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Seminar in Arts and Sciences

by: Erna Gutkowski IV

Seminar in Arts and Sciences AS 3000

Erna Gutkowski IV
GPA 3.82


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erna Gutkowski IV on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AS 3000 at Bowling Green State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/214187/as-3000-bowling-green-state-university in Arts and Sciences at Bowling Green State University.

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Date Created: 09/26/15
Geologic Resources Our entire society rests upon and is dqiendent upon our water our land our formtx and our minerals How we use these resources in uencm our heatth security economy and wellbeing John F Kennedy 1961 Geologic Resources and Society 0 Bottomline our entire civilization is based upon mineral resources For example 7 Most manufactured goods are made ofmetals 7 Most ofthe energy We use comes from fossil fuels or ssionable metals 7 Food production depends on fertilizes 7 Buildings and roads are made from mineralrock materials Geologic Resources and Society 0 Historically 7 Mankind has mined and quarried mineral since ancient times 7 First mineral known to be mined Was int Ohio s State mineral 7 Early peoples also mined ochre for pigment 7 Egyptians mined native metals from stream beds as early as 3000 to 3700 BC and began quarrying stone for building aron 2600 BC Geologic Resources and Society 0 Today 7 World crude mineral production exceeds 14 trillion annually 7 U S raw materials production exceeds 40 billion annually and in processed form exceeds 400 billion annually 7 Total World commodity exports exceed 2 trillion annually 7 Raw and processed mineral exports are 400 600 billion annually Geologic Resources in Ohio 0 In Ohio in 1999 7 Value of nonfuel minerals Was 780 million 7 Value ofcoal Was 643 million 7 Value of oil amp gas Was 346 million 7 Total Value Was nearly 18 billion 7 Details can be found at stateohusgeoisurvey ohigeolO liN 01 1 999mihirn Resource Consumption Yearly per capita consumption of Americans requires 7 18000 kg 40000 lbs ofnonfuel resources and 7 8000 kg ofenergy resources Types of Resources 1 Energy fuels ll Metals Ill Nonmetals industrial minerals IV Water De nitions Mineral deposit local enrichment concentration of one or more minerals Enrichment or Concentration factor ratio of concentration of particular metal in mineral deposit to that in average continental crust Ore deposit a rock body containing one or more minerals which can be mined at a profit with current technology and under current economic conditions Resource vs Reserve Resources total quantity of a given material in all deposits discovered and undiscovered Reserves quantity of a given material that has been found and could be exploited with existing technology See fig 212 Resources Renewable resources can be replenished on a human timescale ie wood or can be used without actual depletion of supply ie solar energy Nonrenewable resources are not produced at present or are being produced at rates much slower than current consumption ie fossil fuels Energy Resources A Fossil Fuels 1 Oil and Natural Gas 2 Oil Sands and Oil Shale 3 Coal B Abiogenic Methane 7 Methane formed by inorganic process major amounts may be trapped in Earth s mantle Energy Resources C Nuclear 1 Nuclear Fission Uranium ores 2 Nuclear Fusion D Renewable Energy Sources 1 Solar energy 2 Geothermal energy 3 Hydropower 4 Wind energy Hydrocarbons 1n Rocks 0 Occurrence requires 1 Source rock geologic formation in which hydrocarbon originates 2 Reservoir roc porous Permeable rock in which hydrocarbons accumu ate 3 Hydrocarbon tra an rocllt arria that accumulates hydrocarbons by preventing upward mi a ion Ca rock impermeable rock that prevenm upward migration of hydrocarbons 4 Thermal maturity need sufficient time temperat11re to cook the oil Hydrocarbon traps AnticlinesDomes Faults Sandstone lenses pinchouts Unconformities Reefs 0 Salt domes 0 See fig 213 Box 211 Oil Fields 0 Regions underlain by one or more oil pools 0 Locations of major North American oil fields is shown in fig 214 Oil Sands amp Oil Shales 0 Oil Sands or Tar Sands dimentary rocks containing a Very thick semisolid tarlike petroleum asphaltcemented sands 0 Oil Shales 7 rock o en but not always shale containing ogen a waxy solid formed from remains of plants algae and bacteria 0 See fig 216 for locations of major North American deposim Coal 0 Organic sedimentary rock formed by compaction of plant material 0 Varieties of Coal Table 211 7 Peat rst combustible form 715 carbon 7 Lignite 730 carbon 7 Bituminous 5075 carbon 7 Anthracite 90 carbon Occurrence of Coal Depositional Environment 7 Remains of land plants were deposited in swampy areas in which plant growth was abundant and burial was rapid in standing water in order to protect debris from decay 0 Coal fields in United States fig 2111 Geologic Oreforming Processes A Magmatic Processes 1 Crystal settling in layered igneous plutons chromium platinum see g 2112 2 Pegmatites Be Li in beryl 3 Kimberlite pipes diamonds 4 Volcanic venw native sulfur Geologic Oreforming Processes B Hydrothermal hotwater Processes 7 Hot uids are the most important source of metallic ore deposiw 1 Magmatic Waters porphyry copper gold 2 Seawater massive sul des Cu Ni Pb 3 Basinal brines Miss Valley type PbZn 4 Metamorphic Waters tunsten Cu 5 Groundwaters uranium sulfur 7 See gs 2113 and 2114 Geologic Oreforming Processes C Sedimentary Processes 1 Physical sedimentation i Flowing water Placer Au Pt diamonds ii Glacial deposits sand and gravel iii Wind sand emical sedimentation i Precipitation from water evapontes rocksalt gypsum limestone bomx b chemical deposits banded Iron Organic sedimentation i Hydrocarbons oil gas coal ii Other organic activity phosphates sul Jr N L


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