RTV 2100 Week 6
RTV 2100 Week 6 RTV2100
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex L on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RTV2100 at University of Florida taught by Saunders,Lynsey MSelepak,Andrew G in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Writing for Electronic Media in Engineering and Tech at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
Soundbites I. Readers A. A reader is a news story that is written by a reporter buty read by an anchor i) This is the most basic story (this is the type of story that you’ve been practicing) B. For TV i) Anchor with graphic story II. Voicer A. Reporter telling the story in his/her own voice i) Not a story read by the anchor a) The anchor introduces the story 1) No sound bites 2) Prerecorded by the reporter B. For TV i) B-roll stories from studio with no interviews a) Images could be b-roll or footage from somewhere C. Often a short story since there are no sound bites or natural sound i) For most stories we want sound bites or natural sound, but it is not always possible or necessary D. We do voicers when: i) The story does not have an identifiable ambient/natural sound ii) The reporter is unable to move to the location to record sound to get ambient/natural sound iii) The story doesn’t have sound bites III. ROSR (radio on-scene report) A. A voicer not recorded in studio B. A voicer at the scene of the event C. Descriptive account of the event (as it is taking plae) to provide audience with the feel of the vent i) Captures the atmosphere a) Descruibes the secen ii) Emphasis on description- sight, smell, feel (5 senses) iii) Personal account a) Uses the first person iv) For TV- a live shot v) Takes the audience to the scene of the news vi) Adds drama and excitement a) Reporter’s breathlessness b) Reporter shouting over background c) Reporter groping for words to describe the scene d) Firsthand description of the event e) Lets the audience hear what is going on f) Lets the audience see the scene vii) Typical ROSR stories: crashes, fires, floods, colorful events viii) Few stories become ROSRs a) Mostly used for local stories ix) Tips for recording ROSRs a) Give some thought to where you will record 1) Be safe: hurricane, fire, or crime scene can be dangerous b) Make sure you can record narration and ambient sound clearly c) Plan on doing more pieces than you think you will need 1) You might make mistakes, the sound might be bad, your equipment might not have worked, etc. 2) Playback tape at the scene to double check x) Get basic factual background before you start recording IV. Wraps A. Wrap- a voicer with sound bites i) Reporter- sound bite- reporter ii) Basically a voicer wrapped around a sound bite iii) For TV a) A voicer or ROSR with interview(s) B. Tape from the field: sound bites i) The voice of the people in the news ii) We don’t give the audio from an entire interview which may last minutes or hours a) Instead, we provide a portion of an interview played for a news story in sound bites b) Ex: Vox pops 1) Short interviews with members of the public expressing their opinions Sound bite types: I. Hot sound bites: show a lot of emotion II. Thoughtful sound bites: show interpretation and opinion III. Explaining sound bites: provide information IV. A sound bite has to be something that the newsmaker can say better than the writer because they are an expert or because they are giving an opinion, otherwise there is no justification for using it V. Sound bites that recite basic facts are boring and unnecessary VI. The average length is between :08 and :20 VII. Depends on: A. The length of the newscast B. importance of story C. Importance of the newsmaker Attribution: I. Before a sound bite is included, you must identify the source of the sound bite before using it II. This tells the audience who they are about to hear III. It is also how we normally speak IV. Telegraphs and tells the audience a soundbite is coming The Lead In: I. The sentence that leads into or introduces a sound bite A. Identifies the speaker B. Doesn’t duplicate the bite C. Says something of significance D. Can stand on its own II. You can often use the summary provided from the fact sheet to create your lead in III. Stands on its own and gives an idea of what will be said The look of the sound bite in the script: I. The sound bite name A. A sound bite laways has a name which includes the last name of the person interviewed and the number of the sound bite B. Running time of the sound bite i) The newscaster has to know how long a sound bite is to write a story of the correct length C. The outcue i) The last few words of the soundbite always has to Sound bite outcue and format Telecommunication Department Chiar Doctor David Ostroff says he was optimistic about the search for a new faculty member. (4 spaces between) (Ostroff4: 10 “…for the college.”) (4 spaces between) The College of Journalism is not the only college hiring new faculty. Where does the bite go? I. Stories CAN have a basic structure A. First comes the lead sentence B. Then a sentence or two of lead support C. Then the lead-in D. Then the bite that reinforces the story’s direction, emphasizes the main theme and adds color E. Then a sentence or two that provides additional information to add emphasis to the bite F. Then finishes with a close to look to the future or tie the story together. Sound bites: I. There are 5 types of sound bite fact sheets I. The interview A. You have to make a sound bite II. Full bites A. Provides all the words said III. Summary and outcue A. The easiest to use- gives you everything you need IV. Summary only A. There is no outcue to include V. Outcue only A. You don’t know what was said Lead out: I. The sentence immediately following the sound bite A. References the speaker and what was said i) But, doesn’t repeat what the speaker sentence II. A lead out is a time waster and can be easily thrown out. Don’t use it Note: Direct Speech I. Newspapers/ online use quotes because the reporter has the advantage of quotation marks A. You do not have “quotation marks” in broadcastinf writing B. So including direct wuotes instead of sound bites is tricky and should be avoided II. If you say someone said something, have the audio of them saying it Note: Intros I. The sentence(s) that inteoduces voicers, ROSRs, and wraps II. Presented by the anchor III. Uses facts not in the story A. The reporters leaes out one or two facts to be used in outro Natural sound or ambient sound I. Sound occurring athe the scene 3 Types of Stories I. News stories A. Focus on events that are pressing and public B. Tell what happened C. Teaching II. Investigative stories A. Focus on research to reveal heroes and wrongdoers B. Expose a situation to reform it, denounce it, or promote a better way C. Judgment III. Feature stories A. Focus on issues that are less urgent but more personal B. Offer advice, explore ideas, make us laugh and make us cry C. Personalizing it Investigative journalism I. In a free society, some reporters do more than just explain- they expose II. Features can inform and inspire BUT most nobly of all, they can “comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable” A. It is the reporter’s job, as society’s watchdog, to monitor the conduct, and misconduct of government and business, the rich and powerful i) In other words, the “comfortable” News Feature I. A human interest or soft news story A. Same reporting process: i) Get assignment, gather facts and do interviews B. Less timely than hard news or investigative piece i) Evergreen pieces- retain their relevance II. Usually at the end of the newscast A. It is both a filler piece and leaves the audience in a good mood Ethicizing effect I. Features provide a basis of common experience from which people can evaluate their own moral judgment and behavior, and that of others A. Through features, we show people what is right with the world AND what is wrong B. Hopefully the piece causes the audience to act and adjust their behavior- and hopefully influence the behavior of others and their community Features are I. In-depth examinations of people and issues II. People A. An in-depth profile of a newsworthy person, family, or group often representing a social concern or trend III. Issues A. A detailed look at a social controversy or problem, exploring what it means and what it does Usual feature topics I. Stories with a human interest II. Exaggerations and anomalies that attract attention III. Stories that bring a smile or a tear, or cause people to take action IV. Stories to put a face to an issue A. And hopefully make you say awwww Coming up with feature topics I. Feature stories are all around us II. Curiosity is the key and comes from: A. Casual chatting B. Simple observation C. A desire to help others III. National news stories can lead to ideas for local features A. Putting a local face to a national issue Humanizing I. Be a storyteller and tell a good story A. People like to hear stories about other people or about trends, problems or ideas when they are interesting II. Find a way to tell someone’s story to make others react Who is who in stories I. Most news stories have A. Eye witnesses i) Witnessed the event firsthand and can tell what they saw B. Decision-makers i) Those in charge, those who vote on laws, police, etc. C. Experts i) Authorities on a subject II. Features have them as well, but focus on the impacted A. Those directly affected B. Not a story explaining statistics but a person who represents those statistics Who are the impacted? I. Focusing on personal experience to represent larger story II. Introduce the issue through an individual then include broader information and statistics III. Put a face to a problem or tragedy Writing a feature I. Greater opportunity to be creative with your language because you want to: A. Bring out emotion in the audience B. Hold the audience’s attention C. Make a story memorable Audio features I. The reporter has to paint an emotional picture and describe what the audience cannot see A. This requires greater creativity with language to illustrate pain, anguish, joy, love, hurt, etc. Video features I. Features with video are more powerful and dramatic A. The visuals and sound work together to tell the story II. Know your visuals and write to them A. Write the script according to the visuals you have B. Don’t be afraid to let visuals do the storytelling i) The words provide extra emphasis III. Audio fills in the balnks by saying what the video does not or cannot reveal Writing adds to the visual I. Writing brings a story to life by providing depth to the message of the visuals while not overpowering the visuals- often a silent reporter is more powerful And if you like features but not news? I. Documentaries: A. Are long-form feature presentations B. Give the audience a chance to spend more time with a subject and achieve a deeper understanding Features… final thoughts I. Most news stories are about political bickering, wars, deaths, drugs, accidents, job loss, and things that terrify the audience II. Features are a reporter’s opportunity to tell a different kind of story Great Things I. TV allows a journalist to present history as it happens A. The journalist combines words, sounds, and images to create a sense of being there for the viewer II. Capture key moments of the story A. What moves you will probably move the audience i) Anticipate what will be great and capture it TV is like Rdio/Audio I. TV wiritnf is similar to radio/audio reporting A. Both use Good Spoken English, and avoid clichés and jargon, while using correct vocabulary, grammar and punctuation B. Both use short and simple sentences, with few adjectives and adverbs C. Both have accurate information II. TV writing is different from radio/audio reporting A. Radio is more straightforward B. In radio, the story is free from the need to find good visuals i) Readers are rare on TV C. Radio news can be done relatively easily and quickly i) Radio is often an indivual activity a) The reporter researches the story, does the interviews, edits the interviews, writes the story, and often the introduction, and records the story on their own and sometimes only with a phone b) Television news requires teamwork and more equipment D. In radio, the spoken word reigns supreme, while TV is all about the image TV and the Web I. Television is a scaled down version of the internet by including more than one form of media A. Video B. Audio interview or call-in C. Text to help viewers remember specific information i) Telephone numbers ii) Dates and addresses iii) To clarify the spelling of a word iv) Make distinctions between similar sounding words like million and billion D. But, TV does not have the interactivity or on-demand capabilities of the web or the depth i) The web is a visual medium Television news formats I. A reader: anchor reads the story on camera II. A VO (voice over): anchor’s voice over visuals III. The VO/SOT: an anchor’s voice over visuals with sound bite(s)- sound on tape IV. Package: news story from the field with the reporter narrating A. A complete news story from the field B. Usually combines sound bites, voice over, b-roll, and stand-ups C. Can be live or recorded D. Close can even be from the station Proccesing television messgaes I. 2 channels of info A. Audio channel carries verbal information i) Provides context and depth B. Video channel carries visual information i) Provides interest and stimulation II. Words are crucial, but images rule A. TV viewers want to view things i) They want color, action, not a talking head Video in TV news I. Television news needs to be highly entertaining and visual to maintain audience attention A. Visuals play a vital role in telling the story II. During a television news programs, 75% of a typical viewer’s brain concentrates on the pictures A. So, only 25% of the viewer’s brain is attentive to the words spoken B. The more dramatic the pictures, the even less attentive the audience will be to the commentary i) But we do not ignore the script ii) The writing and footage need to work together to tell a story 3 Ways to Write for TV/Video I. Say dog, see dog A. The narration is written first and then available video (b-roll) is thrown in B. Main point is told through audio II. See dog, say dog A. Video is edited first and then narration is written to accompany video III. The seeing eye dog A. Both channels reinforce each other. Reporter and videographer work closely i) Words and pictures do not compete with each other but work with each other Writing for the visuals seen I. The writing is to provide contect and help the audience know what the visual they are looking at is A. On television people and places may look the same, so the script helps the audience know who and what they are seeing I see the video too- so tell me more I. You don’t need to explain the obvious in the video A. “As you can see, dozens of pirates are walking alonfside those parade floats” II. Provide narration that enhances the images III. Provide facts the images cannot provide A. “Those pirates are actually members of the Tampa Police Department” Framing Your Video I. Leave some head room between the top of the person’s head and the edge of the frame and don’t cut them off below the chin II. If someone is speaking, try to get both of their eyes in the shot III. Don’t center a person a person directly in the frame IV. Don’t let distracting background or foreground ruin your shot V. The rule of thirds What we see on TV I. TV has 3 types of “things” on the screen: A. The news studio B. The outside world i) Either live shots or recorded shots C. Graphics i) More script writing News studio I. Almost every story will show the news studio A. Anchor desk B. Weather green screen C. Reporters in the “building” Outside world I. Where we see what happened and where A. Reporters live at the scene i) Or prerecorded for packages B. B-roll i) 80-20 rule of thumb ii) 80% should be b-roll and 20% should be interviews iii) Tell the story over the b-roll II. Other video sources A. Use home videos, YouTube, photo albums, videos produced by government agencies B. Anything that can give you great visuals Graphics I. Graphics can be used to A. Identify the speakers or places on a map B. Clarify info i) Particularly when numbers are involved C. Explain complicated stories D. Emphasize main points of a report or statement E. Illustrate when no images are available i) If there is no way for the reporter to be seen in a live shot and reporter is calling in- we see their photo ii) Transcripts of a phone call or tweet F. Indicate a change visually i) Usually as an inset or screen-graphic next to anchor Writing to graphics I. Graphics are over-the-shoulder of the anchor in the corner of the screen, at the bottom, or on either side A. The moment a graphic appears on screen, the audience will look at it B. Don’t use a lot of words in a graphic i) The information in a graphic should be able to read and understood quickly C. The words in the script should be directly match any words in a graphic if they are mentioned i) Even sports results should exactly match the script D. The graphic needs to be on the screen long enough for the audience to read and understand it E. Spell every word correctly Graphics are lead-in to TV interviews I. In TV, the radio lead-in to a sound bite is not necessary because you will often have the name of the person in a graphic which lets the audience know who is speaking II. You also don’t have a lead-in sentence- the interview will play III. The name caption is often called a super Are you not entertained? I. TV news producers are looking for ways to attract a younger audience A. So, TV puts more emphasis on production technqiues i) More creative graphics ii) More live coverage iii) Interactive and online capabilities (scrolling Twitter feeds) iv) Walking and talking reporting a) The reporter speaks to the camera and demonstrates what is going on while on the move B. Bring more colloquial i) Using a language that the audience recognizes as part of their world a) But won’t alienate older audience since they are core viewers
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