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by: Julian Rath


Marketplace > James Madison University > Communication Sciences and Disorders > CSD 200 > INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION DISORDERS
Julian Rath
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Marsha Powell

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Marsha Powell
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This 36 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julian Rath on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CSD 200 at James Madison University taught by Marsha Powell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/214180/csd-200-james-madison-university in Communication Sciences and Disorders at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 09/26/15
CSD 200 Study Guide for Test 2 Assessment info Types of Criterion Nu 39 39 Performance based Norm referencedstandardized Oral Mechanism exam what to look for Assessment Process Designing and administering the protocol Reliability Standardization Validity C ofaCI quot Screening vs Assessment ArticulationPhonology info Characterization of consonants place manner voicing Characterization of vowels Phonological Processes Cons Cluster reductions deletion of final consonants Phonemes vs alphabet Cognate Pairs Assimilation reduplication fronting Phonological awareness Phonological disorder vs articulation disorder Phonological disorder definition Language Disorder info Language Disorder synonyms Language definition Primary and Secondary language disorder Language disorder classification llLate Talkersquot description Cleft Palate info Hypernasality vs hyponasality causes Definition ofa cleft palate Types of cleft palate what they look like Age of surgeries Cleft lip classification What does a cleft lippalate effect CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 1 Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Communication Sciences and Disorders processes 44 63 69 I Introduction 0 Many types of communication difficulties are long lasting and suffers might rely on medical therapeutic interventions to improve their experiences ofand to increase their enjoyment of life at home work school community I EX those resulting from vocal nodules vocal cords aphasia loss of language skill following a brain injury dysarthria imprecise speech due to nervous system dysfunction or noiseinduced hearing loss hearing loss from noise exposure 0 Communication disorders I National Institute of Health NIH estimates 42 million Americans 1 out of 6 people have a communication disorder I Stuttering is a communication disorder that hinders the fluency of speech and affects N 3 million Americans I Hearing loss is a communication disorder that affects 28 million Americans I What is communication 0 Definition of Communication I Communication the process of sharing information between 2 persons quotthe transmission of thoughts or feelings from the mind of a speaker to the mind ofa listenerquot I 3 reasons people communicate 1 To request 2 To reject 3 To comment I 2 players of communication 1 Sender formulates and then transmits the information being conveyed to the receiver 2 Receiver receives and the comprehends the information conveyed from the sender I 4 processes of communication 1 Formulation the process of pulling together one s thoughts or ideas for sharing with another Transmission the process of conveying those ideas to another person often by speaking but also by signing gesturing writing Reception the process of receiving the information from another person Comprehension the process of making sense of the received message I Modality the manner in which information conveyed via communication is transmitted and received I Speaking is most frequent modality of communication communication doesn t have to be speaking I Sign language reading and writing for the literate language comprehension foreign and native language PENquot CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 2 I For communication between 2 people to be effective they must have an agreement as to the symbol system to be used to communicate and they must be proficient in that system 0 Language is I A single symbol system with many variations Spanish English Chinese ASL I The most sophisticated symbol system used for communication less complex gestures pictures facial expressions 0 A Model of Communication I 3 essential components of the basic model of communication 1 A sender to formulate and transmit a message 2 A receiver to receive and comprehend the message 3 A shared symbolic system I Feedback is an additional component usually also included 0 Feedback information provided by the receiver to the sender I In effective communication feedback is continually provided by the receiver and the sender responds to this feedback to maintain the effectiveness of the communication process I Feedback system makes communication active and dynamic I Active both sender and receiver must be fully engaged I Dynamic the receiver is constantly sending feedback that is interpreted and used by the sender to modulate the flow of communication 0 Ways in which the receiver provides feedback to the speakersender about their comprehension important in keeping communication flowing I Linguistic feedback includes speaking quotI totally agree and vocalizing quotmmmhmm I Nonlinguistic extralinguistic feedback the use of eye contact facial expressions posture proximity may supplement linguistic feedback or stand alone I Paralinguistic feedback the use of pitch loudness pausing all superimposed over linguistic feedback I Communication breakdown collapse in the engagement between sender and speaker can occur in daily conversation but are easily recognizable and repairable if the receiver is sending ongoing feedback and the sender is closely monitoring that feedback conversational repair 0 The Purpose of Communication I Main purpose to provide solicit information about feelings other s thoughts information sharing describing needs desires an event was we got to game n CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 3 I All are vitally important to developing and maintaining social relationships with others I These diverse functions are used by effective communication everyday in many ecological contexts home work school social I Typically within the lSt year communication is used to meet our basic needs desires I Those with a restricted range of communication functions face significant challenges 0 A communication disorder is present when a person experiences a substantial impairment in his her ability to communicate a precursor is a restricted range of communication functions frequent among children who develop communication skills more slowly than peers as commonly happening with children who have an intellectual disability or among adults who have experienced a neurological injury stroke I EffectiveCommunication I Occurs when information is successfully shared between a sender and a receiver there is no breakdown in formulation transmission reception comprehension I An effective communicator o Is one whose communications with other are effective most of the time via communicating through a modality that is shared by important people in their lives 0 Avoids communication breakdown by responding to and giving feedback during conversations 0 Uses communication for diverse purposes ask questions interact with others socialize directions 0 Abides Grice s Maxims 4 principles that specifically refer to the way sender formulate and transmit information Possible results from not adhering to the principle l Principle of quantity Speaker quotHe is not coming Can you believe it The sender provides the right amount and type of information needed Receiver quotWho is he What are you talking about by the receiver uses clear and concise vocabulary and is not redundant 2 Principle of quality Speaker quotI am not angry at you The sender shares information that is accurate Receiver quotWhy are you shouting at me 3 Principle of relevance Speaker quotI am so worried about the test This is crazy The sender maintains the topic and uses appropriate transitions as weather What do you thinkquot needed the sender communicates in a way that is appropriate to the Receiver quotIt is kind of hotquot situation and to their relationship with the receiver Speaker quotI was asking about the test 4 Principle of manner Speaker quotYou want to know what time it is Um The sender speaks fluently without frequent hesitations or revisions um uh pause I don t have a watch takes appropriate turns pauses as need but does not delay responses longer than called for uses appropriate loudness and pitch and engages in eye contact as expected by cultural norms I How does communication relate to language speech and hearing I Language speech and hearing are the essential ingredients of human communication the sophisticated use of these processes makes humans unique I Language speech hearing are used for the formulation transmission reception and comprehension of information using spoken channels 0 Language formulation and comprehension I Cognitive process by which ideas and thoughts are formulated then orally communicated via speech 0 Speech transmission I Neuromuscular process by which we turn language into a sound signal that is transmitted through the air to a receiver CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 4 I Involves the use of voice and articulators tongue lips palate to make the sounds that produce words and sentences 0 Hearing reception 0 Language I Definition of Language I quotsocially shared code that uses a conventional system of arbitrary symbols to represent ideas about the world that are meaningful to others who know the same code 0 Language is socially shared 0 Language is a code 0 Language is conventional 0 Language is a representational tool I Remarkable Features of Language I Universality I Species Specificity 0 Language is a human capacity and no other animal shares this aptitude nonhuman species can communicate via iconic abilities I Iconic communication systems are those for which there is a transparent relation between what is being communicated and how it is being communicated cat purr I like you rubbing me I All nonhuman communication systems are more or less iconic there is little that is iconic about human language I Semanticity an unique aspect of language relating to the noniconic aspect of human language 0 The ability to represent events that are decontextualized removed from the present intangible not concrete hypothetical complex I Productivity the principle of combination of a small number of discrete units into seemingly infinite novel creations 0 Endless number of ideas and new constructions 9 40 sounds in Standard American English infinite number of words I Rate ofAcquisition o The first 5 years of life is critical for language development by 5 yrs kids know thousands of words I Language Domains I 3 domain system that reflect an integrated whole 1 Content the meaning of language the words we use and the meaning behind them I Conveyed through our vocabulary system lexicon as we select and organize words to express ideas 2 Form how words sentences sounds are organized and arranged to convey content 3 Use how language is used functionally for meeting personal and social needs I 5 domain system used to provide a slightly more refined description of language dimensions 1 Semantics content the rules of language governing the meaning of individual words and word combinations 2 Syntax form the rules of language governing the internal organization of sentences 3 Morphology form the rules of language governing the internal organization of words and how they can be morphed to change their meanings walk morphs into walked 4 Phonology form the rules of language governing the sounds we use to make syllables and words I Standard American English SAE 40 phonemes sounds 15 vowels 25 consonants 100000 words I Phonotactics how sounds are organized into words 5 Pragmatics use the rules of language governing how language is used for social purposes I Governs 3 aspects of the social use of language I Using language for different purposes communication functions CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 5 I Organizing language for discourse conversation I Knowing what to say and when and how to say it social conventions o Governs linguistic extralinguistics paralinguistic aspects of communication to include word choice turn taking posture gestures eye contact proximity pitch loudness pausing I Metalinguistic Awareness the ability to deliberately scrutinize language as an object of attention I Challenging to work at this level due to language being a highly abstract concept I Thinking about the various parts of speech then analyzing words for their linguistic category article noun is a metalinuistic act I Each domain of language can be the object of metalinguistic scrutiny 0 Semantic awareness needed to analyze words or concepts explicitly I Needed to analyze sentence grammar explicitly as in analyzing what is wrong with a sentence 0 Morphology awareness needed to analyze the structure of words in a deliberate way I EX quotwhat do add to the word walk to make it show it happened in the pastquot 0 Phonological awareness needed to analyze language use in social situations I EX asking a child quotHow could you phrase that to be more polite 0 Speech I Definition of speech I The neuromuscular process that allows humans to express language as a vocal product I Involves the activation of muscles in 3 systems to transmit ideas 0 These systems represent the remarkable coordination of a breath ofair that begins in the lungs l respiration travels up through the trachea windpipe over the vocal cords and into the oral nasal cavities 2 phonation and then is manipulated by the oral articulators tongue teeth jaw 3 articulation to come out as a series of speech sounds that another person can understand and attribute meaning to I The process of speech begins with an intake of a breath which is exhaled basic fuel for all speech I Exhalation travels from lungs through the windpipe trachea and over the vocal cords within the larynx I Vocal cords begin to vibrate creating a sound I sound is sent into the oral cavity where a noise escapes 0 Speech systems and anatomical relationships I Articulation maxilla upperjaw lips mandible lowerjaw I Phonation epiglottis larynx vocal cords I Respiration trachea windpipe left and right lungs I The systems used by humans for speech did not evolve for the purpose of speech speech is an evolutionary capacity superimposed itself on systems that were already in place 0 Respiration and phonation allow breathing while articulation allows eat and drinking I Speech became the mode for language expression because of its advantages over other possible modalities unlike gestured signed or written communication speech can be used with much less constraint time lighting I Model of speech production I 3 stage process 0 Initiated with an abstract mental representation of the speech stream to be produced the perceptual target is a cognitively based conceptualization of a series of individual sounds phonemes Phoneme the smallest unit of sound quotmama 4 phonemes CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 6 I International Phonetic Alphabet represent individual phonemes 0 Next stage development ofa motor schema to represent this sound sequence I Motor schema is a rough motor plan based on the abstract representation of the perceptual target motor schema organizes the phonemes into syllable chunks quotmama syllables 0 Next motor schema is sent forward to major muscle groups involved with speech production stimulating speech output I Respiratory system muscles initiate and modulate the flow of air I Larynx contains the vocal cords I Oral cavity muscles govern the movement of the tongue and position of the upper lowerjaws and lips 0 Also ongoing feedback timing delivery precision of speech output to origin of perceptual target and motor schema I 4 Essential Building blocks of effective speech 0 Speech is dependent on language speech is a tool for language language gives speech meaning 1 Breathstream speech begins with the exhalation of breath A speaker must have an adequate breathstream that is exhaled consistently and evenly for good speech to occur A speech disorder results from an inability to produce or maintain a strong breathstream 2 Voice speech requires a strong even voice Voice quality can affect speech significantly A breathy hoarse broken or nasal voice can distract a listener and undermine the functionality of speech a voice that is too loud too soft too high too low can also undermine speech quality Loud and soft describe vocal loudness whereas high and low describe vocal pitch 3 Articulation effective speech requires precision in phoneme production accuracy and consistently 4 Fluency speech is most functional when it is produced effortlessly and smoothly with few hesitations long pauses interjections filler words and circumlocutions talking around a word 0 Hearing I Definition of hearing I Audition hearing the perception of sound speech I Essential to the reception and comprehension of the information being conveyed towards a receiver I Sound fundamentals I Acoustics the study of sound I 4 steps 1 Creation of sound source A sound source sets in motion a series of events via creating a disturbance complex vibration patterns in the surrounding air particles 2 Vibration ofair particles m and W are I Sound fundamentally is the movement or vibration of air particles terms used to descrlbe I Air particles move back and forth through the air or other medium physicaproperties Of SOUnd I Frequency speed at which sound move back and forth corresponds to the perception of pitch 1 and loudness describe I Intensity perceived loudness of the sound how far apart the air particles move when going back and forth perceptions of frequency and 3 Reception by ear intensity respectively I Ears are designed to channel information carried by the air particle vibrations into the human body I Ears are complex structures with 3 chambers I 1 Outer ear captures sounds sends to 2 middle ear which sends to 3 Inner ear which receives sound information and send to the audition centers of the brain via auditory nerve 4 Comprehension by brain CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 7 I The auditory centers in the brain located in Left Hemisphere translate frequency and intensity information sent through the ear and along the auditory nerve help in comprehension if information is speech sounds nonspeech sounds do not use the auditory centers in the brain for comprehension aid I Sound information is comprehended as quotspeechquot or quotnonspeechquot I Speech perception the process of human speech and is different from auditory perception a general term describing the brain s processing of any type of auditory information I Spectrogram a 3D depiction of the speech signal that is carried by the movement of air particles into the human ear 0 Frequency pitch vertical yaxis Time horizontal xaxis Intensity loudness darkness of the shading Shows complexity of information Coarticuation process of human produced phonemes overlapping or smearing with one another I The articulators coarticulate speech sounds because it is much quicker than producingjust 1 sound at a time and the brain has evolved to make sense of coarticulated speech sounds I The production and processing of co articulated phonemes are what allow humans to produce words at incredibly rapid rates 9 undermine the notion of speech as a sort of spoken alphabet O O O O I What is a communication disorder 0 Normal and disordered communication I A communication disorder impairment is present when a person has significant difficulty in 1 of these aspects of communication when compared with other people sharing the same language dialect culture 0 Significant the communication difficulty is serious enough to adversely impact an individual s ability to participate in life I Language impairment formulation and comprehension difficulties I Speech impairment transmission problems I Hearing loss reception problems I 4 key points at which a breakdown in communication may occur 1 Formulation difficulty in effectively formulating a message for communication 0 Aphasia type of communication disorder resulting from stroke people can have significant problems formulating their thoughts and ideas into words 2 Transmission difficulty in effectively transmitting a message for communication 0 Motorspeech disorders type of communication disorder affecting the neuromuscular systems governing the articulators o Cerebral palsy those affected experience a motor speech disorder resulting in difficulty in effectively transmitting their thoughts and ideas through speech even if those ideas are formulated well 3 Reception difficulty in effectively receiving a message being communicated o Noiseinduced hearing loss type of communication disorder which significant hearing loss is caused by prolonged exposure to loud noise can result in reception problems 4 Comprehension difficulty in effectively decoding or comprehending a message being communicated o Intelectuadisabiity a developmental disorder characterized by mild to severe cognitive impairment I Those with moderate to profound levels of intellectual disability often have problems comprehending what others are saying even though their reception is intact 0 Communication disorders and communication differences I Ways individuals communicate is influenced by their culture CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 8 I Culture describes a system of knowledge comprising beliefs behaviors and values that are shared by a particular community 0 Community many diverse parameters language religion geography ethnicity race health status sexual identity marital status I Culture and communication interact together always I Communication differences are common I Present when an individual s communication patterns differ substantially from those of the person they are communicating with I Dialects the variations of a language shared by a particular group of speakers dialectal variations of language affect all domains of language content form use I Differences can include knowledge of different languages I A communication disorder is present only when an individual s communication ability I Operates outside the minimal norms of acceptability of one s culture or language group I Is considered disordered by one s culture or language group I Interferes with communication or calls attention to itself within one s culture or language group 0 3 Classification of communication disorders fig 19 pg 26 l Disorders of language A significant breakdown in the linguistic system that has an impact on 1 domain semantics syntax morphology phonology pragmatics I Child language disorders 0 One of most common disorders of early childhood I Common in children who have intellectual disability autism traumatic brain injury I 12 ofyoung children exhibit a language disorder 0 Affected children have problems communicating with others due to difficulties in the development of semantics syntax morphology phonology pragmatics 0 Developmental or acquired I Developmental present at or soon after birth and symptoms are manifested as children develop I Acquired experienced after birth usually resulting from injury 0 Specific language impairment SLI significant disorder of language in the absence of any other developmental disability I 7 children affected most prevalent type of child language disorders I Adult language disorders 0 Diverse range ofdevelopmental and acquired disorders 0 Aphasia prevalent adult language disorder that results from damage to the brain particularly the language areas of the left hemisphere I Frequent consequence of stroke but can result from traumatic brain injuries gunshot car accident I Takes different forms depending on severity and location of brain injury I 80000 people diagnosed yearly I Affects adults of any age mostly 65 years I Reading disabilities RD 0 Types of learning disabilities LD in which reading skills are significantly impaired I Dyslexia severe reading disability I Most common type of LD affects 22 school aged children also exhibit writing amp spelling problems 0 Major symptom difficulty of written language I Can be described as a developmental written language disorder CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 9 0 Although a troubling number of children in the USA exhibit reading problems not all children exhibit RD Dyslexia rather RD are attributable to a neurological anomaly that impacts core cognitive processes involved with learning to read working memory processing of speech sounds 0 RD runs in families genetically predisposed Co occurs with Specific Language Impairment SLI in 1520 of children 2 Disorders of speech A breakdown in 1 of the systems involved with speech production respiration phonation articulation I Articulation and phonological disorders o Sp h p du ti I 39 39 39 by distortions substitutions and omissions of speech sounds o Speechproduction impairments are most common in young children affecting 10 children 0 Is present when a child fails to use speech saunds at a level N r 39 for their age cul ural and linguistic background Articulation disorders Phonological disorders Occur at the site of speech output Occur at the site of perceptual Although the point of breakdown differs representation of speech sounds in articulation and phonological disorders Usually attributed to some sort of Results in underdeveloped or faulty the manifestation is similar in that the structural problem or problem with representations of speech sounds which child has difficulties with the production articulartory placement undermines production of those sounds of speech sounds EX Cleft palate a congenital Problem with speech sound production malformation of the lip andor palate I Fluency Disorders 0 Communication difficulties that are characterized by an abnormally high rate or duration of breaks in the continuity of producing spoken language 0 Common characteristics I Repetition and prolongation of sounds I Complete blockages ofairflow I Body movements head nods blinking used as attempts to stop reduce these dysfluencies I Tense negative feelings about speaking 0 Normal dysfluency vs true fluency disorders 0 Stuttering I 5 of children exhibit stuttering at 3 years old and 71 of these children resolve their stutter by 5 years of age I Stuttering affects a relatively large percentage of children in the early years yet the number of children who will exhibit persistent stuttering is actually quite small I Voice disorders 0 Communication difficulties characterized by difficulties with the voice 0 An underlying difficulty with voice production usually manifests itself as either aphonia complete lack of voice or dysphonia hoarse voice which affect nearly everyone at some point in time due to illness or an isolated overuse of the voice cheering 0 Chronic aphonia complete loss of voice I Can result from injury or illness to the vocal folds or the surrounding tissues organs I Most commonly caused by laryngeal cancer I Larynx the cartilaginous container that holds the vocal folds CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 10 I Cancer removal of vocal cords mute I Motorspeech disorders neurogenic speech disorders 0 Communication disorders characterized by distortions substitutions and omissions of speech sounds Pathology attributed to a dysfunction with the nervous system that controls motor output of the speech stream Neurological underpinnings 2 major types affect children and adults I Apraxia I Dysarthria 000 3 Hearing loss A breakdown in the reception or transmission of sound along the auditory pathways traveling from the ear to the brain Developmental or acquired after birth When loss occurs impacts how it is identified and treated I Sensorineura hearing loss 0 A break down in the hearing system in the inner ear or the auditory nerve runs from the inner ear to the brain centers 0 Congenital present at birth or acquired EX noiseinduced hearing loss the hair cells of the inner ear are damaged and become less sensitive to sound 0 Range between mild loss minimal treatments to profound loss Deafness cochlear implants to restore hearing I Conductive hearing loss 0 A breakdown in the hearing system in the outer or middle ear 0 Common causes especially in children I Malformation of the outer ear I Torn eardrum I Buildup of fluid in the middle era middle ear infection otitis media I 91 children 02 yrs experience otitis media I Chronic otitis media during the first few years of life has been nondefinitively linked to communication development delays I Auditory processing disorder AFB 0 akdown in the processing of speech sounds in the auditory center in the brain responsible for localizing sounds discriminating sounds recognizing auditory patterns 0 Linked to specific nervous system disorders Alzheimer s disease Symptoms overlap with those of other learning and attentional difficulties Symptoms include I Difficulty paying attention Poor listening skills I Difficulty following multistep directions I Slow processing time I Impaired language and literacy development I Disorders of feeding and swallowing o Are considered within comm Disorders because of the functional overlap of the neurological systems 0 Traditional treatment focus on bypassing feedingswallowing systems with little attempt to improve restore function feeding ubes I Pediatric feeding and swallowing problems 0 CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 11 0 Associated with specific developmental disorders cleft palate structural impairment or cerebral palsy neurological impairment prematurity or low birth weight 0 May bring adverse behavioral reactions to feeding and may compromise the caregiverchild relationship 0 May result from traumatic events brain injuries stroke infections I Adult dysphagia swallowing disorder 0 Result ofa nervous system dysfunction 0 Problems in I Difficulty with chewing or managing food orally I Difficulty with triggering or maintaining a swallow 0 Symptoms I Regurgitation of food after eating I Pain while swallowing I Loss of weight or energy I Appetite change CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders Chapters 1 2 3 hat careers ar available in the field of sciences and disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Page 12 Speechlanguage pathology SLP Audiology ASHA American SpeechHearing Association AAA Triple A American Academy of Audiology Lead service providers for speech and language disorder patients Key members of the treatment team for people with hearing swallowing and feeding disorders Currently 110000 ASHA certified SLPs Specialists in identifying assessing and managing disorders of auditory balance other neural systems Work with SLP when hearing affects communicative ability Currently 12000 in USA addressing the needs of disabled Address atypical communication swallowing within Prevention V Speech sound production Identification Resonance Assessment w 7 Voice Rehabilitation 3 E Fluency Advocacyconsultation g g g Language comprehension expression Educationresearchadministration uC J quotg g Cognition 3 393 Feeding swallowing 8 Assessment evaluation Documentation Assessment evaluation Documentation m Collaboration Prevention prereferral Collaboration Prevention prereferral 73 3 Consultation Referral Consultation Referral E E Counseling Screening Counseling Screening 6 3 Diagnosis Treatment I Diagnosis Treatment intervention w Public private schools Private practice Schools 5 Hospitals Group homes Hospitals 3 Rehabilitation facilities State agencies Rehabilitation facilities 5 Home health agencies Corporations Community college clinics Community clinic College University Private practice 3 5 Median annual salary 2006 58k between 46k 72k Median annual salary 2006 57k between 38k 90k E 397 Nursing care 70k higher payroll g m Schools 53K lower payroll 5 Current significant shortage Current shortage E Growth of 11 20062016 due to Growth of 10 20062016 due to S Increased awareness of early intervention Advances in hearing technology E More success in lifesaving measures for kids born with significant Aging population 393939 health impairments 5 Aging population baby boomers E Increased awareness of health promotion and disease prevention cgtf National increase in implementing newborn hearingscreening measure 2 The passage of federal laws focused on improving the rights and LU CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 13 Entry level master from ASHA program which includes Entry level master from ASHA program Completion of 2yr postbaccalaureate specialized program involving 75 postbaccalaureate hrs w intensive training in diagnosis and treatment 12month fulltime supervised clinical practicum g 36 semester hrs grad level amp completion of KASA skills those applying post 12012 for certification must have AuD 5 400hrs supervised clinical fieldwork 37Shrs in direct patient contact E Praxis exam min score 600 U Supervised 9month clinical fellowship o Speechlanguage pathology assistant SLPA Paraprofessionals who work under the supervision of SLPs to conduct speechlanguage screenings assist in assessments and implement treatment plans with clients but rules of work vary by state 0 Allied professionals I Specialeducators I Support the educational progress of children with communication disorders and often work closely with SLPs and AUD I NSOOOOO in USA schools serving quot6 million students I Serve primarily in public schools and private educational settings 13 million 3 to 21 year old children in US public schools were identified as requiring speechlanguage services I Early childhood special educators typically work with kids 35 yrs special educators work with ages 621 yrs and are specialize eg LD I Critical team members in designing special services for children and in coordinating service delivery with parents educators specialists I Collaborate with SLPs and other educators on eligibility program placement decisions for students with communication disorders I Often involved with activities associated with behavior management career vocational transitional planning technology utilization promotion of independent living and community participation I Growth of 15 within the field over next 10 years Largest growth involved with youngest children I Licensure varies by state I Education min bachelor s degree from ASHA program 9 most have a graduate degree and are specialized Occupational therapists OTs I Deliver interventions to help people with disabilities illnesses or injuries develop or regain the activities of daily living ADL I 100000 in USA most in hospital settings I Employment 20 growth in next decade Otorhinolaryngologists Earnose throat ENT I Collaborate with SLPs and AUDs in the diagnosis and management of communication disorders I Work with people with injuriesillnesses of the ear nose throat perform surgery prescribe medication conduct diagnostic investigations Neurologists I Help identify the etiology of many communication disorders esp those involving nervous system dysfunction Autism cerebral palsy stroke Alzheimer s Parkinson s Pediatricians I Important role in early identification and ongoing treatment of communication disorders in children all ages I Collaborate with parents to provide SLPAUDs referrals for speech language feeding swallowing hearing tests in presence of warning signs Psychologists I Involved in evaluating treating people with communication disorders esp when educational behavioral emotional complications exist I May complete diagnostic evaluations to include speechlanguage assessment and can help families cope with challenges CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 14 Chapter 2 An Overview of Communication Development I Introduction I What is communicative competence 0 Definition I Communicative competence the knowledge and implicit awareness that speakers ofa language possess and utilize to communicate effectively in that language 0 Entails more than speaking in grammatically wellformed sentence it is the speaker s skilled navigation of both linguistic and pragmatic elements of language that enable them to communicate successfully with other members of their speech community 0 A speaker with communicative competence knows how where when and with whom to speak in a global sense 2 aspects Linguistic and pragmatic enable humans to engage successfully in all 4 of the communication processes formulation transmission reception comprehension I Communicative performance the speaker s actual speech behavior aka performance error 0 Ex pause stutter word repetition repairing words sentences 0 We make performance blunders about 1x for every 10 words we speak I Important to demonstrate communicative competence despite performance errors 0 Infantdirected speech I Speech used when addressing young language learners I Illustrates how communicative competence does not necessarily equate to using grammatically wellformed sentences instead communicative competence allows a speaker to finetune language across different contexts and with different speakers to communicate most effectively I Linguistic Aspects of Communicative Competence I Relate to the nature and structure of language I Include o Phonological Competence The ability to recognize and produce the distinctive meaningful sounds ofa language phonemes At birth infants can distinguish among the sounds of al languages I First few years infants become attuned to the sounds they hear on a regular basis and their ability to distinguish among sounds that are not in the phonemic repertoire of their own language diminishes I 1 year infants are proficient in the sounds of their native language enter period of vocabulary explosion I With the slow development of the articulators competence in producing individual phonemes for the purpose of spoken communication emerges I Infant vocal tracts represent those of a nonhuman primate only development and time can produce an adult s vocal tract I Phonological processes phonological errors that characterize children s expressive phonology and sometimes mask competence I the normal phonological deviations that young children make in producing specific sounds and words context specific they occur in certain speech contexts o Grammatical competence recognize and produce syntactic structures I The ability to effectively recognize and produce the syntactic and morphological structures ofa language I NZ yrs children understand word order to which their language adheres O CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 15 I By 18 months Englishlearning infants process these small but telling grammatical morphemes separately from the verbs on which they appear Children s comprehension emerges prior to production for grammatical competence I Prior to 2 years children understand the difference between quotjim is hitting tim and quottom is hitting tim but can t produce this sentence until 2 or 3 years I By 18 months children understand the meaning that the morpheme conveys but they do not produce this morpheme until about 24 months 0 Lexical competence recognize and produce conventional words I The ability to recognize and produce the conventional words that the speakers of a language use I Developments occur early in the life of the language learner I Infants usually understand their own names by about 4 months I Infants usually understand the names of others by about 6 months I Once infants learn to recognize their names as a unit of speech they infer that the speech following it begins a new unit I Comprehension precedes production I Infants at a few months understand many words but can t speak them until about 12 months I Reasons 0 Language comprehension requires only that we retrieve words whereas language production requires that we assemble and pronounce words 0 With language comprehension sentences are preorganized with lexical items a syntactic structure and intonation Language production requires that the speaker search for words organize the words and place stress and emphasis in the proper places 0 Much of the language that others direct towards infants and toddlers is highly contextualized with many clue to aid comprehension in production children must construct a match between the context and language in order to express meaning 0 Discourse recognize and produce coherent and cohesive speech events I The ability to relay information to others fluently and coherently I The speech event rather than individual words or sounds is the unit of analysis for discourse competence I Those with discourse competence understand how to navigate ideas expressed across entire speech events when interpreting and producing extended conversation I Comprehension precedes production I Pragmatic Aspects of Communicative Competence I In relation to the social contexts in which we use language I Those possessing pragmatic competence take their conversational partners attitudes values and beliefs into account when communicating Also take the context of language into account and recognize that they can use language for a variety of purposes I Include 0 Functional Competence recognize and use a variety of language functions I The ability to communicate for a variety of purposes in a language I As children develop they communicate for n increasingly large set of purposes predict problemsolve explain 0 Sociolinguistic Competence recognize and apply socially appropriate language CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 16 I The ability to interpret the social meaning that language conveys and to choose language that is socially appropriate for communicative situations I Speech register the variety of speech appropriate to a particular speech situation I Formal register speaking with employer I Informal register speaking with friends I Code switching the ability to switch among registers formal and informal o lnteractional competence interpret and use accepted standards for interaction I The ability to understand and apply implicit rules for interaction in various communication situations I Important skills are initiating and managing conversations adhering to accepted standards for body language eye contact and physical proximity I Standards can vary by culture 0 Cultural Competence interpret and utilize culturally appropriate behavior I The ability to function effectively in cultural contexts both by interpreting behavior correctly and by behaving in a way that would be considered appropriate by the members of the culture I Encompasses a wide variety of cultural understandings attitudes values beliefs of a culture s people I Having the ability to recognize expressions of emotion I What is the foundation for communicative competence o Earliest foundations We are not born with communicative competence it is acquired and builds on numerous early foundations I 3 important early foundations characterize the infants first year 1 Joint reference and attention 0 3 developmental phases 1 Phase 1 birth 9 6 months I Infants develop patterns of attending to their social partners I Infants come to value and participate in interpersonal interactions as they learn how to maintain attention within sustained periods ofengagement I Caregiver responsiveness is an important feature of this first phase caregivers who are warm sensitive and responsive to their infants promote their children s ability and desire to sustain long periods ofjoint attention 2 Phase 26 months 9 lyear I Children learn to navigate their attention between an object of interest and another person I Emergence ofjoint attention the simultaneous engagement of 2 individuals in mental focus on a single external object or event 0 Children who initiate and respond to bids forjoint attention have relatively larger vocabularies at 24 months compared with children whose joint attention abilities are not as strong 0 SupportedDim engagement Techniques for extending and sustaining periods ofjoint attention I The adult attempts to sustain the child s participation in a period ofjoint focus 0 Withoutjoint attention infants miss out on wordlearning opportunities and worldto word mappings I Infants do not tend to associate the sounds they hear with the objects and events on which they themselves are focused unless the speaker provides some social cues that would support such an association CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 17 I lntersubjective awareness the recognition of when one shares a mental focus on some external object or action with another person 0 Must be possessed by an infant before they can use cues to infer another s intentions 0 Only after infants realize that they can share a mental focus with other humans do they begin to interpret others referential actions as intentional and use their own referential actions to call attention to objects and events that interest them I Intentional communications an infant s attempt at deliberate communication with others 0 Typically emerges around 910 months 0 Indicators towards intentional communicative behaviors I The infant is able to follow another person s line of regard gaze and pointing gestures at a distance EX respond to another s bid forjoint attention I The infant is able to use gestures or voice to direct another person s attention to an object of interest The infant is able to use gestures or voice to request or protest an object of interest The infant is able to use gestures or voice to get another person to look at notice or comfort him her intentions 3 Phase 31 year I Children transition to using language within communicative interactions with others I Once children are adept at soliciting bids forjoint attention with others they shift to being able to engage socially with others by using language to represent events and objects within these interactions 2 Rituals of infancy 0 Infants lives center around the routines of feeding bathing dressing and sleeping all of which provide a sense of comfort and predictability in addition to providing early opportunities for language learning 0 Baby s may not understand and differentiate between most words but they benefit from hearing them daily because they become attuned to where pauses occur which helps them to segment phrases clauses and eventually words form the speech stream also learning phonotactics the combinations of sounds that are acceptable in their language 0 Routines provide many opportunities to engage in joint attention episodes with their caregivers 3 Caregiver responsiveness o Caregivers attention and sensitivity to infants vocalizations and communicative attempts o Helps teach infants that others value their behaviors and communicative attempts o The quantity and quality of the caregiver s responsiveness is a major role in early language development I Parents who are responsive and follow their children s lead foster greater occasions ofjoint attention and increase children s motivation to communicate resulting in more frequent initiations and bids for attention by children I More responsive language by mothers is linked to children s language milestones including I Saying the first word I Producing 2 word sentences 0 Key indicators of caregiver responsiveness I Waiting and listening parents wait expectantly for initiations use a slow pace to allow for initiations and listen to allow the child to complete messages I Following the child s lead when a child initiates either verbally or nonverbally parents follow the child s lead by responding verbally to the initiation using animation and avoiding vague acknowledgements CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 18 I Joining in and playing parents build on their child s focus of interest and play without dominating I Being facetoface parents adjust their physical level by sitting on the floor leaning forward to facilitate faceto face interaction and bending toward the child when above the child s level I What are major communicative milestones in infancy and toddlerhood o Infancy birth 2 years a period of exploration and discovery I Stages of vocal development Phonation 01 I Infants produce reflexive and vegetative sounds Stage month I Reflexive sounds the very first kinds of sounds infants produce include signs of distress cry fuss and vegetative sounds produced during feeding burp coug Neonates have no control for the most part over reflexive sounds a child s vocalizations could mean something entirely different from what was initially interpreted by an adult Going and 23 Cooing sounds consonantlike sounds that infants produce when they are content caning stage months I g and k sounds easy to produce with less precision in the of the tongue lips teeth Expansion 46 Infants gain more control over the articulators Stage months I Vocal repertoire increases as they begin to manipulate the loudness and pitch of their voices and to play with sounds Infants produce yells growls squeals trills raspberries Infants produce marginal babbling early form of babblingshort strings of consonantlike and vowellike sounds Canonical 6 I Infants use true consonants and true vowels in various combinations but there is no true words formed at this stage babbling months I True babbling appears around 6 months distinguished from cooing going and marginal babbling by the child s Variegated 9 production of authentic syllables vocals with a true consonant combined with a true vowel and are strung together to babbling months form chains Canonical babbling consists of the single production or repetition of consonantvowel sequences in which the same consonantvowel sequence is repeated creating reduplicative babbling sequences of canonical consonantvowel repetitions I Variegated babbling emerges after infants begin producing canonical babbling around 9 months infants use a larger range of sounds compared to reduplicative babbling and begin to string together different consonant and vowel sequences I Infants has shown preference to nasal consonants mnng and the stop consonants pbtd in the variegated stages combining these variously with vowels to produce long vocalized sequences I Jargon a special type of babbling in which infants use the melodic patterns of their native language through a combination of rhythm rate stress and intonation contours is not true words because they are not referential nor do they convey meaning emerges at end of this stage about 1 year I Deaf babies and babies of hearing impaired parents babble silently with their hands I Emergence of intentional ty I 712 months I Infants begin to communicate their intentions more clearly than before preintentional period I Increase interest in surrounding environment and people in it increase in intentionality in communication I Intentionality provides means of communicating needs interests thoughts and facilitate interactions I Evidence of intentionality communicative efforts of the infant towards others by pointing showing objects gesturing eye contact I Transition to symbolic representation CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 19 I Words symbols represents something else in the world 1St year bday infant should be aware of how sequences of sounds symbolize concepts in the world I Words are arbitrary symbols they do not directly signal the concepts they represent As infants develop their Iexicons mental dictionaries develop For 1 word an entire lexicon is formed 0 Lexicon entry a series of symbols consisting of the word the word s sound the word s meaning the word s parts of speech 0 Around lyear old children transition from intentional communicative behaviors eye contact gesture vocalizations to using symbols words gestures to communicate I Symbols include words and gestures I Referentia gestures gesture which carries a fixed meaning ex bird flapping arms emerge Provide children a larger communicative repertoire during transition between nonsymbolic to symbolic communication that what is provided through words alone I Deictic gestures used to indicate or call attention to something ex pointing waving I Once intentionality emerges in infants they too along with adults communicate for the 3 main reasons to request reject and comment although the method employed is somewhat different 0 The first word around 12 months I Used to employ the 3 main reasons of communication to request reject and comment I Usually refers to salient people and objects in infants everyda life mama dada doggie Exam es of 3 Criterion for consideration to be a vocalized true word p True words Incorrect words reasoning 1 An infant needs to utter the word with a clear intention Baby says quotdoggiequot while Parent says quotsay doggie say and purpose petting dog true word doggie Child says doggie utterance is imitation repetition 2 A true word has a recognizable pronunciation or at Baby says quotdoddiequot for Baby clearly and least a close approximation of the adult form doggie consistently says quotoona for doggie Phonetically consistent form 3 A true word is one that a child uses consistently and in Baby says doggie to contexts beyond the original contextM describe all dogs notjust the particular one it s petting Phoneticaly consistentform PCF description of id osyncratic worldlike productions a child uses consistently and meaningfully but do not approximate forms used by adults The extension of words across various contexts real life pictures sounds is related to the symbolic aspect of words and how one word can have many diverse referents across time and place The symbolic element of word use is demonstrated when a child uses a word and applies it to diverse contexts of use even if incorrect every male is quotdaddyquot and all furry animal is quotcat 0 Toddlerhood Term originated from children learning to walk who take short unsteady steps I Achievements in form I 1 year 9 18 months 15 years CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 20 0 Children acquire an expressive lexicon ofabout 50 words I 18 24 months 2 years 0 From N 6 months after a toddler reaches the SO lexicon mark obvious significant changes occur in their communicative competence I Children begin to show evidence ofa rudimentary use of syntax language form and being to inflect words with grammatical morphemes an inflection added to words to indicate aspects of grammar ex plural s possessive 15 past tense ed present progressive ing 0 When first emerging language has a telegraphic quality resulting from omitting key grammatical markers Use signals the development of morphology and the child s gradual increase in grammatical precision 0 Roger Brown did 2 things 0 Isolated l4 grammatical morphemes and documented the ages at which children master these common morphemes as well as their order ofacquisition determined all English speaking total number of morphemes total number of utterances MLC total number of morphemes is determined by counting the total number of morphemes in a sample of 50100 spontaneous utterances that a child produces Calculating MLU is a common way to evaluate children s language skills against the expectations for their age Age upper Major achievements 18 Independent clauses continue to emerge the Recursive elements predominate CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 21 I Mean length of utterance MLC the average length of children s sentence units or utterances l utterance 1 morphemes smallest unit of meaning a defining characteristic of preschoolers increasing language complexity 0 Children typically begin to move from singleword to multiword utterances I Parents begin to hear phrases such as quotgo byebye I At the 2 word stage children begin to acquire a sense of syntax language structure once children begin to link words to express ideas and desires then syntax emerges to govern how these words are organized I Achievements in context I Vocabulary spurt word spurt naming explosion o A remarkable increase in the rate ofvocabulary acquisition 0 Children learn on average 79 new words per day Occurs after child has reached the 50 word mark between 1824 months I Substantial growth occurs in both the receptive and expressive lexicon even though comprehension comes before production 0 Receptive lexicon encompasses the words a person can comprehend o Expressive lexicon refers to the words a person can produce I Underextension child s application of newly learned words to specific referents rather than to a category of referents I Overextension child s application ofa word in a wider set of contexts than adults would consider appropriate toddlers overgeneralize about 13 new words on the basis of categorical analogical relational similarities o Categoricaloverextension when a child extends a known word to other referents because they are in the same category I quotgreenquot describes all colors 0 Anaogica overextension when a child extends a known word to other referents because they have perceptual similarities quotballquot describes all round objects 0 Relationaoverextension when a child extends a known word to other semantically related referents I bird describes bird feeders and bird seed I Achievements in use I By the multiword stage children are capable of a variety of language functions including 0 Instrumental requests to satisfy their own needs 0 Regulatory use directives to control the behaviors of others 0 Personal interactional tell information about themselves and share feelings o Heuristic request information and ask questions to learn and investigate the world 0 Imaginative tell stories to makebelieve and pretend o Informative give information to communicate with others I One area in which toddlers are not highly skilled is conversation o Conversational skill requires being able to initiate a conversational topic sustain a topic for several turns and then appropriately take leave of the conversation o Conversation with a toddler usually ends after 23 turns I Toddlers have issues keeping their audience s needs in mind I Achievements in speech 0 Expressive phonology the observable sounds and sound patterns children use when producing syllables and words I When toddlers speak they tend to use the sounds with which they are most skilled 2 yr olds correctly produce 70 of sounds used CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 22 r a mental ofa particular phoneme or sound pattern I Underlies every sound sound pattern that a child produces I Differentiate each phoneme in the child s repertoire phonological system from all the other phonemes and provide children with the rules for combining sounds into different patterns I Attainment of specific phonemes 0 Children are said to have mastered a consonant once they can produce the sound correctly in 3 different positions I Syllable initial Initial position of a syllable I Syllable medial middle position ofa syllable I Syllable final final position of a syllable Phonologicalprocesses processes of sound change that children apply to words and syllables to simplify the phonological production e ect normal patterns of deviation from the adult phonology that will change as a child matures o Universalamongchildren 0 Common processes include first 5 are suppressed by age 23 years I Finaconsonant deletion the final consonant ofa word is omitted quotcaquot quotcat I Reduplication the first syllable in a word is repeated quotwawa quotwater I Consonant harmony one consonant in a word takes on features ofanother consonant quotdoddiequot quotdoggie I Weak syllable deletion the unstressed syllable in a word is omitted quotjamasquot quotpajamasquot I Diminutization the second syllable in a word is changed to quoteequot quotmommy mother quotblankiequot quotblanketquot Cluster reduction a consonant cluster 2 consonants that occur together as in stick or crayon is reduced to a single consonant quottickquot or quotcayonquot I Liquid gliding the consonants and r are changed to w and y quotwabbitquot I What are major communicative milestones in preschool and school age children 0 Preschool accomplishments I 35 years old I Achievements in form I Advances in grammatical and derivational morphology o Morphologicaldevelopment the ability to manipulate word structure by adding prefixes and suffixes allowing children to become increasingly precise and specific in their communication while magnifying their basic word repertoire exponentially I 39 39 39 the to words that provide additional grammatical precisions I Ex pluralizing words catcats inflecting verbs gois going I Do not really carry meaning provide grammatical detail Derivational morphology modifies words structurally refers to the addition of prefixes or suffixes that carry meaning and thus change a word s meaning and sometimes part of speech 0 In preschool children acquire additional grammatical morphemes I Begin to use articles a horse an ant I The greatest area ofdevelopment is in verb morphology I Delayed development of verb morphology is 1 major sign of a language disorder I Preschoolers acquire many nuances about verb morphology including mastering the variations of be as both copula and auxiliary verbs I Copula I The verb be or its derivative am is are was were is the quotrabbitquot I Verbs can be contracted ex quotHe s CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders Chapters 1 2 3 EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Page 23 main in a sentence or a Ex quotI am hugging Paul serves as a can going or uncontracted quotI am cannot object constructions quotDaddy drives a truckquot quotDaddy s hitting the to more elaborate sentences patterns Move from simple adverb constructions quotTruck is bigquot adverb quotBaby is eating now in sentences to create sentences produced completely by then end of preschool The sentences are created via the use of coordination and or but subordinating conjunctions then when because to connect clauses I quotI told daddy and daddy told mommy compound sentence I quotI told daddy who told mommy complex sentence with embedded clauses are Achievements in content The lexicon preschoolers show rapid expansion of their receptive and expressive lexicons 0 By first grade children understand 10000 words I Preschoolers learn new words via incidentaexposures informal experience with new words within context of use I Children s vocabulary acquisition is a gradual process I Fast mapping initial exposure to a word accompanied by the rapid acquisition of a general sense of its meaning I Repeated exposure to the concept over multiple contexts allows for the refinement of fast mapping I Curtis s vocabulary development 4 stage process preschoolers have many words in many different stages 1 A child has no knowledge of a word 2 A child has emergent knowledge of a word 3 A child has contextual knowledge of the word 4 A child has full knowledge of the word Decontextualized language skills preschoolers increase their ability to use decontextualized language reducing contexualized language use 0 Contextualized language is rooted in the immediate context the here and now CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 24 I Aids understanding through the incorporation ofand reliance on shared knowledge gestures intonation immediately present situational cues o Decontexualized language is appropriate and necessary for discussing events and concepts beyond the immediate context I Relies heavily on the language itself in the construction of meaning I May not contain context cues and does not assume shared knowledge I Achievements in use I Use description of how we apply language functionally for meeting our personal and social needs I Preschoolers use language for a great variety of discourse functions 0 Interpretive functions those that interpret the whole of one s experience 0 Logical functions express logical relations between ideas 0 Participatory functions express wishes feelings attitudes and judgments o Organizing functions organize discourse I Effective conversationalists 0 Have the ability to take turns in a conversation Preschool age can maintain conversation for 23 turns 0 Narrative skills I Narratives are essentially decontextualized monologues focus is on people or characters not immediately present or on events removed from the current context Narratives monologues they re largely uninterrupted streams of language I The speaker presents a topic and organizes the information pertaining to that topic in a way that the listener can assume a relatively passive role providing only minimal support to the speaker I 2 types of narratives 0 Personal individual shares a factual event of their life 0 Fictional individual shares a madeup event I Narratives follow an explicit sequence of events that are either casually or temporally related 0 Casual sequence unfolds following a causeandeffect chain of events jesse didn t want to go to schoolsojesse told his mom he was sick 0 Temporal sequence unfolds over time first we went to the store Then we went to the mall Narrative skills begin forming around 2 years but children can t properly produce until about 4 years old 2 years Heaps one sentence to 23 years Sequences time sequences years a concrete core a set 5 years experiences a series events no true concept is 57 years True narratives CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 25 I Achievements in speech I By the end of preschool children are have likely mastered nearly all of their native languages phonemes I In preschool nearly all phonological processes are suppressed as children s phonological systems stabilize mostly between 34 years I Achievements in emergent literacy I Earliest period of learning about reading and writing I Emergent literacy achievement depend largely on metalinguistic ability child s ability to view language as an object of attention 2 important achievements include 0 Print awareness the young child s understanding of the form and functions of written language I Print interest print is a worthy object of attention I Child shows interest in print including specific words and letters in highly contextualized depictions I Child finds print an interesting type of stimulus I Print functions print carries meaning I Child recognizes that print provides meaning to events I Child may or may not realize that print provides additional detail beyond other stimuli ex pictures I Print conventions print is organized in specific ways I Child understands that print has its own organizational scheme moves left to right and that print is organized in specific ways for specific genres I Print forms print units can be differentiated and named I Child understands that words letters other print units have distinct names and are used in specific organized ways Print parttowhole relationships print units can be combined into other print units I Child recognizes the combinatorial properties of print units ex how letters make up words and words can link to create sentences 0 Phonological awareness the young child s understanding of and sensitivity to the sound units of oral language namely the series of larger and smaller units that make up speech phonemes syllables words I Emerges incrementally begins around 2 years with shallow awareness moving towards deep awareness 0 School aged accomplishments I Functional flexibility I The ability to use language for a variety of communicative purposes functions 0 Language functions required of schoolaged children I To instruct to provide specific sequential directions I To inquire to seek understanding through asking questions To test to investigate the logic ofa statement I To describe to tell about giving necessary information to identify I To compare and contrast to show how things are similar and different I To explain to define terms by providing specific examples I To analyze to break down a statement into its component parts telling what each means and how they are related I To hypothesize to test a statement s logical or empirical consequences I To deduce to arrive at a conclusion by reasoning to infer I To evaluate to weigh and judge the relative importance of an idea CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Chapters 1 2 3 Disorders I Nippold s 7 skills in order to use language to persuade 0 Adjust to listener characteristics State advantages as a reason to comply Anticipate and reply to counteragruments Avoid negative strategies whining begging EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Page 26 O O 0 Use positive techniques politeness bargaining as strategies to increase compliance 0 0 Generate a large number and variety of different arguments 0 Control the discourse assertively I Reading and writing I Reading requires the learning how the orthography of letters graphemes corresponds to phonemes alphabetic principle which is rooted in the achievement of print awareness and phonological awareness I 5 stage of learn ng to read Stage initial reading Kindergarten first grade Children learn to associate letters with the sounds they represent and l decoding 57 years attend to soundspelling relationships when beginning word decoding Focus learning to read the development ofdecoding skills and the untangling of the alphabetic principle Stage Confirmation Second and third grade Children hone their decoding skills and develop strategies for 2 fluency and 78 years comprehending what they read ungluing from print Children gradually transition from learning to read to reading to learn Stage Reading for earning Grades 4 8 Children read to gain new information and are solidly reading to learn 3 the new 913 years reading during this stage helps expand children s vocabularies build background and world knowledge and develop strategic reading habits Stage Multiple Grades 9 12 Students learn to handle increasingly difficult concepts and to read the 4 viewpoints high 1418 yea rs texts tat describe them school Students learn to analyze texts critically and to understand multiple points ofview Stage Contruction and 18 years The linguistic and cognitive demands placed on readers continue to S reconstruction a increase and readers are able to construct understanding by analyzing world view college and 39 39 39 Lext I Literate language I Language that is highly decontextualized I Languages used to monitor and reflect on experience and reason about plan and predict experiences I Refers to the child s ability to use language without the aid of context cues for supporting meaning the child must rely on language itselfto make meaning I Discourse development lies on a continuum o Oralanguage the linguistic aspects of communicative competence necessary for communicating very basic desires and needs I most salient characteristic of oral language is its highly contextualized style Located at the lower level of the discourse continuum Children are quotlearning to talk under oral language I Are able to satisfy some basic language functions requesting and greeting CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders Chapters 1 2 3 I Produce simple syntactic structures 0 Literate language EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Page 27 Children use language chiefly as a way to communicate higherorder cognitive functions Mastery of oral language allows for quottalking to learnquot Specific features of literate language children learn to use Elabora ted noun phrases Groups of words consisting of a noun and 1 modifiers that provide additional information about the noun Includes articles a an the possessives my his their demonstratives this that those quantifiers every each some wh words what which whichever and adjectives tall long ugly Adverbs Syntactic forms used to modify verbs which enhance the explicitness of action and event descriptions Provide additional information about time suddenly again now manner somehow well slowly degree almost barely much place here outside above reason therefore consequently so affirmation or negation definitely really never adverbial conjunctions used in linking 2 sentences together conversely similarly Conjunctions Words or phrases that organize information and clarify relationships among elements Include and for or yet but nor so subordinating conjunctions are more numerous include after although as because for Metacongnitive and metainguistic verbs Verbs that refer to various acts of thinking and speaking Metacongnitive verbs include think know believe imagine feel consider suppose decide forget remember Metalinguistic verbs include say tell speak shout answer call reply yell I Form and content refinement I Form refinement 0 Form achievements progress slowly due to the rare use of the syntactic skills in conversation 0 Most important achievement is in the area of complex syntax developmentally advanced grammatical structures that mark a literate language style Occur infrequently in spoken language but when used in written language indicate more advanced grammar levels I Ex nounphrase postmodification with past participles a tree called the willow complex verb phrases using the perfective aspect they have driven a long way and adverbial conjuncts consequently similarly however Persuasive writing is a vehicle for the expression of more complex syntax because it forces longer sentences that contain greater amounts of subordination and stronger linkages between sentences 0 Development in morphology I Children s use of derivational prefixes and suffixes I Derivational prefixes morphemes that we add to the beginning of words to change their meanings dis non I Derivational suffixes morphemes that we add to the end of words to change their form class part of speech verb to noun CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 28 I Context refinement 0 60000 words by high school graduation o 3 areas of notable content development I Understanding multiple meanings I Understanding lexical ambiguity quotyou re fridge is runningquot I Understanding figurative language I Language diversity considerations I 607S of people in the world speak more than 1 language I 47 million people ages 5 years in America speak a language other than English at home I 4 stages of language development for ESL students 0 Home language stage students tend to speak their home language with other students and adults in the classroom who also speak their home language Nonverbal period students focus on understanding rather than speaking English Telegraphic and formulaic use students use single words repeat words and phrases that others use and use simple phrases that they are able to memorize 0 Language productivity students continue to expand their lexical and grammatical repertoire OO CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 29 Chapter 3 anatomical and physiological bases of communication and communication disorders I Neuroscience and human communication 0 Terminology I Positional terms I Anterior toward the front I Posterior toward the back I Ventral toward the abdomen I Dorsal toward the back I Superior toward the top I Inferior toward the bottom I External toward the outside I Internal toward the inside I Proximal toward the body I Distal away from the body I Medial toward the middle I Lateral toward the side I Directional terms to describe organization of the nervous system and neuroscience I Afferent towards the nervous system towards the brain I Efferent away from the nervous system towards the body 0 The nervous system I Nerves that carry information sensory information carried to the brain motor information carried away from the brain between the brain spine and body 0 Cranial nerves the 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the brain 0 Spinal nerves the 31 pairs of nerves that emerge from the spinal cord I Neurons highly specialized cells that make up the nervous system and carry its sensory and motor information I Brain consists of billion of neurons I Neuron consists of a cell body and 2 extensions dendrites axonsthat receive and transmit information in the form of electricalchemical nerve impulses to and from the cell body 0 For 2 neurons to communicate the nerve impulse must travel down one neuron s dendrite and into its cell body then moving down the axon crossing the synaptic cleft aided by neurotransmitters and into the dendrite of the receiving neuron I Dendrites afferent extensions bring nerve impulses into the cell body I Axon efferent extension take nerve impulses away from the body I Synapse the space where 2 neurons meet I Neurotransmitters chemical agents that help to carry information across the synaptic cleft the minute space between the axon of the transmitting neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron o Myelin a sheathed coating on most neurons I The myelin sheath contributes importantly to the rapid relay of nerve impulses and the protection of the neuron I Myelinization the growth of the myelin sheath I A slow process that is not complete until late in childhood I Multiple sclerosis MS is the breakdown of the myelin sheath due to the body s immune system attacking it CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 30 I Central nervous system CNS I Consists of the brain chief operator and spinal cord I Carries sensory information from the body to the brain via afferent pathways carries motor commands from the brain to the body via efferent pathways The CNS is designed to be resistant to damage due to 3 protective shields 1 Bone skull brain vertebral column spinal cord 2 Meninges 3 layered membrane that completely encase the CNS 1 Pia mater inside layer tightly wraps around the brain I A thin transparent shield that gives the brain its bright pink color Arachonoid mater second middle layer Dura mater third outermost layer I 2 3 Consists of fibrous tissue that completely encases the brain and the spinal cord 3 Cerebrospinal fluid CSF shield protecting the CNS I Circulates between the innermost 2 layers of the meninges I Carries chemicals important to metabolic processes but it also serves as an important buffer for any jolts to the CNS I Brain I Weighs about 3lbs 25 of our body weight I The brain has weighed more and grew over millions of years Enlargement of the cerebrum I 3 major parts 1 Brain stem located directly on top of the spinal cord serves as a conduit between the rest of the brain and the spinal cord I Consists primarily of nerve tracts that carry sensory information to the brain and motor information to the body I Major relay station for nerves supplying the head and face and for controlling the visual and auditory reflexes Structures and functions are associated with metabolism and arousal 3 major reflex centers and located in the brain stem I Cardiac center controls the heart Vasomotor center controls the blood vessels Respiratory center controls the breathing Cerebellum an oval shaped quotlittle brainquot that sits posterior to the brain stem I Primarily responsible for regulating motor and muscular activity I 2 Motor monitoring functions coordination of motor movement maintenance of muscle tone monitoring of movement rand and strength and maintenance of posture and equilibrium 3 Cerebrum cerebral cortex the part of the brain that governs the unique human qualities of thinking problem solving planning creating rationalizing Largest of the 3 parts of the brain Consists of 2 mirrorimage hemisphere right and left separated by a longitudina ssure a long cerebral crevicefissure Corpus callosum a band of fibers that connects the 2 hemispheres serving as a conduit for communication between the hemispheres Consists of 4 lobes I Frontal lobe largest lobe 0 Key functions CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 31 I Activating and controlling both fine and complex motor activities control of speech output I Controlling human executive functions problem solving planning creating reasoning decision making social awareness rationalizing 0 Contains prefrontal cortex evolved most recently is most developed in humans relative to other species I Organization selfcontrol goaloriented tasks 0 Contains broca39s area important for communication I Within the left hemisphere of the frontal lobe I Responsible for fine coordination of speech output I Temporal lobe sits medial to the ears 0 Important site for human communication 0 Contains the auditory cortex heschl s gyrus I Conducts finegrained analysis of the frequency spectrum temporal properties periodicity of sounds received from the auditory pathways I Right specialization for processing melody prosody and certain aspects of pitch I Left temporal processing 0 Contains the wernicke s area Left brain hemisphere I Languagecomprehension I Parietal lobe sits posterior to the frontal lobe on the left and right sides above the ears 0 Key functions I Perceiving and integrating sensory and perceptual information I Comprehending oral and written language and calculation for mathematics I Occipital lobe receives and processes visual information I 5 Organizational principles of the human brain 0 Interconnectedness The brain functions and structures are highly interconnected I The 2 hemispheres and their combined lobes constantly interact via brain fibers 0 Hierarchy I CNS is organized hierarchical o Specialization I Via 2 hemispheres L and R o Plasticity change I The ability of the brain to recognize and modify functions and adapt to internal and external changes I Developmental plasticity neural organization that is stimulated by sensory experience in the environment I Learning plasticity the way the brain changes as a result of instruction and learning I Injury induced plasticity the way the brain reorganizes and even regenerates itselffollowing injury 0 Critical period I A period of time during which growth in a particular function or structure in the developing brain is most rapid I Specific neurons grow rapidly and forge important neural pathways CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 32 I 34 weeks post conception neural migration neurons migrate from their place of origin to form the inner structures and functions of the brain I Critical period for language development 3 phases I Sensory learning developing an internal representation of one s native language through exposure I Sensorimotor output producing language and gradually matching one s own performance to a stored template of mature language through internal and external feedback Stabilization stabilizing of mature language patterns due to loss of plasticity and maintenance through use I Contralaterality The architectural organization whereby bodily senses and functions are processed in the opposite side of the brain 0 Right sensations corresponds with left brain action Speech and language in the human brain 0 Broca39s area Primary center for fluent expression of speech and language Located posterior portion of the left frontal lobe o Heschl s gyrus Primary center for auditory perception and sensation Located in the superior portion of the left temporal lobe I Responsible for the interpretation ofall types of sounds notjust speech and language 0 Wernicke s area The primary center for language comprehension I Located just posterior to Heschl s gyrus in the left temporal lobe I Language comprehension meaning is attributed to the linguistic stimuli sent from Heschl s gyrus Peripheral Nervous system PNS I PNS carries sensory information to the CNS and motor commands away from the CNS controlling voluntary and involuntary activities I Consists of the nerves cranial and spinal nerves that emerge from the brain and the spinal cord to innervate the rest of the body 0 12 pairs of cranial nerves important for speech language hearing swallowing I Carry information concerning 45 senses to the brain vision hearing smell taste Carry the motor impulses from the brain to the muscles of the face and neck 7 cranial nerves involved with communicative functions and the functions they are related to I Trigeminal V facial sensations jaw movements chewing Facial VII taste sensations facial movement smiling Acoustic VIII hearing and balance I I I Glossopharyngeal IX tongue sensation palatal and pharyngeal movement gagging I Vagus X taste sensation palatal pharyngeal and laryngeal movement voicing Accessory XI palatal pharyngeal laryngeal head shoulder movement Hypoglossal XII tongue movement 5 additional cranial nerves I Olfactory I smell sensation Optic II visual information Oculomotor eye movement CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 33 I Trochlear IV eye movement I Abducens VI eye movement 0 31 pairs of spinal nerves mediate reflexes and volitional sensory and motor activity I Anatomy and physiology of speech 0 3 interrelated systems that interact to produce spoken language I Respiration I The system of the body that controls breathing o Controlled by the brain stem is an involuntary action I Purpose to draw oxygen from the air into the blood and to exchange it with carbon dioxide 0 Passive respiration vs speech respiration I More air is inhaled and then exhaled for speech respiration than for passive respiration I Inhalationexhalation process involved in speech is subject to greater voluntary control than those of normal breathing I Passive respiration controlled reflexively speech respiration active reflexively I Speech respiration differs from passive respiration in the ratio of inhalations to exhalations in l respiratory cycle 1 inhalation l exhalation I Breathing 40 inhalation 60 exhalation I Speech 10 inhalation 90 exhalation dominates due to used for speech I Major organ lungs I Parts 0 Lower respiratory system I Consists of lungs bronchi 2 per lung alveoli small sacs formed by the bronchi dividing exchange of oxygen from the air and carbon dioxide from the blood occurs here I Located within the thoracic cavity I Thoracic skeleton consists of rib cage and vertebral column which surround the heart and lungs I Diaphragm located at the bottom of thoracic cavity it s a large muscle that contracts and expands with breathing I Right and left lungs are located within the pleura thin sac attaches to inner side of thorax and outer side of lungs 0 Upper respiratory system I Consists of trachea larynx oral and nasal cavities I Relating to speech Power supply for speech production thought the inhalation and exhalation ofair during breathing 0 To speak Inhale exhale Airflow sent through larynx over vocal folds and into the oral and nasal cavities for sound manipulation I Muscles of respiration are used in inspiration and expiration o Inspiratory muscles I Primary muscles I Involved with quiet restful breathing I Include diaphragm intercostals located in between ribs when contracted they raise the ribs increasing the volume in the lungs creating a negative pressure vacuum I Secondary accessory muscles I Involved with active forced inspiration 0 Expiratory muscles CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 34 I Primary muscles I Secondary muscles I Phonation I Purpose takes the energy that is sent upward from the lungs and further modulates the airflow to convert the energy into sound I Key structures pharynx trachea larynx O arynx mucosalined muscular tube that runs from the nasal cavity through the rear of the oral cavity to the entrance of the larynx and the esophagus I Divided into 3 sections I Nasopharynx posterior continuation of the nasal cavity Oropharynx throat the length of the pharynx that connects with the oral cavity Laryngopharynx most inferior portion of the pharynx a small portion of tube that opens in the anterior to the larynx and in the posterior to the esophagus Larynx a cartilaginous box that sits at the front of the neck on top of the trachea windpipes which leads to the lungs I Primary function protect the trachea Aka voice box home of the vocal folds O Suspended from the hyoid bone a horseshoeshaped bone that floats horizontally at the base of the neck Made up of cartilages that are connected through muscle and ligament I l cricoids cartilage a ring of cartilage that forms the base of the larynx and sits at the top of the trachea l thyroid cartilage largest laryngeal cartilage sits superior to cricoids cartilage appears as 2 shields fused together 2 arytenoid cartilages small pyramidshaped structures attached to the top posterior portion of the cricoids cartilage and forms anchors for the vocal folds Epiglottis cartilage a leafshaped cartilage attached anteriorly to the top of the thyroid cartilage running up against the hyoid bone and to the back of the tongue Movements of the larynx and the vocal folds contained within it are controlled by 2 sets of muscles I Extrinsic laryngeal muscles 0 Extend externally from the larynx to the hyoid bone or other nearby structures Keep the larynx in its midline position while also controlling its vertical movements 0 Differentiated via 0 Suprahyoids run from the larynx to the region superior to the hyoid bone 4 muscles called laryngeal elevators role in elevating the larynx Infrahyoids run from the larynx to the region inferior to the hyoid bone 4 muscles called laryngeal depressors role in depressing the larynx and hyoid bone after elevation during quot 39 speech Digastricus Omohyoid Stylohyoid Sternohyoid Geniohyoid Sternothyroid myohyoid Thyrohyoid can act as a laryngeal elevator by pulling the thyroid cartilage up behind the hyoid ne CSD 200 Intro to Communication Sciences and Disorders EXAM 1 Tuesday September 20 2011 Chapters 1 2 3 Page 35 I Intrinsic laryngeal muscles 0 Situated within the larynx itself control the movements of the vocal folds o 5 total I Cricothyroid muscle runs between the front of the cricoids cartilage to the posterior part of the thyroid cartilage it contracts to lengthen the vocal folds I Posterior cricoarytenoid muscles pair run from the front of the cricoids cartilage to insert into the back of each of the arytenoids cartilages contract to pull the arytenoids cartilage apart opening the vocal folds Lateral cricoarytenoid musles pair run from the sides of the cricoids cartilages into the fronts of the arytenoids they contract to pull the arytenoids cartilages together closing vocal folds I Arytenoid muscles pair run between the 2 arytenoid cartilages forming a sort of cross as each member of the pair runs from the base of l cartilage to the apex of the other 0 Vocal folds vocal cords 2 thin sheets of tissue connected on their outer edge to the inside of the thyroid cartilage o Trachea the cartilaginous tube that runs from the oral cavity down to the lungs where it separates into 2 bronchi I Articulation I The act of manipulating the airflow submitted by the phonatory system to create highly precise speech sounds I Maxilla upperjaw and mandible lowerjaw lips teeth hard and soft palates tongue I Anatomy and physiology of hearing 0 Outer ear the outermost portion of the humanear I Includes I Auricle the visible portion of the outer ear aka pinna cartilage covered by skin 0 Key parts I Earlobe lobule fleshy skin hanging from the bottom of the auricle I Tragus the hard cartilaginous triangle that protrudes over the entrance to the auditory canal I Helix outer body of the auricle I External auditory canal EAC opening from the auricle 0 Role to conduct sound waves inward toward the brain 0 Short tube 25mm shaped as a loose S o in children curves downward in adults curves upward I Tympanic membrane TM eardrum o Avery thin concave membrane that stretches across the bony portion of the EAC 0 Role as mini loud speaker 0 Boundary between the outer ear and middle ear I Serves as the entry point to hearing 0 Middle ear an airfilled bony cavity aka tympanic cavity I 3 small bones the malleus the incus the stapes which form the ossicular chain 0 Inner ear a fluidfilled cavity that resides deep inside the temporal bone behind the eye socket aka bony labyrinth I 3 major cavities I The vestibule the central portion entryway of the inner ear


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