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by: Jena Schumm


Marketplace > Clemson University > Psychlogy > PSYCH 201 > INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
Jena Schumm
GPA 3.64

Mary Taylor

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Mary Taylor
Class Notes
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jena Schumm on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 201 at Clemson University taught by Mary Taylor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/214229/psych-201-clemson-university in Psychlogy at Clemson University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Etiology amp Treatment of Abnormal Behaviors Who is Normal What is Abnormal Behavior 0 Historical Context oSociaI Stima Deviancy Moral Issues 0 Cultural Context 0 Social Construct or Real Disorder 0 Incidence Rates of mental disorder oCONTINUUM of behaviors from normal to abnormal Phillipe Pinel 0 Before Pinel those suffering from hysteria amp mental disorders were mtreated o Pinel see physical cause medical model of abnormal behavior of suffering a See patients as ill a Shift to more humane amp rational treatment a Medical Model still prevalent today link with biological approachperspective Classifying Abnormal Behavior APA American Psychological Association WHO World Health Organization ICD International Classification of Disease DSMIVTR 2000 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual TWO CRITERIA 1 Suffering causes extreme Stress or anxiety 2 quotMaladaptivenessquot ability to function in daily life is impaired D SMIVTR 2000 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 0 VALUE to Clinicians 0 Detailed individualized description of mental disorders 0 Guidance in areas of gender age ethnicity culture in revision 0 Diagnostic nature gives starting point 0 Advocates stress its objectivity o LIMITATIONS 0 Descriptive in nature doesn t address causes or treatment of mental disorders 0 Diagnostic labels tend to stigmatize patients despite incidence rates 0 Untestable o Biased reflection of arbitrary social norms Diagnosis Etiology amp Treatment 0 Different perspectives use different approaches We will focus on areas studied thus far Biological Learning behavioral and Cognitive Perspectives o Predisposing amp Sustaining factors 0 Search for single aetiology is fruitless different perspectives see different or multiple causes for abnormal behavior 0 Multimodal interdisciplinary approach Eclectic use blend of therapies IOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE AEI39IOLOGY Based on Medical Model assumes all disorders are based on physical cause including genetics concordant twin studies show genetic link for sclh iIzophrenia amp bipolar disorder Environment also play ro e PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY o Relieve symptoms but not identify cause 0 No drug alwa s effective cognitive amp interpersonal therapy as ef ective relapse lower 0 Low cost see results quickly sessions take very little of Dr s time Biomedical Therapies 1 Druo TherapiesPSVChomarmacoloqv gt Anxiety Disorders Antianxiety meds like xanax amp Ativan used wtherapy to overcome phobias gt Depression Antidepressants like Prozac increase availability of norepinephrine amp serotonin absent in patients wdepression both increase arousal amp elevate mood Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors SSRI s like Zoloft amp Pa xil block rea bsorption of norepinephrine amp serotonin Problem Takes 24 weeks to work increase in serotonin allow neurogenesis gt schizophrenia amp delusional behavior anti psychotics eg chlorpromazme blocks activity of dopamine amp serotonin sedatives may be used to calm patient gt ALL meds have side effects 2 Electroconvulsive Therapies Treat severe depression in those not respond to drugs w80 success 3 Psychosurgery frontal lobotomy LEARNING PERSPECTIVE o Interpret abnormal behavior as result of faulty learnin no causal factors FOCUS behavior is the pro lem acquired through faulty conditioning S amp R o Treatment focus on chan e behavior Behavior modification systematic esensitization p382 relaxation techniques aversive conditioning anabuse p 383 ethics effectiveness 0 Treatment successful shortterm Informed consent important 0 Phobias are learned fears must substitute competing rational response or be counterconditioned Shaping operant reinforcement token economiesquot 0 Virtual Reality Airlines desensitize fear of flying COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE o Reject behavioral say etiology is faulty mediational process or faulty cognitioni 0 Ellis amp Beck say behaVior affected by distortions in how amp what we think 0 Bandura social learning theory say learn from model use behaVIor modification 0 Phobiasimagine fear provoking stimuli instead of actual item observe model amp imitate or participant model w active imitation mOSt effective 11 of 12 free of phobia Systematic desensitization works for phobias 0 New selfstatements p 385 0 Ellis RET negative emotions come from wrong interpretation not experience itself ABC Principle AActivating event triggers B emotional consequence C emotional response distorts schemata relating to self world amp future causes abnormal behavior o Therapist focus on faulty cognitions false beliefs 0 RET as effective as other therapies for depression Psychodynamic PerSpective o FREUD abnormal behavior rooted in inner conflict 1 behavior only symptom not cause 2 treatment requires insight into underlying conflict 0 Focus on how present behavior relate to past expenence 0 Behavior therapy ineffective not address cause a Subjective only therapist determine signifigance o Openended may take years Relationship wtherapist is key 0 Catharsis transference resistance free association 0 Ethical issues in create control groups Humanist Perspective 0 Behavior understood only in terms of individual s perception amp eXperience henomenonological emphasis Suffering due to distortions in growth demands of others Labels norma abnormal 39meaningless Little use for classification systemsDSMIV TR Therapeutic emphasis on potential of human growth help people grow psychology of health Clientcentered person centered therapy Carl Rogers Therapist provide conditions for self awareness amp growth empathy openness positive regard non judgemental Works best for problems of living eg anxiety depression self esteem social reinforCement amp empathetic support of therapist I II I Evaluating Theraeutic Techniques 0 Major study by Consumer Reports shows no significant difference in therapies some show improvement without treatment chart p 392 0 Experimental ISSUES 0 Ethics of denying treatment for control 0 Informed consent waiting lists 0 Double blind design 0 MetaAnalysis p394 0 Role of culture in diagnosis Therapistpatient differences 0 Common Factors 1 Therapist commitment to help therapeutic alliance based on trust empathy 2 Patient belief can h e she be helped by therapy efficacy Schizophrenia Symptoms confusion incoherent speech word salad delusionshallucinations separation of cognitiveemotional function absence of emotional expression distorted cognition amp perception flattened affect disturbed thought 051 lifetime risk equal mf ratio onset average 4 years earlier in males 0 Biological damagegenetic predisposition 0 Role of environmental factors 0 Role of Culture Paranoid disorganized catatonic residual amp undifferentiated 5 subtypes difficult to classify begin wdiagnosis amp work back Amphetamine delusional disorder symptoms not always reveal etiology amphetamine increase dopamine level Schizophrenia Etiology Biological PerspectiveMedical Model DOPAMINE HYPOTHESIS theory statethat overactivity neural pathways using neurotransmitter dopamine 0 Drugs that reduce dopamine levels reduCe symptoms COCaine amp amphetamine increase dopamine9 delusional state BRAIN ABNORMALITIES Frontal lobe pathology PET show low activity in FL GENETIC PREDISPOSITION Identical twins 50 concordance rate 50 10 if parents or siblings have closer kinship greater risk TWO HIT MODEL 0 Prenatal viral infection mother Pre amp postnatal nutritional deprivation malnourishmentfamine oxygen deprivation low birth weight 0 Adverse event after birth S chiZOphrenia 3 o DIASTHESISSTRESS MODEL see abnormal behavior as due to combo of physiologicalgenetic predisposition diasthesis and stressful environment 0 Malnourishment institutionalized isolation effects of illegal drugs 0 Stress increases levels of dopamine 0 Absence of stressor no manifestation SchiZOphrenia 4 0 Learning Perspective 0 Cognitive Perspective 0 See no difference 0 Analysis of Symptoms in schizo amp other deIuSIons language thought disturbances focus on faulty cognitive processes abnormal behavior result of faulty learning Models hampersocial o 39Immediacy Interaction Theory 0 word salad Behavior 0 lfaulwr eference modification token Iog39ca39 errors eccnomies o Defective attention 0 Biological Cognitive SchiZOphrenia 5 o Humanist Perspective 0 Psychoanalytical emphasizes distortions in Perspective see as severe distortion of psychological functioning due to child s failure to establish boundaries between self amp outside world difficulty separate from mother Little evidence to support Verbal aspects of psychodynamic therapy make it unsuitable development demands of environment con ict wn39eeds of self vulnerable Therapist try to understand patient s experience amp suffering in person centered therapy therapist cares is concerned amp is not a threat success in open door for growth rediscovery of sense of self Schizophrenia Role of Culture in Treatment 0 Occurence rate same across cultures TENS US 0 Culturally specific symptoms are learned 0 Industrialized Vs DeveIOping countries 37 vs 63 recovery WHY higher in developing 0 Less rigid conceptions of abnormality less likely to view behavior as permanent reduced stigmatization o Individualist vs Collectivist societies p408 0 Individualist societies emphasize personal responsibility blame patient can control if try 0 Extended families offer more social amp practical support in collectivist societies Mood Disorders 0 MAJOR DEPRESSIVE 0 BIPOLAR DISORDER DISORDER o Former manicdepressive o 1 Reason folks seek therapy 39 Alternating periOdS 0f worldwide depreSSion amp maniaquot a Response to past amp current 39 patient OVeraCtiVE OVer loss talkative doesn t sleep few inhibitions grandiose optimism amp selfesteem o Irritated by advice from others but need to be protected from poor judgement reckless spending unsafe sex 0 What goes up must come downquot rates m ampf o Diagnose w5 symptoms gt 2 weeks 0 Lethargy feelings of worthlessne ss insomnia or sleep all the time loss of appetite loss of interest in family friends activities 0 End w or wo therapy Rising incidence Of Mood Disorders among West s Youth amp Young Adults 0 Many behavioral amp cognitive changes accompany depression 50 also have anxiety or AODA 0 Depression is widespread common causes 0 Women 2X more vulnerable than men 0 Most major depressive episodes selfterminate o Stressful events amp loss work marriage amp other relationships precede depression 0 In each generation depression strikes earlier late teens 39amp affects more people Depression iological Perspective 0 Whole body disorde r genetic predisposition biochemical imbalance negative thoughts amp melancholy mood MOOD DISORDERS RUN IN FAMILIES especially identical twins 50 concordance 0 Less activity in brain MRI show frontal lobes 7 smaller hippocampus damaged by stress am agdyla emotions o Depression Decreased levels of norepinephrine amp serotonin Increase during mania Treat wdrugs that increase serotonin Time lag 24 weeks 0 Treatment SSRIs RET Interpersonal Therapy 0 Situational A Barometer of Stress p78 Rahe 0 Gender issues cultural issues 0 Up to 15 of pOpulation suffer serious depression at some time in lives Depression continued Learning Perspective 0 Psychoanalytical learned hemessness Perspective N A more common in females greater Humamsjc response to stress Perspective A Cognitive perSpective caring empathetic F gt M emotional understanding memory rumination therapist try to over negative events help with positive selfblame false attributions 0 Models Parents self statements Culture amp Mood Disorders 0 Seligman contends incidence higher in West due to rise of individualism amp decline of commitment to religion amp family force young people to take personal responsibility for failure or rejection 0 In contrast in nonWestern societies where close cooperative relationships are the norm major depression is less common and less tied to selfblame over personal failure 0 SAD Suicide Depression s Vicious Cycle 1 Negative stressful events interpreted through 2 A ruminating pessimistic expanatwy style negative selfstatements which creates 3 A h0peless depressed moodstate that 4 Hampers the way the person thinks and acts cognitive amp behavioral changes which 5 Fuels negative stressful experiences such as rejection 4th Period 13 Psych Test The Psychology of Dysfunctional Behavior 0 THURSDAY JANUARY 10 2008 o 8401040 AM room 21 DIRECTIONS Report to Room 21 by 830 bring your books amp materials with you Be seated and settled in by 840 Go to 1st block 1040 A makeup test will be given only on Friday during regular class period 0 STUDY WELL Encoding Where information is sensed perceived and attended to Storage the information is stored for either a brief of extended period of time depending upon the processes following encoding Retrieval the information is found at the appropriate time and reactivated for use on a current task the true test of effective memory b Cognitive psychologists rejected the behaviourist assumption that mental events or states were unsuitable for scientific research A good example of the kind of things cognitive psychologists use to study mental processes are cognitive maps Cognitive maps are a method we use to structure and store spatial knowledge allowing the quotmind s eyequot to visualize images in order to reduce cognitive load and enhance recall and learning of information c During World War II psychologists in the aimed forces were required to solve practical educational problems They learned to predict for instance who would make a good pilot or radio repairman They learned to teach skills such as aircraft gunnery and cooking quickly Also the atrocities committed in World War 11 caused people to have a greater wish to understand the human mind d Cognition is the mental process of knowing thinking learning and judging Cognition is complicated A lot of cognition depends on how information is presented and consequently how it is encoded e Working Memory Model Phonological Loop The loop stores auditory information the ears as well as containing an articulatory system for speech production VisualSpatial Sketch PadThis manages visual coding Central ExecutiveInformation rehearsed from the articulatoryphonological loop and visualspatial sketch pad goes to the central executive This is our 39attention 1 Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things Examples include listening carefully to what someone is saying while ignoring other conversations in a room the cocktail party effect but being able at the same time to shift their focus if presented with a familiar stimuli What a person pays attention is mainly determined by their schemata g One model of memory sees memory as a present act of consciousness reconstructive of the past stimulated by retrieval cue There are distinct types and elements of memory which involve different parts of the brain like short term working memory and longterm memory Most data is not stored at all What is stored are bits and fragments of experience which are encoded Exactly how they are encoded is not completely understood A stimulus is needed to retrieve these memories See a under Cognitive Perspective Cognitive Perspective F attentionselective attention I Attention 7 the process of selectively focusing on particular stimulus elements typically those deemed most signi cant what we focus on can be by choice or the most compelling stimuli cocktail party effect attention limits our conscious awareness to a small portion of our moment to moment environment GJ ampK included Memory the ability to store retain and retrieve information I Long term memory the component of memory involved in the retention of events over a long period of timehours days months years I Differences between long and short term memory are duration and capacity Types of long term memory Episodz39c memory episodes procedural memory how to memory semantz39c memory knowledge of the world I Short term memory the component of memory which handles retention over relatively brief intervals ofup to approx 15 seconds H Language I system of communication through sounds or writing I Language constrains or broadens the way we perceive things I Language in nonhumans is first developed at 6 months when children begin to babble At the first year children being to use spoken language that is spoken around them at 2 years they begin to use two word sentences at the 24 year period children learn to use prepositions verb forms and other grammar rules and at the 45 year age mark they begin to use full complex sentences Language in other animals is not comprehensible by humans and is not spoken however For example the Inuit have a variety of words for the word snow where as English and the Navajo language only have one I Schemata I A mental framework which organizes knowledge beliefs and expectations and is used to guide behavior I Grows as we learn and experience more Are used to organize groups of people and objects pattern imposed assist in explaining situations guide response L Cognitive Dissonance I In F estinger s theory a state of tension created when there are con icts between an individual s behavior and beliefs or between two beliefs M Scientific study of mental processes I Research is often done in the form of memory tests I Often linked with neurological studies N Relevance of explanations of non human behavior I the comparison in humans can show links in brain evolution on different species and across species as well I Nonhuman animals may be used to help understand human behaviour 0 Compare other perspectives issues such as stress gender difference aggression I Culture plays a role in the cognitive perspective It affects what people know and their perception of things around them For example through stereotypes a child in Europe may perceive Americans as fat and stupid based on the differences in theirs to ours Age also plays a factor because a child s perception problemsolving skills are not as developed or accurate as those of an adult Women tend to be more emotional in their decisions and the way they solve problems may differ greatly from that of a male P Contributions of cognitive perspective on education when how what to teach We use the cognitive perspective on education when solving a mathematical problem or remembering something on a test The process of doing these tasks is determined on how well we can identify the problem and figure out the right way to carry it out Memory is another big importance on education The act of remembering and forgetting plays a huge role Memory can be affected on how something is taught If something is taught in a way where it can be incorporated into people s lives or past experiences than there is a good chance that it will be remembered better Also the serial position curve shows how primary and recency effect comes into play People remember more concerning what they first heard or what they last heard The middle information seems to be a lot harder to remember Q Eyewitness testimony For eyewitness testimony this enables the memory to attempt to restore past experiences or retrieve information previously stored in the memory very inaccurate questions can be asked in ways that manipulate people s answers Loftus did many experiments where she would allow people to view a video of a car crash then later she would ask them How fast the car was going when it hit and other times How fast was the car going when it smashed People would automatically assume the car was going really fast if it smashed into something as opposed to hitting something Others were asked where the broken glass was when there was no broken glass People claimed they remembered broken glass being there solely because the questioner stated that there was broken glass in the video Also how the person asking the questions acts around people can make someone falsely believe something else R Self Instructional Training Self Instructional Training could also be identified as problem solving Problem solving occurs everyday to everyone some point or another The way people figure out how to get somewhere or to do a certain task involves problem solving The stages of problem solving are defining the problem developing possible solutions and selecting and evaluating the best solution for that problem Certain things come from solving problems like persistence of set This occurs when a mental set from a previous problem is affecting your mind set on a current one Think aloud protocol happens when an individual is asked to describe what they are thinking while they are solving something People need to think of what they are doing to accomplish this task and what they are aiming for This is similar to mathematical problems if you don t work it out by these steps than the problem won t be solved Ways to solve problems can be by using algorithms which is having specific way to solve a certain problem Heuristics are used to which provides information strategies in solving a problem but are less effective as algorithms People tend to also think creatively too Their ways of interpreting situations and carrying them out happens to be unique Musicians inventors and artists use this type f problem solving on a daily basis 0 The basic assumptions of the Cognitive ApproachPerspective in psychology is that cognitive psychologists believe that one cannot fully explain behavior in terms of stimulusresponse connections and they also believe that events within a person are at least as important as environmental stimuli The assumptions stated above challenge those of the Learning Perspective in a way that in the learning perspective psychologists only believe that our behavior is attributed to other behavior we have observed and mimic The difference between perception and cognition is that perception is the process in which information acquiring interpreting selecting and organizing sensory information where as cognition is the mental process of knowing The concept of learning from the Behavioral perspective differs from the lea1ning in the cognitive perspective because in the behavioral perspective is based solely on observable behavior where as the cognitive perspective is based on emotions thought processes and perception Psychoanalytic perspective is based on Sigmund Freud s beliefs that free association and dream interpretation were the basis ofpsychology The cognitive perspective examines the mental processes of the mind The biological perspective is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states The behavioral perspective is based solely on observable behavior and its analyzation In the cognitive perspective is based on behavior that can be easily biased and misinterpreted leading to false conclusions The Gestalt theory is a theory of behavior made up by Kohler Wertheimer which emphasized the creative nature of perception and learning During WWII there was research conducted on human performance and attention as well as developments in computer science that helped set the stage for the cognitive perspective The General Memory Model is the way we view memory in stages that are linked by processes like selective attention The cognitive perspective can be applied to education 0 Culture plays a role in the cognitive perspective It affects what people know and their perception of things around them For example through stereotypes a child in Europe may perceive Americans as fat and stupid based on the differences in theirs to ours Age also plays a factor because a child s perception problemsolving skills are not as developed or accurate as those of an adult Women tend to be more emotional in their decisions and the way they solve problems may differ greatly from that of a male 11 The statement The problem with long term memory is not storage capacity but retrieval means that although memories are stored are often stored for an infinite period there is usually difficulty in finding stimuli to help recall specific memories as quickly as possible 12 The three stages of problem solving are defining the problem developing possible solutions and selecting and evaluating the best solution 13 The Gestalt theory and the informationprocessing model have in uenced cognitive psychology in such a way that the Gestalt theory is based on the creative nature of perception and learning which are essentially the two basic elements of cognitive p J l l g The infoiti r 39 model describes the mental processes between the stimulus and response 14 Creativity in psychology is regarded as the capacity to produce something which is both unique and useful Creativity in problem solving could help resolve a problem quicker 15 Problem solving skills are acquired skills and are not general knowledge People who are more insightful seem to experience a mental shift in which their perception of the problem is more logically organized 16 Language in nonhumans is first developed at 6 months when children begin to babble At the first year children being to use spoken language that is spoken around them at 2 years they begin to use two word sentences at the 24 year period children learn to use prepositions verb forms and other grammar rules and at the 45 year age mark they begin to use full complex sentences Language in other animals is not comprehensible by humans and is not spoken however primates to have the capability to learn ASL and are able to communicate with humans using English correctly 17 Language constrains or broadens the way we perceive things For example the Inuit have a variety of words for the word snow where as English and the Navajo language only have one VOCABULARY 1 Conceptual anything conceived within in the mind 2 Attention focusing on a speci c stimulus of interest 3 Selective Attention the process of choosing which stimuli to focus on 4 Cognition mental process of knowing awareness perception reasoning and judgment 5 Information gathering the process of gathering and storing information 6 Information processing model the mental functions that occur between stimulus and response 7 Insight characterized by change in behavior from being randomly based to rule based 8 Mediators process or event that within in the individual that comes between a stimulus and a response 9 W Kohler one of the founders of the Gestalt theory studied apes on Canary Island his studies led to his view of insight in problem solving 10 EC Tolman also one of the founders of the Gestalt theory advocated that the trial and error view point was a key in the examination of problem solving 11 Incubation process of ceasing to work on solving problem N N N 0 N N N W W W W W W W W Cognitive map Tolman s explanation of our relationships with stimuli Latent learning Tolman learning is distinct to the performance of behavior Language system of communication through sounds or writing Working memory model Memory the retaining of past information Retrieval the ability to recollect information from memory Shortterm memory brief retention of information Longterm memory the storing of information indefinitely Episodic memory memory based around speci c events Semantic memory context free memory Procedural memory The memory of motor perceptual and cognitive skills Mental set the schema that people use to organize their perception of a situation Gestalt theory theory which suggests that between stimulus and response lies perception Perception Recognition of stimuli based on memory Perceptual processing the process one goes through in order to organize their perception of the recognition of stimuli based on memory Perceptual set The readiness to see in a particular way that s based on expectations experiences emotions and assumptions Priming when one thought or memory activates other thoughts or memories Recall the retrieval of information Recognition the ability to realize that information is familiar Relearning the improvement which occurs after reviewing ie when you study Retention ability to recall or recognize what has been learned or experienced Chunk unit of measure for STM Schemasschemata pattern imposed assist in explaining situations guide response Sensory memory The sensations that brie y continue after something has been perceived Encoding sensory input into one s memory Maintenance rehearsal retention of material in STM by rote repetition LN 00 Elaborative rehearsal associate new material with material already learned Storage the retention of memory Dissociative amnesia dissociative loss of memory Free association when you say whatever comes to mind when an topic is presented to you it is used to reveal your subconscious thoughts Repression Freud when memories are blocked out of your conscious


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