rtv 2100 week 8
rtv 2100 week 8 RTV2100
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex L on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RTV2100 at University of Florida taught by Saunders,Lynsey MSelepak,Andrew G in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Writing for Electronic Media in Engineering and Tech at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
The Greeks I. Since ancient Greece, a major function of communication has been to persuade II. Today, Ancient Athens has morphed into our American democracy that runs on capitalism i) The Ancient Greeks overtly attempted to persuade ii) Contemporary advertising emplys elements acting on the human psyche in subtle ways Ingredients of a persuasive message I. Logos II. Pathos III. Ethos Aristotle I. Argued the audience was the most important element in human communication Persuasive message delivery styles I. Univoice A. A single voice delivers the message with words, read by: i) Announcer (live) ii) Production engineer or announcer (recorded) iii) Celebrity (live/recorded) iv) Testimonial of someone who experienced something (live/recorded) B. Cheap and quick to produce C. Easy to write D. Writing a univoice spot or using univoice dialogue is pretty easy i) The person speaks directly to the listener ii) There is no attempt at creating a false reality II. Multivoice (no dialogue) A. At least 2 voices B. No interaction between the voices and instead talking directly to the listener C. It has the advantages of vocal variety i) Adds interest III. Multivoice (dialogue) A. The speaking parts are in a real conversation i) Real language and real dialogue B. Makes the listener feel like they are eavesdropping on a personal conversation C. Usually one voice is the “seller” and the other is the potential customer i) Potential customer represents the skeptic, and the seller is an acceptor a) Doesn’t have to be a salesperson b) Don’t make it sound unnatural Public Service Announcements A. A spot (often by a nonprofit org or a govt. agency) to persuade the audience to do something in the interest of the community i) To take some specific action (donate money, wear seat belts, stop smoking) or ii) Promote a particular view point PSAs compared to commercials A. Similarity i) Goal is to persuade the audience B. Difference i) Stations receive no money for airing PSAs a) It is a community service for being able to freely use the airwaves ii) Stations select which ones to air a) Some stations pick a cause iii) Stations select when to air them Challenges for PSAs A. Making intangible “products” concrete i) How do you sell helping others? Ex: Not drinking and driving, volunteering B. Asking something of the audience for no immediate benefits i) How do you get people to do something when they get nothing out of it? C. Getting aired i) Stations can choose from hundreds of PSAs and run them very infrequently AD council- getting us to do what we don’t want to do A. Biggest producer of national PSAs for television and radio B. Accept requests from sponsor organizations C. Assigns each campaign to a volunteer advertising agency D. Distributes the finished PSA to stations E. Does very few each year. Creating effective PSA messages A. Get people to “see” the problem B. Appeal to basic emotions i) Fear and humor Writing effective PSAs- see no problem A. Break the intangibility factor i) Present the vague in a concrete manner the audience can relate to ii) For ex: Relate things to what people understand a) Millions die from smoking each year but how do you make that memorable? b) Think of the Swamp- it ohlds 90 thousand people, so about 11 full Swamps is the amount B. The fear appeal i) Start with the negative to get attention a) Tell people the dangers of having sex without protection ii) Focus on how to avoid the negative a) Tell them the STDs can be prevented by using a condom iii) Make it better by giving them a solution C. Use humor, except when it doesn’t work i) We like to laugh, but laughing doesn’t get people to quit smoking a) It is hard to use humor to get people to give money to starving children or to help save animals b) Practicing safe sex is not funny ii) But, just like with news writing, if you can tell a joke, you can make something funny, even CPR or financial literacy a) Vinnie Jones PSA CPR D. Empower the audience i) Give the listener the right and the duty to be involved and take action a) Drinking and driving campaigns tell the passenger to not let the driver get behind the wheel ii) Focus on the positive by giving a positive action the audience can take that is within their capabilities. a) “Friends don’t let friends drive drunk” E. Always provide a call to action i) Let the audience know how they can be involved ii) If you are fundraising make sure you present the phone number to call or text to pledge iii) If you are creating awareness include source for more info a) Website, email, phone number, Facebook F. Appeal to enlightened self interest i) When confronted by tough choices a) People want to do good, but b) They also search for the benefit for themselves ii) Demonstrate what the audience will get by doing the right thing G. Tag line at the end i) Identify the sponsoring institution a) “This message is brought to you by…” ii) Let people know who went to the trouble and effort to create the PSA. H. Remember: PSAs are no place for commercialism i) A PSA is a pitch for virtue ii) Messages considered “helpful to the public” are PSAs Camera Shots I. Crane A. Camera is moving up II. Dolly A. Camera is moving along either on a track or something III. Zoom A. Rarely used because it feels unnatural i) Eyes cannot naturally zoom IV. Over the shoulder (OS/OTS) A. Frames two figures so one is partially in the frame where you see the back of their head and shoulder while the other figure’s face can be seen i) Done frequently in interviews B. Rack focus i) Deliberately changing the focus to shift attention from one character/object to another while they are speaking a) One might go from in focus to blurry Editing I. The arranging of shots A. Adds to the emotional response of the film B. There are a number of edits you can make, but we will cover a few II. Parallel editing A. Showing 2 events happening at different locations at the same time i) Michael Corleone as Godfather at baptism while his family is taking down the heads of the Five Families III. Cross cutting A. Editing to show 2 events that have something in common i) A father arrested for committing a crime and a son arrested years late for the same crime IV. Cut A. Change from one image to the next, or a change in either camera angle or placement, location, or time i) This is the least obtrusive transition because it doesn’t call attention to itself B. Resembles the blinking of the eye C. “Cut” is called during filming to indicate the current take is over D. A “cut” of a movie is also a complete edited version V. Dissolve A. Gradual transition where 2 shots overlap as one becomes clearer and the other disappears i) Used to indicate passage of time or show a relationship between 2 unrelated events. VI. Defocus/refocus A. A shot that goes out of focus and cuts to another shot that starts out of focus and then goes into focus VII. Fade A. Picture goes to black gradually (fade out) or appears gradually on- screen from black or any other color (fade in) TV and film writing I. TV and film writing is not just comping up with the words to be read/spoken, but: A. Directions about how the shots will be filmed, how the scenes should be cut together, and how this will impact the audience i) i.e. Camera angles (weak vs. strong characters) B. The way shots are cut together affects how an audience reacts to a scene C. Even the choice of transitions has meaning: i) Fade to black Writing in Film I. Many Hollywood films are written by staff writers, or are edited or re-written by staff writers after the original writer has relinquished rights to the material A. Even best-selling novelists often forfeit their rights to their stories TV and films are expensive I. Presence of the image A. In radio, you can “pretend” to be anywhere B. In TV/Film you either have to be there or be somewhere that looks close i) There are no mountains in Miami II. More professionals are involved in the production A. There is the copywriter, the art director, the film director and the director of photography Shot selection I. Television is a close-up medium II. Most shots in TV are medium shots and two shots to show intimacy and subtle emotional body language and the face of the character III. Films are better at expansive imagery because they are on a larger screen Close-ups I. More frequently seen on TV A. One form of close-up is when the talent looks directly into the camera and addresses the audience to make a direct connection B. Makes it seem personal i) This “aside” to the audience comes from theatre where a character would speak directly to the audience in Shakespearean comedies C. This technique is found in comedies that attempt to look like reality TV i) A take on the “confessionals” found in most reality TV shows a) Began with The Real World Drafting a TV spot or film scene I. There are 3 ways to create a TV spot, film, movie, etc. The Script I. A script is the writer’s construction of the sequence of the scenes in the order and length that will makes the story comes alive A. But the writer leaves the actual shots to the director i) Writer just gives an idea II. The dialogue is for the talent to learn and recite Script Length I. Most Hollywood films are 120 minutes long A. Most European films are 90 minutes long II. A page of screenplay- no matter if it is all dialogue, all action, or some combination of the two- equals approximately a minute of screen time What is in a script? I. Information about the characters II. Dialogue and actions of the characters III. Locations IV. Props V. Camera angles The 2 Column Script I. Two column format A. Video directions on the left and audio directions on the right i) Video directions in ALL CAPS on left ii) MUSIC and SFX in ALL CAPS on right iii) Narration and talent instructions are in upper and lower case on right B. Usually for shorter pieces like commercials TV and Film script I. Exact formatting varies from show to show and film to film A. Generally has a layered look Script basics I. Scene location II. Description of characters A. Once characters speak, their names all capitalized is then followed by their dialogue, centered on the page III. Stage directions appear in parentheses under the speaking character’s name, single-spaced IV. Sound effects or music effects are capitalized within any descriptions The storyboard I. A series of panels, with a visual block at the top or left and an audio block below it or to the right A. The panels illustrate the sequence of visuals, camera angles, optical effects, dialogue, music and sound effects II. The visuals are sketched and narration (script) is written at the bottom or right of each shot III. The idea is to “show” what the spot or scene will look like including dialogue A. Computer programs are often used to help create storyboards How the storyboard is translated I. There is a difference between the storyboard and an actual scene A. A storyboard is like a blueprint to a building i) Helps to make sure the film is structurally sound Storyboard Readings I. When the movie producers and writers go over a storyboard to see if it works or is needed Photo board I. Photos of the main action in the spot pasted together A. Usually done for shorter pieces i) You don’t want to put a lot of resources into something that may not be used B. Almost looks like a photo collage
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