introduced species 6 Looking at the map on p 408 in your text list the six environmental issues being presented and give in general terms the places that are impacted by each Deforestation South west east of Australia Tropical deforestation New Guinea and other islands north Australia Coastal pollutionsouthEast east Australia Desertifrcation South of Australia MiningWest Australia and Newcastle in east Sea level rising all islands of Oceania Tuvalu Australia is one of the world s most urban societies yet most people associate the country with its vast land and arid outback 8 In parts of southern Australia the Mediterranean climate results in malle vegetation which is a scrubby eucalyptus woodland 9 What do the authors of your text say about the zoogeography of Australia Threatened by nonnative species 10 Due to its isolation 85 of New Zealand s native trees and seed plants are found nowhere else on Earth Note The term for those types of plants and animals is endemic Population and Settlement 11 In modern Australia 91 of the country s residents live within either the Sydney or Melboume metropolitan areas 2 List the important characteristics of each of the following cities as noted by the authors of your text Sydney4mln magni cent harbor in entire south pacific Melboume2quotd largest city in Australia 38mln competes with Sydney for significance Canberracapital city 325000 Aucklandlargest city in NZ 11mlnnorth island WellingtonCapital NZ 164000north island Christchurchonly major city in south island Port Moresbythe largest city in NG 200000 13of ppl urban and Honolululmln island Oahu after WW2 developed Make notes on each of the following phases of the legacy of human occupancy as discussed by the authors of your text a peopling of the PacifrcNew Guinea and Australia were rst settled in oceania than distant islands 40000years ago from NG and Australia to pacific islands than from pacific aslands to NZ At that time sea level was lower than of today b European colonizationstarted with Tasman Dutch explorer 1642 then Cook 176880 British convicts then settlers surpassed convicts British encouraged English ppl to settle even played for the trip and c urban transformation during 20 1 sentury because of agriculture didn t need labour force manufacturing grew in cities some cities in oceania are very poor How did Hawaii come to be a US state Plantations became foreign and Hawaii became dependent o n foreign investment so US overthrow the monarch and annexed it in 1898 What is viticulture and where is it important What is Shiraz Viticulture grape cultivation in South Australia Barossa valley Riverina district of New South Wales Shirazwine variety What agricultural activities are evident on the landscape of New Zealand Pastoral agriculture dominates In Oceania fishing shifting cultivation and plantation agriculture are important What is the difference between the latter two Shifting cultivationrotaion of lands clear one patch than after a few years go to other patch Plantation agriculture worker housing near crops that are controlled by absentee landowners 8 How are the population issues of Australia and New Zealand different from those of the less developed island nations of Oceania NZ and Aussie have less population growth Cultural Coherence and Diversity 19 What has the impact of colonization been on the Aboriginal population where do Aborigines live today and is there any effort being made to preserve their traditional values Outback Northern Queensland west Australia No they are assimilating 20 What was the White Australia Policy Is it still a policy today To allow just Whites into country it is over not from 1973 21 Twentyfive percent of Australia s people are now foreign born re ecting the country s global population as a migratory destination 22 While many New Zealanders still identify with their largely British heritage the country s cultural identity has increasingly separated from its roots In many ways popular culture ties the gt1 LA 4 LII ON country ever more closely to AuVstralia the US and continental Europe a function of increasingly global mass media 23 Most of the native languages of Oceania belong to the Austronesian language family 24 What is unique about language diversity on the island of New Guinea A lot of languages over 1000 half are spoken by fewer than 500 ppl 25 Over the past 150 years how have external cultural in uences impacted cultural diversity of the Pacific islands Migration from Europe Asia US What economic factors have been important Sugarcane plantation Geopolitical Framework 26 Pacific geopolitics reflects a complex interplay of Localcolonialera and globalscale forces 27 What is the story of geopolitics in terms of Micronesia s Marshall Islands How long have they been independent Independent from early 1990s l9l4japanl944 USA nuclear bombs 28 What is the relationship today of Australia and New Zealand to Great Britain They are tied to the queen as a head of its government 29 What has been the role ofthe US in the Paci c Islands since the 1940s After taking these lands from Japan monetary subsidies military purposes What is the primary issue contributing to con ict on the island of Bougainville in Papua New Guinea Copper reserves natives want their local control 3 1 As the authors of your text mention on p 426 France still controls a portion of Polynesia What did France do in 1995 that created a huge controversy Ppl of polinesia Voted for being part of French What key political roles do Australia and New Zealand play in the region Big role in peace keeping they colonized some islands Economic and Social Development 33 While farm exports are still important to the economy the Mining sector has grown much more rapidly since 1970 Today Australia is one of the world s mining superpowers 34 What are the mineral outputs of Australia as listed in your textbook Huge starting from 1850s golden rush then boxitealluminum copper nickel lead zinc 35 How did Great Britain s joining the European Union lead to a depression in New Zealand Before 1970s NZ relied on export to UK ofwool butter 36 What is privatization and how has it impacted New Zealand To private ppl transformed it into market oriented country Melanesia is the leastdeveloped and poorest part of Oceania How does the GNI per capita of Papua New Guinea compare to that of Australia 16 times less Why are New Caledonia s nickel reserves the world s second largest both and blessing and a curse Because its reserves are dwindling in the near future and they mostly rely on the export of nickel 40 What are some of the economic linkages of Micronesia and Polynesia to the rest of the world as discussed by the authors of your text Tourism subsudies from france and usa japan tries to build spaceport and china is also appearing in the islands 41 How does the social welfare of Australia compare to that of the people of Papua New Guinea Australia is the best in Oceania LN O 3 N L 1 LAD 000 Key Terms outback l74A Great Barrier Reef 171A Micronesia 178A tsunami Melanesia 178A high island Polynesia 178A hot spot archipelago atoll Maori 178A Aborigine brown snake uncontacted peoples
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