RTV 2100 Week 5
RTV 2100 Week 5 RTV2100
Popular in Writing for Electronic Media
Popular in Engineering and Tech
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex L on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RTV2100 at University of Florida taught by Saunders,Lynsey MSelepak,Andrew G in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Writing for Electronic Media in Engineering and Tech at University of Florida.
Reviews for RTV 2100 Week 5
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/17/16
Aural Style & the Importance of Language I. Radio- a misconception A. Think of radio not as the thing in your car B. Think of it as a way to communicate info through the words and sound and a convenient way to describe all forms of mass communication that rely primarily on the spoken word C. Learning how to write without visuals best prepares you to learn how to write for video i) To be a good broadcast reporter, you need to be able to convey a message without the help of images and video a) Even TV has readers II. Radio is P-I-N A. Radio is PORTABLE i) People had been listening to the radio in their cars since the 1930s and now you can listen on your cell phone or tablet B. Radio is INTIMATE i) No matter how big the audience is, a good radio reporter thinks of themselves as talking to a single person since most as listening alone C. Radio is NIMBLE i) A radio reporter can carry all of their equipment in one bag a) You don’t need a camera crew or satellite truck b) You can report on a story with only a cell phone D. Radio is the human voice i) People can convey what they think and feel through their words and the sound of their voice a) Podcasts E. Radio tells a story i) You find sources, conduct interviews, dig through documents, get to the scene of a story, observe and report Writing in aural style vs literary style I. In aural style, you are writing for the ear A. People hear what you write i) Radio/audio and TV writing B. The news is written to be read out loud II. In literary style, you are writing for the eye A. People read what you write i) Newspaper and print/online writing B. The news is written to be read Edward R. Murrow I. During WWII, legendary newsmen like Edward R. Murrow helped to develop modern reporting style with: A. Concise words B. Short sentences C. Dramatic delivery Writing to hear it I. Your stories should have a conversational tone A. Most news stories are short, so you have to make sure the audience understands what was said and follow along with short factual statements that are also interesting i) Clarity, simplicity, and conciseness II. The job of a journalist is to convey emotion and create a picture in the mind of the listener through their writing A. You are telling a story to the audience and creating a personal connection Sounding natural I. Write scripts that sound natural when spoken aloud A. The script should sound like the reporter/anchor is talking to the audience and not just reading our loud to the audience i) This is why you should your scripts out loud in lab ii) It is easy to write something that seems to mean something else when you read it to yourself than when you read the script out loud Language tips and tricks I. There are stylistic tips/rules to writing a broadcast script II. But there are also tips/rules on how to use language to make a broadcast script, better, simpler, and more accessible III. You want to use words that convey a meaning, but a precise meaning Remove adjectives and adverbs I. One of the biggest differences between writing for print vs. broadcast is the use of descriptive words A. Print media is filled with adjectives to sell to an audience with sensationalist language B. Talking to listeners in broadcast with hyped up language sounds unnatural Other problems with adjectives and adverbs I. they take up time and space II. Facts have more power than adjectives A. A ten car pile-up is easy to understand B. A dead body is understood i) Leave out the extra III. Implies a value judgment A. The audience may understand words differently than you do i) Big to you may not be to the audience ii) Fast to you may not be the same to the audience Writing simple and conversational I. Conversational style means using A. Short sentences B. One thought per sentence C. Simple words i) Purchase => buy ii) Hasten => hurry iii) Extinguish => put out iv) Domicile => Apartment/house/home v) Necessitate => cause/need D. Use contractions i) There is= there’s ii) It is = it’s E. Use third person pronouns; he, she, they i) Only for features (and rarely) would you use first and second person pronouns to personalizing the news and make the audience feel you are talking to them a) Many of us, If you are one of, We all have… make people feel left out Language I. Language is not value neutral II. Our choice of words can imply a value judgment A. Use language deliberately and carefully III. These terms all mean the same thing, but each has an inherent value judgment A. Illegal alien, illegal immigrant, undocumented immigrant, undocumented worker, refugee B. Fighting income inequality or class warfare C. Gay marriage or marriage inequality IV. Your choice of language can imply your own opinion A. It is important to think about the effect even a single word may have and how it will be interpreted Don’t use doublespeak I. Pretends to communicate but really doesn’t: meant to confuse A. Used to spin a negative into understanding B. Instead of: “fiscal underachievers” use poor, “user’s fees” use taxes, “pre-emptive strike” use unprovoked attack, “negative patient care outcome” use the patient died Don’t Use Clichés I. Avoid clichés A. Displays a poverty of ideas and is often wrong B. Becomes annoying C. Is not clever Avoid redundant words I. Take up time and are unnecessary A. Ex: All time record, first ever, complete monopoly, past history, totally destroyed Avoid tongue twisters and alliteration I. Tongue twisters cause the newscaster to stumble in their delivery, and hiss or pop on the mic A. Consecutive “s” noises make a hissing noise B. Consecutive “p” or “b” sounds make exploding noises in the mic II. Always read your script out loud Specific and concrete language I. Use direct words and phases: A. “the sibling is the second among the three brothers”= middle brother B. “the mayor wants to cover the city’s recreational facilities with more vegetation and ground cover”= the mayor wants to plant more grass and trees in the city’s parks Clarity above all else I. Think about what your words mean A. “Police in New York are questioning a passenger who was arrested at JFK airport with an arsenal of weapons” i) How many weapons make an arsenal? ii) Was it guns? Bombs? Knives? B. “The victim was dead on arrival” i) Don’t use- it usually is form an ambulance driver who says DOA a) The victim may have died before the ambulance arrived Loaded language I. Politicians and public relations practiioners love loaded language to skew an argument A. Like calling a missile “the Peacekeeper” B. Descrbing zoning plans as “smart growth” i) Who would be for “dumb growth”? C. Calling something a reform i) The “reformers” are on one side of an issue and the label puts them on the “right” side ii) Opponents end up being enjoyed portrayed as against reform or against “making things better” The Basics of News Writing “The secret of being boring is to tell everything”- Voltaire I. Where does news come from? A. Most news come from predictable events: i) News releases, scheduled events and breaking news B. But the best stories often come from cultivated sources, people in the community, and from going deep and sifting through data C. Routine stories can become memorable when a reporter approaches a story with an open and creative mind Story building blocks I. Characters A. Memorable stories are about people directly involved in an issue or situation, directly affected by it, or have a stake in the outcome i) Build stories around strong characters who experience illustrates a wider truth or the impact of an event or policy B. What makes a memorable character? i) Someone who lets you know what they really think a) If you find someone interesting, the audience will most likely also think they are Interesting II. Places A. Good stories make the audience feel like they are there i) Not just what you see and hear ii) Also what you smell, taste and fear a) What does the burning rubber of an accident smell like? b) How hot does the fire feel from where you are? III. Emotions A. A story that exposes and relays emotion is more memorable i) The anger, joy or sympathy at the heart of the story *** People remember what they feel longer than what they hear or see *** IV. Details A. Details help the audience understand a story better i) Competition between providing detail and being brief B. Be an observer and collect details i) Then provide these details to the audience V. Suspense and tension A. Make the audience want to know what happens next and how it all will end B. Tension may come from a conflict between characters or between a character and an opposing force such as the force or the weather C. If something surprises you about a story, it probably belongs in your story How they know you know what you know I. News Directors can tell immediately if you know what you are doing by how you write the basics A. On the news test you will be judged not only for getting the lead correct and for story flow, but also for getting broadcast basics correct Script writing I. There are a hundred ways to write a news script, and no one or universal formula A. But, there are some basic writing techinuques to produce a “good” broadcast script The basics: I. The basics of a story should include: A. Short, subject verb object sentences B. Uncomplicated and unambiguous words with precise meaning C. Facts and info D. Action verbs E. Sound bites and quotes F. Numbers and statistics Taking complicated and making it simple I. No one wants to hear how smart you are, so: take out superfluous words like superfluous A. And take out unnecessary adjectives and adverbs II. Use short, tightly edited sentences A. Short sentences convey a sense of urgency i) Gives your writing a sense of newsworthiness For practice: try taking a newspaper article and rewriting the story, without losing any facts, but cutting down on extra content III. One thought or idea per sentence A. It may have many bits of info but it sill should contain no more than one important thought or idea IV. Keep it simple with subject-verb-object sentences A. The most common grammatical sentences in English B. Not ALL of your sentences have to be so simple, but if you deviate too much, your story will be harder for the audience to follow Why write simple? I. The audience only has so much attention and only so much education A. Simple sentences and words can be understood by anyone B. According to the US Census Bureau, only 26.2% of Florida’s pop., age 25 and above, has bachelor’s degrees or more (national average is 28.5%) i) Although 41.2% in Alachua County, and 43.7% in Gainesville Use Active voice to give story action I. Active voice: subject performs action A. The boy threw the baseball II. Passive voice: subject receives action B. The baseball was thrown by the boy III. Using active voice gives your words energy and is more like normal speech Use present tense I. Broadcast has a sense of immediacy A. People want to know what is happening i) It is your job to tell them II. Timeliness is conveyed through the use of present tense by indicating that the action is still going on Use the present tense except when you cannot I. There are situations when present tense is inaccurate and you need the past tense A. In your story, you would say something important happened rather than saying ti is happening when it already occurred i) Ex: You cannot say the bridge collapses if it has already collapsed a) It doesn’t collapse for hours Be accurate with info I. It is important to be accurate with your names, numbers and titles A. Don’t go for the shortcut if that shortcut is wrong i) Being accused of a crime doesn’t mean they did it a) The suspect is charged with b) The suspect is accused of c) The suspect allegedly Attribute opinion I. If a statement is considered common knowledge- the Earth rotates every 24 hours- it doesn’t require attribution because it is widely known and easily verifiable II. But when someone says something new and different- all life on Earth was created by an alien species- you must source it III. The first time you identify a source with attribution, give their full name and title A. After that use their last name Who said what to whom? I. Statements of opinion (or controversy) should be attributed to someone else/ a source A. It protects the writer/reporter B. It protects people mentioned in the news i) Now they know who said what about them C. As reporters we give facts and let others give opinions i) Theories are not facts a) Dates are facts They said what? I. Name the person before the audience hears from them A. Weak: “The war will end soon, says the president.” B. Better: “The president says, the war will end soon.” II. Give the source before the information A. As a reporter, you are never the source i) Keep your opinions out of the story and stay neutral B. Use “according to” when we have a thing, not a person III. Says is the simplest way of informing listeners of what someone said IV. Says is clear, concise, and neutral A. Say/says does not imply, offer opinion, and cannot be misinterpreted B. It is safe and all-inclusive V. Using other words other than says changes the meaning of the words spoken or implies a source’s emotion might not be accurate VI. Broadcast news alsmost always uses says when the present tense is preferable VII. These are not sysnonyms for “says” A. Claims means the statement is unproven B. Mentions means a by—the-way remark, a throwaway C. Demands means a forceful call for action D. You may feel compelled to use something other than says, don’t do it i) It is okay to use says repeatedly a) The audience will not pay close attention and just wants to know who is speaking What you see is what you say I. Broadcast words should be written the way they are to be said. Symbols, numbers, and abbreviations that are clear in written English, can be jarring when you have to read them out loud Numbers I. Anything that requires the anchor to think for a second can slow down their reading of the news II. A reporter can easily lose the flow of their delivery if they have to convert written numbers into spoken numbers III. Rules for writing numbers: A. The numbers 0, 1, 7 and 11 could all be seen as “I” B. Use numerals 12 to 999 C. Spell out the word thousand, million and billion IV. Years are an exception, write: A. 2015, or 20-15 (although 2015 is preferred) B. Ordinal numbers follow the same rules as basic numbers th nd i) Third, eleventh, 12 , 22 , one millionth C. Fractions and decimal points should be spelled out i) One-fifth, one-half, four-point-three Avoid too many numbers 1. Edit out unnecessary numbers 2. Round off numbers- acurrately A. 498. 687 is almost half a million B. 1.54 million is more than a million and a half C. 18, 950 is just under 19-thousand 3. Make numbers meaningful A. Instead of 2005, write ten years ago i) Online, you would say 2005 4. Too many numbers and facts= bad A. If you give people too many numbers they won’t remember them all and get confused i) In online stories, you will use exact numbers More numbers I. Do not expect your audience to be able to understand a lot of numbers at once or do their own math A. Even with economic stories, make the numbers meaningful and simple to understand i) This means YOU have to do the math and not just trust reports and releases II. You will have to do math and be able to make sense of numbers III. You will need “numerical competence” A. You need to know if a number is meaningless or if it doesn’t make sense IV. You will have to do the math to determine percentages, percent change, and rates of chance, and be able to compare numbers while holding a key variable constant like population
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'