RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD [C2HQC]
RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD [C2HQC] GREL 101
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alda Ebert on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GREL 101 at James Madison University taught by James Ward in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/214183/grel-101-james-madison-university in Religion at James Madison University.
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What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/26/15
Buddhism Schools 1112010 20800 PM Vajayana the Buddha libetan Buddhism Therauada southern school more conservative and most traditional and conservative Mahayana North Asia China Japan 1 Pure land 2 Zen More Liberal Moving from Europe to India Monotheism One God 0 Creator 0 Judge 0 God of Revelation law Prophets 0 One Life 0 One text Basic Problem 0 Sin pride 0 Solution Obedience and Humility dependent on God Polytheism many gods Pantheism Animism Henotheism Focus on one God Monotheism One God we have Personal and Impersonal 0 Personal Judaism Christianity Islam 0 Impersonal This Truth is so big it can never fit in our ideas or boxes Atheism no God GurusSages teachers of wisdom Many Texts Many Lives Karma SamsaraCycles of birth death rebirth o Reincarnation rebirth as human 0 Transmigration rebirths as other life form 0 KARMA cause and effect and determines were and how you will be born SOLUTION o Enlightenment the Problem is Ignorance 11310 1112010 20800 PM Siddhartha Gautama Conflicting dates of when he was born c Sr Lanka 624544 o Buddhist sources 566486 o Greek Sources 563483 o Japanese Chinese Tibetan Sources 448368 o Born in Shakya Clan o Known as the Sage of the Clan o Northern India near Ganges and the Himalayas o 4 Casts systems 1 Brahmins Priest 2 Gov t Military Siddhartha born in this one 3 Merchants traders Craftsmen 4 Laborers and Servants White Elephant Dream o Siddhartha is know to be born of a virgin birth and during a dream a White Elephant came into to side of the his mother and got her pregnant 9 months later she had Siddhartha His father is a local chief in an Area of India o Siddhartha sees 4 passing sights 1 Sickness 2 Old age Cure for suffering 3 Death 4 Renouncer At the age of 29 he leaves his family and everything he has o Learns Meditation o Asceticism Not eat and exposing themselves to elements He Begins to understand the full nature of life He then reaches enlightenment o Temptations Mara Lord of death temps with desire death Why don t you just go into Nirvana No one will listen to you Theravadaaka Hirayana they are seen to achieve Individual Enlightenment Mahayna big raft Vow to postpone nirvana until you help others Buddhist teaches the Four Nobel Truths 1 Iquot P Pquot 9quot l03 Life is Dukkha Suffering our lives are out of alignment and because of that we suffer Caused2 Cause Tanha suffering he does not ask that you give up ALL desire but that you should give up all SELFISH DESIRE To stop suffering stop selfish desire 8 fold path Knowledgeof4 noble truths Aspiration the middle way Speechonce you control what you say you control what you think Behavior 5 moral precepts Don tKill Steal Lie Be Unchaste Drink intoxicants10 for monks Eat moderately Don t look at dancing Don t use garlands or scents Don t use high or broad beds Don t accept gold or silver If you are serious about this path Right Livelihood MonkNun 0 Do NOT live your life Brewing Beer Do NOT be a weapons maker Do NOT be a Caravan Trader Do NOT be a slave trader Do NOT be a prostitute 0 Do NOT be a Poison Peddler Right effort 0 O O O Mindfulness If you do not want enlightenment you will not attain it If you want enlightenment you will not attain it Paradox Right absorption Nirvana 9 Cessation of tanha dukkha Over come ego lust hatred ignorance ect Buddhism is say we need to turn down the volume and look at what we are doing Slow down Compare and contrast Hindu Opanishads Atman Brahman Moksha Atman Brahman Rebirth O O O O O Jain Jiva Ajiva Liberation ofjiva soul form A Jiva Body 0 From a jiva joining of liberation of soul Buddhist O O 0 Eight fold Path explained more o Morality 0 Right Speech 0 Right Action 0 Right Livelihood o Meditation 0 Right Mindfulness 0 Right Concentration Absorption 0 Right Effort o Insight Wisdom 0 Right Views 0 Right Intention Above they are all interconnected You need morality for meditation and insight and I need meditation for insight and morality and so on Nirvana Cessation of Tanha duKKha 11810 1112010 20800 PM Buddhism as Challenges to Hinduism and Brahmins priests 1 U39lPLAJN Rejects Vedas Worship of gods of Verdas Language of Verdas Shanskrit Rejects Castes idea that Have to be in cast to be liberated Buddha teaches in Pali languages if the People Rejects speculation of Hindu philosophy Salvation by works You have to do the work on your own and No One Else Like a marathon runner Argues that Miracles are not the point of Buddhism Buddha does not deny that any of this is possible but it is not the point You should keep in mind that once you make to soul possible to leave the body it is just as easy to find hell as it to find heaven He is not saying there is a heaven or hell Power points on line READ THEM AND STUDY THEM Get a 100 on the test Buddhist Nuns o The Buddha s Aunt and the women who cared for him after the death of his mother Mahaprajapati is considered to be the founder of Buddhist order of nuns referred to in Pali as bhikkhunis if Ananda women had not received permission to enter the Order the pure religion would have lasted long the good law would have stood fast for a thousand years But since they have received permission it now stands fast for only five hundred years Early Imagaes of the Buddha o Footprints shows the presence of the Buddha and the absence of the Buddha The Lotus Flower shows perfection Buddhist Wheel Of Darmah Later on you have statues with long ears that show perfection Buddhist Stupa Memorials to the Buddha were the ashes of Buddha would be sprinkled around 0 O O O 111010 1112010 20800 PM Differences between Theravada and Mahayana Theravada Accepts main teachings of Buddha Sacred texts Tipitaka Three Baskets Buddha is recognized as historic individual just a man Emphasizes monastic life and individual enlightenment Goal to be an Arhat to achieve enlightenment Mahayana O O 0 Also accepts main teachings of Buddha Accepts Tipitaka and additional texts Sutras as authoritative 3 body doctrine Dharma Teaching truth religion law so there is the Mbody who is incarnated in Siddhartha Celestial Bodies Heavenly figure Less emphasis on monastic life it is possible to get help on the path Goal to be a bodhisattva to postpone enlightenment to help other achieve this on earthkind of like the saints in the catholic tradition Its more willing to adapt its religion to the world that it finds than the making the world fit to the old ways Importance of Asoka 304 232 BCE Asoka important early convert emperor of Maurya Dynast Protection of different religious traditions of India 3rd Buddhist council convened Funded construction of many stupas Major Missionaries were sent to Sri Lanka and as far away as Egypt and Syria Importance of Sri Lanka for Theravada Asoka s own brother or son Mahinda sent as a missionary to Sir Lanka The oldest Buddhist texts preserved here as well as important Buddhist relics from India Including 0 Begging bowl of Buddha o The left canine tooth of the Buddha o The collarbone of the Buddha Buddhist Monastic Life o Monk central to Theravadin Buddhism o In Southeast Asia monks reside in local monasteries Village monasteries led by single authoritative monk o In larger centers monks with shave heads and robes go into the town to beg for their food Four Good Deeds Lay Buddhist o Family and friends o Protect against dangers of the world o Make offerings o Support worthy religious people 0 The work of the monk helps transfer there merit if you go help them and if you help them the monks can help u achieve good karma 0 Goal of Lay Buddhist to attain favorable rebirth by improving your karma by receiving transfers of merit from a worthy monk Four Conditions o Lawful wealth get this by good karma o Renown respect of the community will help you do your obligations o Long life sign of good karma get this by supporting the monks o Favorable rebirth FettersBonds o In Theravada it will take you life times to achieve nirvana Overcoming fetters and enlightment o First Three no more than 7 rebirths o Next two only one more human rebirth o First five No rebirth in world of form o All ten Nirvana All of this takes YEARS a lifetime of Work Monastic Order o Rise at daybreak o Wash o Sweep Cell Collect water After early meditation beg for food Eat breakfast Join others for group chants and instruction 1100 1130 last meal of day Return to cell study copy texts Meditations 0 0 0 0 0 Enening 0 0 0 Love Pity suffering of the world Joy were you have found Joy Impurity what I hindering you from achieving Serenity Sundown Sweep cell Evening assembly for individual concil Sweep and sleep 111210 1112010 20800 PM Theravada o Southern School o More traditional Conservative o 2 types Lay Buddhist and Buddhist Monks 0 Lay Buddhist goal favorable o Monks Goal nirvana may take a lifetime or perfecting discipline Salvation by Works Mahayana o Pure Land Amida Buddha Salvation by faith o Zen Monastic o Zazen sitting meditation 0 Simplicity o Emphasis on teacher student 0 Koans paradoxes to break your chains about the world Showing that the world doesn t always make sense 0 Ineffable incapable of description 0 Kensho Sudden Enlightenment Satori The word used to describe this sudden illumination Vajrayana Tibetan Buddhism o Diamond body o Thunderbolt o Tantric Yoga Yoga that lets the you achieve union by letting the divine feminine and masculine unity were the two become one o TsongKhapa Founder of yellow hat school and teaches the reform to take everything back to the way it should be c Dalai lama 13th incarnation of TsongKhapa o Lamas superior spiritual power o Mantras chants recited expected to have spiritual and magical powers o Confucian Ancestor Veneration Honoring offerings to ancestors Cultivation of the self through education Modell for future education in China for like 2000 years c Daoist o Dao the eternal movement of life in the universe