Introduction to Communication
Introduction to Communication COMM 1020
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Mrs. Henry Zulauf
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Henry Zulauf on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1020 at Bowling Green State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see /class/214196/comm-1020-bowling-green-state-university in Communication at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
COMM 1020 Outline Chapters 610 15 0 Ch 6 Developing and Maintaining Relationships 0 Interpersonal relationships interconnections and interdependence between two individuals G Interpersonal communication exchange of verbalnonverbal messages between two people who have a relationship and are in uenced by each other s messages 0 Types of Interpersonal Relationships G Family small social group bound by ties of blood civil contract and a commitment to care for one another G Friendship close and caring relationship between two people 0 Perceived as mutually satisfying and bene cial G Romantic 0 Love deep affection for and attachment to another person involving emotional ties with varying degrees of passion commitment and intimacy o Eros sexual love Ludus playful casual love Storge love that lacks passion Pragma committed pragmatic Mania intense romantic o Agape sel ess romantic G Online Relationships 0 Hyperpersonal communication exaggerated perceptions of online relational patterns due to a lack of nonverbal cues that are important to relationship development 0 Why We Form Relationships G Companionship to involve others in our lives and to be involved in the lives of others inclusion G Stimulation people have an innate need for intellectual emotional and physical stimulation G Achieving goals 0 Likelihood of Establishing Relationships G Proximity G Physical Attraction G Similarity o AttractionSimilarity Hypothesis projective selves as attractive to others 0 Matching Hypothesis similar in attractiveness o GeneticSimilarity Hypothesis similar features ethnicity etc 0 Managing Relationship Dynamics G Social Exchange of Costs and Benefits accepting good bene ts with bad costs 0 Rewards can be extrinsic instrumental or intrinsic G Uncertainty Reduction Theory Focus on reducing uncertainty between two people when they just meet 0 Monitoring proactive strategies indirect strategies G Relational Dialectics Theory tensions arise when there are opposing or con icting goals 0 Autonomy v Connectedness OOOO o Openness V Closedness o Predictability V Novelty O SelfDisclosure and Relationships G Social Penetration Theory how relationships move from super cial levels to more intimate levels onion G Communication Privacy Management Theory explains how people perceive the information they hold about themselves 0 Disclosing or protecting information Q Strategic Topic Avoidance avoiding undesirable topics in conversation because of potential embarrassment vulnerability relational decline etc 0 Relationship Stages 0 Initiating Stage 0 Meeting one another making contact G Exploratory Stage 0 Small talk uncertainty reduction usually sharing of super cial information Q Intensi cation Stage 0 Personal self disclosure share affection verbally pet names etc G Stable Stage 0 Integrating bonding by sharing public messages about relationship G Declining Stage 0 Relationship begins to fall apart 0 Uncertainty Events interference unmet expectations 0 Relationship Repair repair tactics focus on positive improve communication G Terminating Stage 0 Passing away relationship gradually fades o Sudden death unexpected termination for at least one partner G Reconciliation may happen after terminating stage 0 Repair strategies for rekindling a terminated relationship 0 Spontaneous development third party mediation tacit persistence mutual interaction avoidance high affect 0 Ch 7 Managing Con ict in Relationships 0 Unproductive con ict con ict managed poorly negative impact on individuals and the relationship can lead to health problems Productive con ict con ict managed ef ciently fosters healthy debate relationship growth leads to better decision making 0 Con ict triggers include G Misunderstandings inaccurate perceptions unbalanced costs and rewards incompatible goals provocation aggression identity management lack of fairness incompetence relationship threats 0 Factors Affecting Con ict G Power Dynamics G Attitudes Toward Con ict 0 Communication boundary management occurs when someone avoids dealing with con ict because they re reluctant to discuss certain topics with speci c people G Communication Climate o Uncertain participants are unclear vague or awkward about goals and potential outcomes of con ict situation 0 Defensive communicators involved often feel threatened O D D o Supportive communicators can explore issues involved in con ict considerately Culture 0 Individualistic emphasize personal rights needs and identities o Collectivistic emphasize group identity and needs 0 Religious differences gender differences Communication Channel 0 Cyber Bullying Flaming posting messages that are intentionally hostile or insulting in online forums 0 Strategies for Managing Con ict D D D D Escapist 0 Try to prevent or avoid con ict 0 Unproductive if continually used Challenging o Assertiveness promoting interests of only one party may be used in defensiveness 0 Get what you want without guilt anxiety or embarrassment 0 One party wins Compromise 0 Give up a little to get a little trading or random selection 0 Has disadvantages for long term and important relationships Cooperative 0 Focus on issues avoid verbal aggression 0 Debate and argue but consider options and alternatives 0 Playing Devil s Advocate considering importance of outcome 0 Con ict Outcomes 0 0 0 0 WinWin both parties meet individual goals relationship is improved LoseLose neither party meets goals Separation remove oneself from con ict to end it Allocation of Power decide together who has power to make certain decisions 0 Ch 8 Communicating in Groups 0 Characteristics include a shared identity common goals and interdependent relationships 0 Types of Groups 0 G G G 096 6 Primary long lasting groups that form around the relationships that mean the most to members Support set of individuals who come together to address personal problems while bene tting from the support of others with similar issues Social offer opportunities to form relationships with others Study formed for the speci c purpose of helping students prepare for exams ProblemSolving groups with a speci c mission often to address a particular issue Focus consists of a set of individuals asked to come together to give their opinions on a speci c issue Teams groups that work together to carry out a project or a speci c endeavor or to compete against other teams SelfDirected groups of skilled workers who take responsibility for producing high quality work 0 Stages of Group Development 0 0 Forming come together negotiate who will be in charge and group goals Storming experiencing con icts G Norming establish agreed upon norms governing expected behavior G Performing combine skills and knowledge to achieve group goals G Adjourning 0 Group Size G Large groups formal interactions limited opportunities to contribute less intimate communication more time consuming interactions more complex relationships Cliques Coalitions small subgroups of individuals who have bonded together within a group G Counter Coalitions position themselves against one another on an issue can complicate communication G Social Loa ng failing to invest same level of effort in the group that an individual would put in if they were working alone or with one other person 0 Networks patters of interaction governing who speaks with whom in a group and about what G Chain information is passed from one member to the next G All Channel all members interact and are equal distance from one another G Wheel one individual acts as a touchstone for all other members 0 Group Cohesion G Degree to which members have bonded and consider themselves as one entity 0 High cohesion better decision making greater satisfaction greater in uence over members extensive and positive communication effective in achieving goals 0 Group Climate what it feels like to be a member of the groups well as how members behave and communicate with one another 0 Group Norms G Dictate how much communication takes place G May affect length of member speaking who speaks rst whether negative criticism is acceptable etc 0 Group Roles G Task concerned with accomplishing group goals 0 Information giver information seeker elaborator initiator administrator G Social re ect individual personality traits and interests 0 Harmonizer gatekeeper sensor G AntiGroup serve individual members priorities at expense of group needs 0 Blocker avoider recognition seeker distracter G Role conflict arises whenever expectations for behavior are incompatible with group events 0 Groupthink G Group members strive to minimize con ict by refusing to critically examine ideas analyze proposals or test solutions Challenger example 0 Individual Differences Q Can create competition affects consensus leadership views G Communication apprehension G Lack of self esteem status differences unbalanced participation 0 Ch9 Leadership and DecisionMaking in Groups 0 Power can come from five sources G Legitimate G Coercion G Reward G Expert 6 0 Referent 0 Leadership Styles 0 Directive giving commands best when group members are unsure 0 Participant group members as equals members are competent and motivated 0 Supportive tend to emotional needs best for frustrated discouraged groups 0 Achievement sets challenging goals and has high standards best for motivated high achieving groups 0 Gender Differences 0 Masculine Approach 0 Emphasis on command and control over others 0 Leader at top not as effective as it once was 0 Feminine Approach 0 Organizations as webs of relationships with leader at center 0 Deemed as more appropriate these days 0 Power Distance 0 Extent to which less powerful members of a group expect that power is distributed 0 HighPower hierarchical power structure members defer to those with higher status 0 Lower Power power as more democratic and only exerted when legitimate O Forces 0 Cognitive thoughts beliefs emotions of group members 0 Psychological personal motives goals attitudes values of group members 0 Social way language is used when members are together 0 Six Step Decision Process 1 Identify and de ne problem 2 Analyze problem 3 Generate solutions through brainstorming 4 Weigh the pros and cons of possible solutions 5 Implement solution 6 Assess results 0 For Meetings Plan Meet Manage the Meeting Evaluate the Meeting Procedural Effectiveness o How well the group coordinates its activities and communication 0 What the group does when meetings get tense Interpersonal Performance 0 Consider whether relationships are strained or effective 0 Whether members feel a sense of solidarity and respect for one another 0 Ch10 Communicating in Organizations 0 Organizations groups with formal governance and structure 0 Approaches to Managing Organizations 0 Classical Management Approach 0 Organizations like machines 0 Hierarchical division of labor 0 Communication focuses on tasks and orders 0 Human Relations Approach 0 Needs of employees considered 000000 00000 0 0 Communication focuses on developing employees and teams O Human Resources Approach 0 Considers productivity from the workers perspectives o Maslowe s Hierarchy of Needs next chapter 0 Communication focuses on self esteem and self ful llment of employees O Systems Approach 0 Organization is made up of important interdependent members 0 Openness and adaptability 0 Organizational Culture O An organization s unique set of beliefs values norms and ways of doing things O Communication shapes and expresses the culture O Organizational Storytelling ensures cultural views are shared through stories and accounts 0 Organizational heroes O Organizational Assimilation o How an employee may learn about organizational culture 0 Relational Contexts in Organizations O Supervisorsupervisee O Mentorprotege O Peer relationships 0 Challenges Facing Organizations Today O Communication Technology 0 Media richness 0 Monitoring O Globalization 0 Unethical labor practices 0 Human traf cking O Work life Balance O Sexual Harassment O Ch1 5 Persuasive Speaking 0 Goals in uence attitudes beliefs and actions of audience 0 Theses given as Propositions O Proposition of Fact 0 Claims of what is and isn t 0 Goal to align audience perception or opinion of fact with your own O Proposition of Value 0 Claims of something s worth 0 Goal to convince audience that something does or doesn t meet a speci c standard of goodness or quality right or wrong O Proposition of Policy 0 Claims about goals policies or courses of action that should be pursued 0 Goal to persuade audience that a current policy isn t working or a new one is needed 0 Persuading the Audience O Receptive hostile and neutral audiences 0 Consider attitudes O Latitude of Acceptance and Rejection 0 Range of positions on a topic that are acceptable or unacceptable to audience members O Maslowe s Hierarchy of needs
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