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by: Alda Ebert


Marketplace > James Madison University > Religion > GREL 101 > RELIGIONS OF THE WORLD C2HQC
Alda Ebert
GPA 3.78

Sallie King

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Sallie King
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alda Ebert on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GREL 101 at James Madison University taught by Sallie King in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/214184/grel-101-james-madison-university in Religion at James Madison University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
Religion Test 3 JudaismChristianity udaism I The Culture Wars In America there is a split in politics religion ect Not scholars amp academia vs the Church or Senegog There is a division between liberal religions vs conservative religions there are scholars and academic background on each liberal and conservative side Largely defined by acceptance or nonacceptance of historicalcritical method Liberal and mainstream religion accepts it Conservative side rejects it Bible BibleGreek biblos book Hebrew Bible Old Testament of Christianity They do not like quotthe old testament name because they only have their one testament Tanakh texts in the Hebrew Bible TorahThe Five Books ofMoses two of the 5 books are Genesis amp Exodus Prophets a person who speaks Gods words for God Writing Psalmsa book ofprayers the God obbook ofwisdom literature HistoricalCritical Method Uses the same kind of evidence and methods to study the Bible and its claims that is used on many other texts The text itself in its original language Archaeology want to find the history and its findings Other contemporary documents All of this evidence and the conclusions based on it are Publicly available not private not faithbased Source Theory 1 Evidence for the Theory Different names for God visible in Hebrew Differences in style and grammar visible in Hebrew Different theologies different ideas about God Presence of repetitions and inconsistencies Same mountain Mt HorebMt Sinai Moses fatherinlaw ReuelIethro Two versions of the 10 Commandments it s a puzzle Source Theory 2 200 years of study and public debate has produced consensus conclusions among scholars The Five Books of Moses were put together by editors who drew upon four major sources These sources are typically found interwoven within each book The Four Sources that make up the 5 books of Moses source ahwist or Yahwist source God is called ahweh Down to earth style Highlu anthropomorphic theology quothumanlikequot page 191 A E Source Elohist cource Calls God by generic Elohim quotGodquot Theology God is more distant from human kind D Source Corresponds to the Book Deuteronomy one of the Five Books ofMoses P Source Calls God El Shaddai quotGod Almightyquot The interest ofquotP is genealogy the details ofworship and the laws ofpurity details of something that the priest did and laws of how to stay pure quotP is also believed to have edited the Five Books ofMoses Genesis 2 Creation Accounts page 190 amp 191 A The Making of the Hebrew Bible 3 stages 1 Authorship people are writing this down 1100 BCE to 100 BCE over 1000 years 2 Editing assembling arranging in a narrative clarifying making consistent 3 Canonization official recognition as authoritative for the Jewish people 5 books 4OOBCE Prophets 200 BCE Writings 90 CE Iesus could not have written the writings because it was after his time Story of the Covenant Formation of Israel all on worksheet A covenant is an agreement between God and the Jewish people and are often two sided 1 The promise to Abraham 2 The divine deliverance ofIsrael from Egypt by Moses 3 The guidance in the wilderness wanderings 4 The giving of the Law to Moses at Sinai Moses is considered the great of the prophets 5 The inheritance of the Promised Land Moses does not get to enter the Promise Land God brings Moses to a hilltop so he can see the Promise Land Moses then dies and the Jewish people go offwithout Moses Iudaism II Rabbinic Iudaism Post 70 CE all Iews had these same practices for many cultures the year that the Romans destroyed the Jewish temple until this year the Jewish temple is their main concentration The Romans were hoping after they destroyed the temple udaism would be lost Rabbinic Iudaism the Iewish practice after the Jewish temple was destroyed Today the practices correspond to Orthodox Iudaism Israel 1 The people of Israel the chosen people ethnic religion not universal 2 The Land ofIsrael The Promised Land Genesis 1778 Beliefs Beliefs about God evolved over time Originally the Jews make a convent with one god among many but he is their god Gradually develops the idea that He is the greatest God He is the one and only true universal God Torah and Talmud Scriptures Written Torah has the 10 commandments Oral Torah Mishnahthey believe that God also gave Moses verbal torah not just the Scriptures Oral Toral has a lot more laws in it Oral Torah rabbinic commentaries Talmund the Talmund has both The jews have said there is a lot going into the passages and they said quotyou do not have to all agree on one interpretation you are not emphasizing doctrine there is room for everyones understandingviews as long as you stay faithful to God Christianity only accepts one belief Practice Orthopraxis not orthodoxy is emphasized Christianity believes in orthodoxy they do not have little things that they all recite in Judaism What you do matters more than what you believe Why practice Iewish Law the 10 commandments Orthodoxy right view all agree Orhtopaxis right action 1 To obey God s will 2 To develop kind and ethical behavior 3 To sanctify make holy every aspect of life they is a way which God blesses Sabbath One of the 10 commandments to work 6 days and on the 7th day he rests When is the Sabbath Friday sundown through Saturday night Blessed peaceful and welcome time You should get ready ahead of time and prepare for the Sabbath Friday evening synagogue services At home father is like a priest this is one way the Jewish dealt with the destruction of the temple They moved it from the temple to the home Blesses children as a priest would holds up a glass ofwine and recites the Sabbath prayer Things you do on the Sabbath Things that delight the soul provide pleasure and are restful Study Torah attend synagogue Visit with nearby family and friends Read or walk to pleasure Sleep in or play games Sing and dance Things NOT to do on Sabbath Any quotwork including housework Buying or selling Using electricity Riding an animal or in a vehicle Athletics Prepare for postSabbath activity Exceptions All Sabbath laws and other laws are suspended in case of emergency Dietary Law Kosher quotfit or proper 3 categories 1 Kosher meat killed by a kosher butcher drains the blood because that belongs to God kill animal quickly so no suffering no pig meat 2 Neutral fruit amp vegetables kosher fish unfertilized eggs 3 Milk and dairy foods You cannot eat meat and milk products in the same dishes or meal quotyou cannot boil meat in its mothers milk Effects of Jewish Law Consequences of Sabbath and Kosher Laws 1 They separate the Jewish people from others 2 They prevent the Jews from being assimilated into other people they are the chosen people and should not change stay separate from other people do not mingle they have different lifestyles this is good and bad Visible Signs of the Covenant page 200 A Mezuzah nail this metal box on your doorways Teffilin English phylacteries they put the boxes on their hands and forehead Prayer shawl garment with fringes Orthodox Jewish men wear them when praying Worship in the SynagogueOrthodox and Rabbinical Iudaism Synagogue a building in room designated for community worship and study of scriptures Rabbi some small communities do not have a rabbi it is an ordained clergyman who studies Torah and an expert in Jewish Law Cantorlarge synagogues have one one who sings prayers to god on behalf of the congregation Torah Scrolls and a Holy Arch Long papers a lamp shines on them all of the time Public Worship Men are required to join in congregational worship They need a minyan a quorum of 10 adult male Iews Women are not required to pray in congregation much fewer women are present they can pray at home Jewish Holidays 3 most major holidays 1 Passover MarchApril it is lunar varies from year to year 7 day period Feast of the Unleavened Bread matzah to remember the events if God getting the Jewish people out of Egypt they search the house for things that make others rise and trash them Seder quotorderquot Worship in the home there is much symbolic food at the seder they take the moral of the story and use it in this holiday 2 Rosh Hashanah SeptOct ewish New Year Blow the Shofar a rams horn that they blow through it God writes down your fate for your coming year Happy Holiday apples and honeymay the lord grant you a sweet year 3 Yom Kippur 10 days after Rosh Hashanah Day ofAtonement 24 hour fast Synagogues packed Atonement congregation as a group confesses their sins over the past year there is also a remembrance of the dead God seals your fate he has decided Somber Holiday High Holy Days days between Rash Hashanah and Yom Kippur 10 days to get right with God and your fellow man and woman must pay them back or apologize The Holocaust Diaspora Greek quotscatteringquot they were forced to scatter around 500 BCE when there were attacks permanent Iewish communities outside Palestine 70 CE a lot ofews spread ews continue to spread throughout Europe and N Africa Middle Ages Large movements caused by EXpulsion ofews from Sprain and Portugal at end of the 15th century 1881 Persecution ofews in Russia ad elsewhere in Europe WW1 and WWII Any place outside Isreal is living in diaspora Most Iews still live in diaspora Ghettos Part of the city where Iews live Compulsory bylaw vs voluntaryews would set up their own ghettos because they are surrounded by own people to help during attacks Reestablished in Poland during the Nazi occupation after 1939 About 13 million Jews in the World 57 in Isreal 52 in US AntiSemitism Semite AntiSemitism hostility ofnonIews towards Iews Reasons why 1 Jews are different they are quotOtherquot ewish Law separates Jews from others This both prevents assimilation and makes them quototherquot 2 Nationalism developed intolerance of minoritiesIews were not quotblending in 3 Money lending there were a few that have a lot ofmoney but they were mostly poor 4 Scapegoating somebody you can blame something on de ects the anger off of the rulers 5 Nazi baseless racial theory superior race is the Aryan people get rid of inferior races 6 Religious reasons quotChrist killers they killed Iesus priests would preach this the Jews refuse conversion they wouldn t convert to Christianity Attacks on Iews Nazi Holocaust was not the first attack Inquisition tribunal of the Catholic Church from the 13th century the purpose was to find heretical Christians Christians whose beliefwas wrong and straighten them out seeking quothidden Jews who converted to Christianity especially in Spain and Portugal Imprisonment torture and quotautodefe burn the quothidden Jews in public 1648 and 1649 massacres ofews in Ukraine and Russia by Russian Cossacks and peasants convert or die over 700 entire Jewish communities massacred Cossack antiSemitism is still a problem Crusades 11 113th century Muslims and Christians were supposed to he the target Crusader armies were frequently just mobs Blood libelsthe acquisition that Jews were kidnapping and killing Christian children to make Matzo if a child would disappear they blame the IewsIews were killed because of this about 150 mobs quotBlack Death plague massacresexpulsions Christian Holy Week attacks around Easter because they think Iews killed Jesus The Enlightenment Age of reason Beginning ofmodernity in the 18th century Europe Embraced reason to reform society and gain knowledge the reasons were that they opposed the adherence to tradition for traditions sake intolerance and oppression by church or state Minorities are equal before God equal as citizens everyone is equal Nationalism takes off wish to integrate minorities as equal citizens Jews in Enlightenment Germany Yiddish culture ourishing ews are granted civil rights in Germany in mid19th century Full Iewish participation in German culture science music finance industry scholarship After WWI German Jews are at the peak of their ourishing Nazi Regime Hitler came into power in 1933 There were over 550000 Jews in Germany Nazi s completely liquidated the Jewish communities of Germany and About 12 the Jews in Europe About 13 ofews in the world About 6 million Iews killed What are religious issues for Jews and for Christians Iewish Responses to the Holocaust 1 The Nazi Holocaust was the third Destruction a matter of degree it has happened before there were 2 destructions of the Jewish Temple 2 Some Orthodox Jews say the Nazi Holocaust was God s punishment for Jews living outside Torah 3God didn t really abandon us he was in the death camps with us 4 Protest to God like Iob did stay in relation with God but angry 5 Emil Fackenhein quotJews are forbidden to hand Hitler posthumous victories you must stay commited to being Iewish you do not want Hitler to win 6 God gave us freedom 7 God is dead metaphorically maybe he started the world but he did not get us out of those camps Can remain a historicalcultural Iew but do not believe in God anymore but not walking away from Iudaism 8 There are no answers mystery and silence Elie Wiesel Christian Responses to the Holocaust Profound soulsearching throughout the Christian Church should the Christians have been doing something else Should they have helped Recognize that actions towards Jews have not been loving Recognize that the Christian Church played a role in creating the atmosphere of antiSemitism that made Nazism possible How could a loving God allow such a thing Change in theology and practice The Jews didn t kill Jesus the Romans did esus was a Jew Great desire to embrace the Jewish roots of Christianity respect Iudaism Changes in Sunday School instruction preaching official apologies from Catholics and Lutherans Zionism Zion means the place in Jerusalem where the Jewish temple stood Zionism is a political movement with religious connections a political movement to gain a Jewish home in Palestine secured law 1St Zionist Congress Basel Switzerland 1897 want to get Jews to their homeland Palestine Theodor Herzel quotFather of political Zionism Palestine under Turkish rule Ottoman empire in their territory 1917 Balfour Declaration by Britain that Britain will make a home for the Jews in Palestine 1922 Britain received the League of Nations mandate over Palestine mass Iewish migration into Palestine 1947 United Nations approved the partition of Palestine part for a Jewish State and part for an Arab state after WWII and the Nazi holocaust they needed their own country for their own safety 1948 modern Israel became a nation know this date None of this accepted by the Arab world Israel then goes to war with Arab country Israel wins with the United Nations Modern State of Isreal Law of Return Ifyou can get yourself to Israel you will immediately gain citizenship Religious Iews a minority in Israel religious Jews in Israel are a minority the majority is secular and maybe just feel comfortable there Vast majority of Israeli religious Jews are Orthodox Religious Jews have disproportionate power even though they are a minority they have power Mandated certain religious laws be observed Sabbath Laws ex busses don t run on Sabbath the nonreligious do not like it Marriage and divorce laws Internal con ict among Iews within Israel Modern Judaism udaism have divided into 3 major and 1 minor sect Orthodox Iudaism continuation of traditional rabbinic Iudaism largely unchanged 21 of American Jews are Orthodox Most live in Brooklyn New York they gather because they need to find resources kosher food Most conservative form ofudaism Defined by being observant of Jewish Law Reject the historicalcritical method Believe in the revelation of5 Books and Oral Torah to Moses No female rabbis or cantors Men and women sit separately in the synagogue Minyan required 10 adult men Many prayers in Hebrew Range of views from liberal to ultra Orthodox Hasidism part of the Orthodox religion A subsect of Orthodox Originated in Poland in the 18th century quotHasid quotpiousquot very religious very devoted to God Founder Ball Shem Tov Emphasized sincere devotion to God zeal really enthusiastic Heartfelt prayers and Joy It is more about loving god and not about studying Torah Survivors from the holocaust brought Hasidism to New York Lubavitch Hasidism popular in Brooklyn There is a big male and female divide the females get little education Strong community strong piety devotion to a charismatic leader tzaddik man that is a saint they take any problems or troubles to the tzaddik and they help you the job is passed down Reform Iudaism 39 ofews are Reform Iews Over 1 million Reform Jews in the US and Canada Accept historicalcritical method Torah is the product of meetings between God and the Jewish people Not observant ofewish law you do not have to keep kosher Sabbath and you are still Iewish Have female rabbis and cantors bar and bat mitzvahs No minyan no separate malefemale seating in the Synagogue Often use an organ in a synagogue services borrowed from Christian religion Welcomes converts to Judaism History of Reform Iudaism 18th and 19th century Europe The Enlightenment The emergence ofnew Nations 1 New friendliness towards Jews 2 Jews for the 1st time welcomed as equal citizens Many Iews quickly grasp the opportunity because there is a rapid falling away from Iudaism they had to give up observance of Jewish Law to make it possible both to be Jewish and to be a member of the larger society ewish leaders feared that Jews will be completely assimilated and disappear as people Hence nonobservant Reform Iudaism Conservative Iudaism b Conservative Iudaism is not the most conservative form oqudaism It is in the middle between Orthodox and Reform 33 of American Jews are Conservative Accept historical critical method Women can do everything just like Reform Maintain the observance of Jewish Law but change some rabbinical interpretations of what the law should be they switched some of the rules You can drive on the Sabbath you cannot ride a horse because that is work for the horse a car is a machine Electricity you can use electricity Prayer book they take some prayers out of the book Reconstructionist one minor sect 3 ofAmerican Iews minor meaning small Only form ofudaism that originated in the US Founded by Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan udaism is a quotreligious civilization not a religion exclusively It means that Iudaism is a way oflife based on literature language literature customs music art and Jewish community Emphasizing having a maximum Jewish life but in a Iudaism that evolves Synagogue is also a Jewish community center it should be more than a place ofworship it should be a community center Ideas very in uential in other branches Iudaism Current Trends 0 intermarriage with nonIews 47 0 only 13 of children from intermarriage are raised Jewish 0 some conversion to orthodoxy from other Jews 0 Jewish Renewal movement Michael Lerner o Transdenominationalbrings together people of differing beliefs 0 Creativity relevance and Joy Christianity Jesus and the Gospels 0 The story ofesus o Annunciation I Archangel Gabriel I Mary and Joseph I Iesus conceived by holy spirit During this era Romans are in control ofews Caesar Caesar announces censustells people to go to home village Joseph was living in Nazareth but must return to Bethlehem Iosephdescendant of David Shepherds and Magi At 8 days old Circumcised taken to temple in Jerusalem presented to God accordance with Jewish Law 0 John the Baptist cousin ofesus 0 Living in wilderness tells people to repent quotsomething big is coming 0 performs baptisms in Jordan River OOOOOO 0 Jesus asks John to baptize him dove appears or spirit of god appears quotlike a dove saying quotyou are my beloved son Temptaion 0 Jesus is lead by holy spirit to the wilderness to fast for 40 days and 40 nights 0 Devil temps him 3 ways I quotturn rock into bread I quotthrow yourself down prove miricle god will save you 0 Don t temp god I quotWorship Me the devil and you will rule all this land 0 Public Ministry I first preaching repent I quotthe spirit of the lord is upon me I People are offended and drive him away I Blasphemya statement that is an offense against god I quotA prophet is not without honor except in his own country and in his own house I Call of disciplesgathers core group ofewish men I llealingsphysical psychological and spiritual o Sermon on the Mount I The Beattitudes o blessed are the poor in spirit 0 blessed are the mourning o blessed are the meek for they shall inhirit the earth I Quotes Iewish Bible and comments 0 Eye for an eye No 0 Turn the other cheek 0 Love your enemies 0 Golden Rule do unto others 0 Miracles I Loaves and fishes I Walking on water sea of Galilee I Transfigurationbright light shines out ofesus disciples see him talking with Moses and Elijah both dead at time o erusalem I Triumphant entry on donkey I drove out moneychargers from temple 0 cause of disturbance 0 people think he s a troublemaker I The great commandment 0 Love God with all heart soul mind and strength 0 and love your neighbor as yourself 0 Last Supper I Passover I Breadquottake eat this is my body I Winequotdrink ofit this is my blood of the covenant poured out for the forgiveness I Passionsuffering I Sleeping in the garden of Gethsemane o prayer to Abbafather o Iudas betrays Iesus leads guards to him 0 Capture trial with chief priest of the Iews quotare you the Christson of godquot I Iesus Reply quotYou say that I amquot 0 Condemnation to death by Pontius Pilate Lead Jesus to Golgotha to be crucified I quotFather forgive them for they know not what they doquot I Women disciples stay with Jesus as he dies 0 Resurrection I Empty tomb discovered by Mary Madeline and Mary of Nazareth I Angel says quothe has risenquot I Appearances of risen Jesus 0 Images of esus Icons Jesus is arguably the most important subject ofwestern art Icons Iconoclast controversies Al L8th cen Hebraic prohibition of sacred images vs nonHebraicpopular desire for them Resolution incarnationJesus is already an quotimagequot of god So we re just copying an image god made of himself Picturesan interpretation holding up two fingers symbolic of the two natures ofesus fully human and fully divine Church and Scholarly Understanding of esus Christian Scripture o Gradual Process composition lstZIUl centuries o Disseminationmaking copies and distributing them 2 013ml Cen o Fixation of a definitive canon 4th cen 27 quotBooksquot 0 4 Gospels Mathew Mark Luke and John 0 1 history Acts of the Apostles o 1 apocalypse The revelation ofohn Revelations o 21 letters Paul s Letters 0 Earliest eXtant Christian literature mid1St cen o collected and used as a group 0 widely used 0 first body of material that actually gets written down 0 letters by some other authors also included in New Testament Gospel quotgood newsquot 0 New literary genre 0 Stories about Jesus and his teachings originally oral 0 Why start writing the gospels down I Death of apostles I Geographic spread of Christianity 0 Why 4 gospels I This was a problem for the early church There are discrepancies among them I There were other gospels that didn t become part of the New Testament I Each of the gospels is quotaccording toquot its author I They wanted these 4 perspectives Several apocalypses circulated only quotRevelation of Johnquot chosen Several early histories circulated only the quotacts of the apostlesquot chosen 0 Canonization the effort to determine and fiX the documents that would become the quotcanonquot the authoritative literature of the christian church 0 many lists ofpossible cannons were drawn up and circulated among church leaders some still exist 0 Process completed in 400 CE 0 Criteria of Canonicity o Authorship by apostle or someone in agreement with apostles o Catholicitv relevance for the church as a whole nothing to do with catholic church doesn t eXist yet 0 Orthodozy conformity to right teaching 0 Established usage books that have been found to be useful over and over throughout time 0 Gospel History 0 Synoptic gospels seen together Mathew Mark and Luke 0 John is NOT a synoptic gospel 90100 CE very different from the first three 0 Concordance I Source Theory 0 Mark is oldes 6570CE 0 Matthew and Luke 8090 CE 0 Dated by reference to destruction ofewish Temple in 70 CE oflack thereof 0 Gospel Sources 0 Mark oral sources 0 Matthew Mark Q Quelle quotSourcequot M I Matthew may have had a copy of Mark sitting on his desk I Quelle German word for Source I Mstands for Matthews own references that we have no record of 0 Luke Mark Q and L o Consensus View 0 Visible in concordance O o Church s Understanding ofesus o The Historical Iesus vs the Christ of Faith 0 John 316 quotFor God so loved the world that he gave his only son that whoever believes in him should not perish but have everlasting lifequot 0 Church picks up on an old Iewish Theme Messiah 0 Church believes Jesus is the Messiah I Messiah anointed one Christ I In Hebrew Bible the investiture ofa king is marked with an anointing with oil I Therefore quotAnointedquot synonym for quotkingquot esp appointed by divine command I He is God s instrument on earth 0 Iudaism suffering under Romans 0 Expectation that God would deliver them


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